Julian William Mack (1866 - 1943)

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Birthplace: San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
Death: Died in New York, New York, NY, USA
Occupation: Attorney, Judge
Managed by: Jeffrey Hart
Last Updated:

About Julian William Mack

United States federal judge and social reformer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_Mack

Julian William Mack (July 19, 1866 – September 5, 1943) was a United States federal judge and social reformer. Contents [show] [edit]Early life and education

Born in San Francisco, California, to William J. Mack and Rebecca M. (Tandler) Mack, he was raised in Cincinnati, Ohio, attending the public schools there from 1873 to 1884. He received a LL.B. from Harvard Law School in 1887, and was awarded a Parker Fellowship by Harvard University, attending the Universities of Berlin and Leipzig from 1887 to 1890. He married Jessie Fox on March 9, 1896. They had one daughter. [edit]Career

Mack was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1890 and was in private practice in Chicago from 1890 to 1895. In 1895, he secured an appointment as a professor of law at Northwestern University. He transferred to the University of Chicago in 1902 and there remained until his retirement in 1940. During his time in Chicago Mack became a member of the city's leading Jewish Reform congregation, Chicago Sinai congregation. Encouraged by its rabbi, Emil G. Hirsch, Mack became the leading manager of the United Hebrew Charities of Chicago during the 1890s. Mack was very active in civil service in Chicago. He served as civil service commissioner in 1903; circuit court judge for Cook County, 1903-11. He founded Chicago's first juvenile court in 1904, which was located across the street from Jane Addams's Hull House, and was the judge for the court until 1907. Mack served as a judge of the Cook County Circuit Court from 1904 to 1905 and the First Illinois District Appeals Court from 1905 to 1911. [edit]Federal judicial service On December 12, 1910, Mack was nominated by President William Howard Taft to a joint appointment to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit and the United States Commerce Court, both new seats having been created by 36 Stat. 539. Mack was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 31, 1911, and received his commission the same day. The Commerce Court was abolished on December 13, 1913, but Mack continued his Court of Appeals service on the Seventh Circuit. On July 1, 1929, he was reassigned as an additional judge to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit and the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. On July 1, 1930, he was reassigned to serve solely on the Sixth Circuit. Mack assumed senior status on September 6, 1940, serving in that capacity until his death. [edit]Other civic activities During World War I, he served on the Commission of Labor of the Council of National Defense, the National War Labor Board, and the War Department's Board of Inquiry on Conscientious Objectors. He also organized Jewish war relief. His Jewish charitable work included serving as president of the Palestine Endowment Funds, honorary president of the World Jewish Congress, president of the American Jewish Congress, Zionist Organization of America, and various other organizations. He attended the Versailles Conference as an advocate for a Zionist state in Palestine. His social work included heading the National Conference of Social Work, the Immigrants Protective League (organized by Grace Abbott), the Infants' Welfare Society, Children's Hospital Society, and other organizations. He was a member of many clubs, a lifelong Democrat, and lived in New York City. He died on September 4, 1943, in New York, New York. [edit]Sources

Julian Mack at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Who's Who on the Web, s.v. "Julian William Mack" (n.p.: Marquis Who's Who, 2005) 6th Circuit biography of Julian Mack Harry Barnard, The Forging of an American Jew: The Life and Times of Judge Julian W. Mack (New York: Herzl Press, 1974). Tobias Brinkmann, Sundays at Sinai: A Jewish Congregation in Chicago (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012), link -------------------- Early life and education Born in San Francisco, California, to William J. Mack and Rebecca M. (Tandler) Mack, he was raised in Cincinnati, Ohio, attending the public schools there from 1873 to 1884. He received a LL.B. from Harvard Law School in 1887, and was awarded a Parker Fellowship by Harvard University, attending the Universities of Berlin and Leipzig from 1887 to 1890. He married Jessie Fox on March 9, 1896. They had one daughter

Career Mack was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1890 and was in private practice in Chicago from 1890 to 1895. In 1895, he secured an appointment as a professor of law at Northwestern University. He transferred to the University of Chicago in 1902 and there remained until his retirement in 1940. During his time in Chicago Mack became a member of the city's leading Jewish Reform congregation, Chicago Sinai congregation. Encouraged by its rabbi, Emil G. Hirsch, Mack became the leading manager of the United Hebrew Charities of Chicago during the 1890s. Mack was very active in civil service in Chicago. He served as civil service commissioner in 1903; circuit court judge for Cook County, 1903-11. He founded Chicago's first juvenile court in 1904, which was located across the street from Jane Addams's Hull House, and was the judge for the court until 1907. Mack served as a judge of the Cook County Circuit Court from 1904 to 1905 and the First Illinois District Appeals Court from 1905 to 1911.

Federal judicial service On December 12, 1910, Mack was nominated by President William Howard Taft to a joint appointment to the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit and the United States Commerce Court, both new seats having been created by 36 Stat. 539. Mack was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 31, 1911, and received his commission the same day. The Commerce Court was abolished on December 13, 1913, but Mack continued his Court of Appeals service on the Seventh Circuit. On July 1, 1929, he was reassigned as an additional judge to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit and the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit. On July 1, 1930, he was reassigned to serve solely on the Sixth Circuit. Mack assumed senior status on September 6, 1940, serving in that capacity until his death.

Other civic activities During World War I, he served on the Commission of Labor of the Council of National Defense, the National War Labor Board, and the War Department's Board of Inquiry on Conscientious Objectors. He also organized Jewish war relief. Julian Mack was one of the founders of the American Jewish Committee in 1906. His Jewish charitable work included serving as president of the Palestine Endowment Funds, honorary president of the World Jewish Congress, president of the American Jewish Congress, Zionist Organization of America, and various other organizations. He attended the Versailles Conference as an advocate for a Zionist state in Palestine. Kibbutz Ramat ha-Shofet, founded in Israel in 1941, was named in his honour. His social work included heading the National Conference of Social Work, the Immigrants' Protective League (organized by Grace Abbott), the Infants' Welfare Society, Children's Hospital Society, and other organizations. He was a member of many clubs, a lifelong Democrat, and lived in New York City. He died on September 4, 1943, in New York, New York. Fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_Mack

Excerps from The Forging of an American Jew, The Life and Times of Judge Julian W. Mack by Harry Barnard: -"In 1856...young William Jacob Mack, of Altenkunstadt, Bavaria, first settled in Cincinnati, Ohio. He had been prompted to emigrate to the United States by a widely shared motive -- disinclination to serve in the army of the King of Bavaria." -"What Jewish boy, in the 1850's, would have wanted to be in the Bavarian army? What could he have expected there? Only extra indignities because of his Jewishness. Bavaria had not yet granted its Jews even the limited civil rights accorded them in the other German states. Some of the most outrageous anti-Semitic episodes in European history had taken place in Bavaria, including several in the city of Nuremberg." "So it made the best of sense, even to William's broken-hearted parents, Jacob and Rettel Mack, and to his three young sisters, that Will should go to America and join his older brother, Max, in Cincinnati. Since the crushing of the 1848 Revolution many young Central Europeans, non-Jews as well as Jews, had been going to America." -"When Will Mack arrived in Cincinnati, he found there, in addition to his brother Max, a number of other Altenkunstadters, including several Mack cousins. Max helped set up Will as a peddler, with merchandise from a dry goods enterprise in which Max was junior partner. However, the financial panic of 1857 was severely felt in Cincinnati. As a result, Will Mack decided to make a change; in 1859 he went to San Francisco. 'Not troubling myself unnecessarily,' he wrote to Max while hunting for his first business connection there, and incidentally displaying the family trait of good humor, 'but taking everythng easy, as I find that the best course, decidedly'." -"Finally, Will found a position with a wholesale firm in crockery, glassware, and china, P. A. Swain & Co., whose owner...took a liking to him." -"For Will Mack, at Swain's crockery place, the (Civil) war even proved to be a boon of sorts. To raise needed war funds, Congress in Washington had acted to increase tariffs on imports, including crockery. This gave Will Mack the idea to persuade Mr. Swain to send him to Europe on a Buying expedition to purchase a large number of items before the new tariff went into effect. So successful was his expedition that Swain gave Will a part interest in the business. That meant dividends in addition to his salary of $500 a month. 'You speak very coolly about my returning with $50,000 in gold dust,' he had written to his brother Max earlier from Europe. 'I assure you, it is not such an easy thing to make money here as one supposes in the States.' " -"Yet, with his new status, Will felt he was earning enough to turn his attention seriously to Rebecca Tandler, not twenty, a slender girl with dark eyes and a pleasingly open face. He had not been in a hurry to get married, having kept in mind that he had to be well established in some trade. Then, too, with his strong family sense, he wanted to be in a position to help bring his parents and his sisters, Lottie, Jette, and Rosina, to America. As for Beckie, she found him attractive also -- a handsome, stable, promising businessman of thirty, indubitably a good match." -"If, as it seems, Will Mack's interest in Beckie Tandler was initially sparked by her singing in a synagogue choir, there was significance in this matter over and beyond their romance. What was a girl doing in a synagogue choir? In Jewish ritual such innovations in the worship service meant that San Francisco's Congregation Emanu-El had gone through the Jewish controversy between traditionalists and modernists -- and that the modernists were winning. For the introduction of a mixed chour in a synagogue, along with the use of the organ at services, was part of a far-reaching movement, Reform Judaism, which had begun in Germany." -"In Bavaria, Will Mack had been reared as a fairly 'observant' Jew, but he had already been exposed to Reform doctrines back in Altenkunstadt by a leading German reformer, Dr. Leopold Stein, rabbi of Burg and Altenkunstadt, whose ideas had influenced the Macks. Thus it was easy for Will Mack in San Francisco to become one of the modernist Emanu-El circle, including the Tandlers." -"Before long, Will was seeing a good deal of Beckie Tandler. 'He is of a good family in Altenkunstadt with many friends in Cincinnati, and by his great ability he has already a good business....For a long time, he wanted to marry Rebecca. Since we were completely in accord with this idea, because we think that it will be good for Rebecca, we gave our word for it.' So Abe Tandler wrote to his sister, Babette Bacharach, of Chicago, in April, 1864." -"The marriage, duly recorded in the Daily Alta Californian, took place June 7, 1864, in the Tandler suite of a hotel on Stockton Street which Tandler then owned and operated. Dr. Cohn conducted the ceremony...under a traditional marriage canopy. He asked Will, as he stood before him, to repeat the ancient vows of the ketuba, the Jewish marriage contract by which Jewish bridegrooms for centuries had pledged to 'honor, support and maintain' their wives. Then, again in accord with the ancient ritual, the couple sipped wine from one glass, after which, with a vigorous stamp of his foot, Will crushed a small glass goblet to bits." -"Will and Beckie faithfully heeded the ancient Hebraic command to be fruitful and multiply. Over the next twenty years, Beckie presented to Will Mack thirteen children, of whom eleven survived." -"In July, 1869...went on the first transcontinental trip of the new railroad. Traveling to New York, wonder of wonders for that time, he slept on the train in a bed...the new 'Pullman Palace Sleeping Cars'. He brought back gifts and many stories...of the train's huffing climb over the mountains, the passage through the 'Mormon country' of Utah, the swift ride across the western plains with armed guards on the lookout for Indians. 'The children are delighted with their father.' wrote Beckie, 'but say he must never go away from us again.' " -"In 1869 Will Mack estimated his assets, including stocks in gold mines, at about $20,000. But trouble was ahead. That September, the 'Black Friday' business panic began. There were bank runs. The bottom fell out of gold mine stocks. Stocks owned by Will diclined sharply in value. 'Every lane has a turn & I suppose at some time of another our prospects will look more cheerful than at present -- Nil Cesperandum!' he wrote to his brother. But his stocks never did make a comeback." -"At That time, too, Will began to be severely troubled by asthma. He concluded that San Francisco's climate was the cause of it, and made a decision probably reinforced by an especially severe earthquake that shook the city in October, 1869: He would move back to Cincinnati. He had noticed that on his trip east he had been free from his illness. Not even a more handsome business offer from Mr. Swain of the crockery shop could dissuade him from his decision. In July, 1869, the family set out for Cincinnati aboard the transcontinental train 'that left every Thursday for the East'." -"Will Mack had optimistic plans for becoming a crockery wholesaler in Cincinnati. He even visited Europe, after settling Beckie and the children temporarily with Max and Jennie, to develop business contacts in Germany. But the Franco-Prussian war spoiled those plans. Ane then depression once more struck the United States, again hitting Cincinnati hard. As a result Will Mack was forced to settle for the status of a small merchant. He opened a tailor shop near Fifth and Vine Streets, where he made only a modest living." -"Will Mack took great pride in how well his son was doing. By then he had turned over his tailor shop to his son Henry while he himself joined Uncle Max's staff of insurance salesmen. At times he used Julian's office in Chicago as headquarters for soliciting business, with Julian helping to line up prospects. In May, 1894...Will wrote to his brother appreciatively of Julian's success. But Will's letter also betrayed worry over his own health: 'I have not felt well since my arrival & unless I improve & Business prospects are better, I shall return home soon,' he wrote. Within a week, Will Mack was dead of a heart attack."

Cincinnati -- The Queen City, 1788-1912, vol. 4, by Goss. "Millard W. and Ralph W. Mack are sons of William J. and Rebecca (Tandler) Mack and are brothers of Judge Julian W. Mack, of the United States commerce court and a very prominent jurist. Their father was born in Bavaria, Germany, arriving in Cincinnati in his boyhood. He was engaged in Mercantile business until 1888, when he became identified with the insurance business in the same office with which his sons are now connected. He died in 1894. He was prominently identified with the Masonic order, having advanced to the sixteenth degree, and also held membership in the Independent Order of Odd Fellows."

Bacharach Letters, American Jewish Archives, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, excerpts: -"William J. Mack had eleven children whose names are here listed: Henry, Julian, Hilda (Mrs. Simon Bacharach), Lawrence, Fanny (Mrs. Fred A. Mack), Millard, Jacob W., Ralph, Alice (Mrs. Sidney Schwarz), William, and Robert T."

From https://familysearch.org/patron/v2/TH-207-37434-16-66/dist.txt?ctx=ArtCtxPublic

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Julian William Mack's Timeline

1866
July 19, 1866
San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
1896
March 9, 1896
Age 29
Cincinnati, Hamilton, Ohio, United States
1897
February 17, 1897
Age 30
New York, New York, NY, USA
1943
September 5, 1943
Age 77
New York, New York, NY, USA
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