Kęstutis, Lietuvos didysis (submonarchas) kunigaikštis

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Kęstutis

Russian: Кейстут
Also Known As: "Kiejstut Giedyminowicz", "Kestutis", "Кейстут", "Kiejstut wlk. ks. litewski", "Keistut", "Kestutis lietuvos didysis kunigaikstis", "Kastutis"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Vilnius, Lithuania
Death: Died in Vilnius, Lithuania
Cause of death: Murdered in Krėva Castle
Immediate Family:

Son of Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania and NN
Husband of Birutė Vaidilutė, Lietuvos didžioji kunigaikštienė
Father of Racza ks. litewska; Patirg of Lithuania; Butavas Enrikas Prince of Lithuania, kunigaikštis; Vytautas, Grand Duke of Lithuania ; Žygimantas Kęstutaitis, LDK and 8 others
Brother of Manvydas / Mantvydas Gediminaitis; Narimont Gleb of Pinsk; Karijotas (MIKHAIL) Gedimonovich Duke of Navahrudak Prince of Nowohorodok, Prince and Jaunutis, Grand Duke of Lithuania
Half brother of Algirdas, Lietuvos Didysis Kunigaikštis; Aldona of Lithuania, Queen Consort of Poland; Elžbieta Gediminaitė; Aigusta Anastasia Grand Princess of Vladimir-Moscow; Eufemija Marija Duchess of Galicia and 9 others

Occupation: Ruler of the Grand Duke of Lithuania 1342-1382, together with his brother Algirdas (until 1377)
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Kęstutis, Lietuvos didysis (submonarchas) kunigaikštis

http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/List_of_rulers_of_Lithuania

========

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%99stutis

Kęstutis (pronounced /kæsˈtuːtıs/; born ca. 1297, died on August 3 or August 15, 1382 in Kreva) was monarch of medieval Lithuania. He ruled the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1381–82, with his brother Algirdas (until 1377); and was Prince of Trakai. He ruled over the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

The name "Kęstutis" is a suffixed -utis- derivative from old form of name Kęstas or similar, which is shorten version of double theme Lithuanian names such as Kęstaras, Kęstautas (there kęs-ti means to cope). Historic writing sources reflect different Lithuanian pronunciation.[1]

Life

Kęstutis was the son of the Grand Duke Gediminas. His younger brother, Jaunutis, succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Together with his brother Algirdas, Kestutis conspired to remove Jaunutis from power. They were successful in their efforts. They divided their holdings into an eastern and western sphere of influence. Kęstutis' efforts were concentrated in the west, while Algirdas' were concentrated in the eastern part of these territories. Kęstutis organized the defence of western Lithuania and Samogitia against the Teutonic Knights, and organized raids against the German Order. Some historians claim, that this rule by two brothers has no precedent in European history. Kęstutis is sometimes credited (by the Teutonic Order) as being the last pagan with the nobility of a Knight.

Kęstutis employed different military as well as diplomatic means in his struggle on the western borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In order to avoid the further clashes with the Teutonic Order, in 1349, as Lithuanian co-ruler, he started the negotiations with Pope Clement VI for the Christianization of Lithuania and had been promised royal crowns for him and his sons. Algirdas willingly remained aside of the business and was concerned with the order in the Ruthenian part of the state. The intermediary in the negotiations, Polish King Casimir III, made an unexpected assault on Volhynia and Brest in October 1349 that ruined the Kęstutis' plan. During the Polish-Lithuanian war for Volhynia, King Louis I of Hungary made a peace agreement with Kęstutis on 15 August 1351, according to which Kęstutis obliged himself to accept Christianity and provide the Kingdom of Hungary with military aid, in exchange of the royal crown. The agreement was approved with a pagan ritual by Kęstutis in order to convince the other side. In fact, Kęstutis had no intentions to comply with the agreement and ran away on their road to Buda.[2]

Kęstutis was perceived not only as a rival but also as a Knight by the German Order, and it was considered a honor to shake hands with him, although, the Duke did not reach his hand to everyone[3].

In 1382 Jogaila, son of Algirdas and nephew of Kęstutis took control of Vilnius and then Trakai. Kęstutis with his son Vytautas arrived at Trakai with an army. They were to hold negotiations at the camp of Jogaila, but instead were taken prisoner there. Kęstutis was subsequently murdered at Kreva Castle. His son Vytautas the Great was able to escape.

--------------------

Kęstutis (pronounced /kæsˈtuːtıs/; born ca. 1297, died on August 3 or August 15, 1382 in Kreva) was monarch of medieval Lithuania. He ruled the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1381–82, with his brother Algirdas (until 1377); and was Prince of Trakai. He ruled over the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

The name "Kęstutis" is a suffixed -utis- derivative from old form of name Kęstas or similar, which is shorten version of double theme Lithuanian names such as Kęstaras, Kęstautas (there kęs-ti means to cope). Historic writing sources reflect different Lithuanian pronunciation.[

Kęstutis was the son of the Grand Duke Gediminas. His younger brother, Jaunutis, succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Together with his brother Algirdas, Kestutis conspired to remove Jaunutis from power. They were successful in their efforts. They divided their holdings into an eastern and western sphere of influence. Kęstutis' efforts were concentrated in the west, while Algirdas' were concentrated in the eastern part of these territories. Kęstutis organized the defence of western Lithuania and Samogitia against the Teutonic Knights, and organized raids against the German Order. Some historians claim, that this rule by two brothers has no precedent in European history. Kęstutis is sometimes credited (by the Teutonic Order) as being the last pagan with the nobility of a Knight.

Kęstutis employed different military as well as diplomatic means in his struggle on the western borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In order to avoid the further clashes with the Teutonic Order, in 1349, as Lithuanian co-ruler, he started the negotiations with Pope Clement VI for the Christianization of Lithuania and had been promised royal crowns for him and his sons. Algirdas willingly remained aside of the business and was concerned with the order in the Ruthenian part of the state. The intermediary in the negotiations, Polish King Casimir III, made an unexpected assault on Volhynia and Brest in October 1349 that ruined the Kęstutis' plan. During the Polish-Lithuanian war for Volhynia, King Louis I of Hungary made a peace agreement with Kęstutis on 15 August 1351, according to which Kęstutis obliged himself to accept Christianity and provide the Kingdom of Hungary with military aid, in exchange of the royal crown. The agreement was approved with a pagan ritual by Kęstutis in order to convince the other side. In fact, Kęstutis had no intentions to comply with the agreement and ran away on their road to Buda.[2]

Kęstutis was perceived not only as a rival but also as a Knight by the German Order, and it was considered a honor to shake hands with him, although, the Duke did not reach his hand to everyone[3].

In 1382 Jogaila, son of Algirdas and nephew of Kęstutis took control of Vilnius and then Trakai. Kęstutis with his son Vytautas arrived at Trakai with an army. They were to hold negotiations at the camp of Jogaila, but instead were taken prisoner there. Kęstutis was subsequently murdered at Kreva Castle. His son Vytautas the Great was able to escape.

--------------------

Kęstutis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kęstutis (pronounced /kæsˈtuːtıs/; born ca. 1297, died on August 3 or August 15, 1382 in Kreva) was monarch of medieval Lithuania. He was the Prince of Trakai and governed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1342–82, together with his brother Algirdas (until 1377), and with his nephew Jogaila (until 1381). He ruled over the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

The name "Kęstutis" is a derivative from the old form of the name Kęstas, which is a shortened version of such Lithuanian names as Kęstaras, Kęstautas (there kęs-ti means to cope). Historic writing sources reflect different Lithuanian pronunciation.[1]

[edit]Life

Kęstutis was the son of the Grand Duke Gediminas. His younger brother, Jaunutis, succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Together with his brother Algirdas, Kestutis conspired to remove Jaunutis from power. They were successful in their efforts. They divided their holdings into an eastern and western sphere of influence. Duchy of Trakai was established in 1337 for that matter. Kęstutis' efforts were concentrated in the west, while Algirdas' were concentrated in the eastern part of these territories. Kęstutis organized the defence of western Lithuania and Samogitia against the Teutonic Knights, and organized raids against the German Order. Some historians claim, that this rule by two brothers has no precedent in European history. Kęstutis is sometimes credited (by the Teutonic Order) as being the last pagan with the nobility of a Knight.

Kęstutis employed different military as well as diplomatic means in his struggle on the western borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In order to avoid the further clashes with the Teutonic Order, in 1349, as Lithuanian co-ruler, he started the negotiations with Pope Clement VI for the Christianization of Lithuania and had been promised royal crowns for him and his sons. Algirdas willingly remained aside of the business and was concerned with the order in the Ruthenian part of the state. The intermediary in the negotiations, Polish King Casimir III, made an unexpected assault on Volhynia and Brest in October 1349 that ruined the Kęstutis' plan. During the Polish-Lithuanian war for Volhynia, King Louis I of Hungary made a peace agreement with Kęstutis on 15 August 1351, according to which Kęstutis obliged himself to accept Christianity and provide the Kingdom of Hungary with military aid, in exchange of the royal crown. The agreement was approved with a pagan ritual by Kęstutis in order to convince the other side. In fact, Kęstutis had no intentions to comply with the agreement and ran away on their road to Buda.[2]

Kęstutis was perceived not only as a rival but also as a Knight by the German Order, and it was considered a honor to shake hands with him, although, the Duke did not reach his hand to everyone[3].

In 1382 Jogaila, son of Algirdas and nephew of Kęstutis took control of Vilnius and then Trakai. Kęstutis with his son Vytautas arrived at Trakai with an army. They were to hold negotiations at the camp of Jogaila, but instead were taken prisoner there. Kęstutis was subsequently murdered at Kreva Castle. His son Vytautas the Great was able to escape.

[edit]See also

House of Kęstutis – family tree of Kęstutis

Gediminids

[edit]References

^ Zinkevičius, Zigmas (2007). Senosios Lietuvos valstybės vardynas. Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Institute. p. 51. ISBN 5420016060.

^ (Lithuanian) Kęstutis: krikšto priešininkas ar šalininkas? (Kęstutis: was he a proponent or opponent of the Christianization), in Kultūros barai, 2006, 6. accessed on 01-07-2007

^ Gudavičius, Edvardas (1999). Lietuvos istorija. Vilnius. p. 188. ISBN 9986-39-112-1.

Apie Kęstutis, Lietuvos didysis (submonarchas) kunigaikštis (Lietuvių)

Kęstutis (apie 1297 m. − 1382 m. rugpjūčio 15 d.) – LDK submonarchas (nuo 1337(?) ar 1345 iki 1381 m.) ir Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis (1381–1382 m.). Gedimino sūnus, didžiųjų kunigaikščių Vytauto ir Žygimanto tėvas. Iki 1337(?) m. jis buvo Gardino ir Palenkės, nuo 1337(?) m. − taip pat Žemaičių, nuo 1337(?) ar 1345 m. − taip pat Trakų kunigaikštis (tikėtina, kad Trakų kunigaikštystę jis paveržė iš savo (netikro?) brolio Karijoto).

Po Gedimino mirties 1341 m. Kęstutis tebuvo vienas iš septynių paveldėjimo teises turinčių sūnų. Iš pradžių valdovu tapo Jaunutis, kuris netrukus buvo priverstas valdžia dalintis su Algirdu. Kryžiuočių spaudimas vertė Lietuvos kunigaikščius ieškoti didžiojo kunigaikščio valdžios stiprinimo būdų ir visų Gediminaičių pajėgų sutelkimo. 1345 m. Kęstutis pagal išankstinį susitarimą su Algirdu užėmė Vilnių, kuriame rezidavo Jaunutis ir pakvietė Algirdą užimti didžiojo kunigaikščio sostą.

Diarchija

Po to, kai 1344 m. mirė Gedimino našlė ir jo vaikų motina Jaunė, 1345 m. Algirdas su Kęstučiu nuvertė Lietuvos didįjį kunigaikštį Jaunutį ir po šio sėkmingo perversmo 1345 m. Kęstutis tapo LDK submonarchu. Neįprastai viduramžiams šis valdžios dalinimasis tarp Kęstučio ir Algirdo tęsėsi visą jų gyvenimą. Algirdas daugiausia rūpinosi santykiais su Rusios kunigaikštystėmis ir rusų žemių rinkimu į savo valdžią; Kęstutis tuo tarpu užsiėmė etninės Lietuvos ir Žemaitijos interesų gynimu.

Kaip LDK submonarchas (Trakų ir Žemaičių kunigaikštis) iš pradžių rezidavo Senuosiuose Trakuose, o nuo ~1376 m. – jo paties iniciatyva pastatytoje Trakų pusiasalio pilyje. Valdydamas Trakų kunigaikštystę Kęstutis sėkmingai vadovavo LDK vakarinių sienų gynybai, ne kartą vedė LDK kariuomenę į Vokiečių ordino valdomą Prūsiją. Nuolat rėmė su Lenkija dėl Volynės kovojusį brolį Liubartą. Kęstučiui teko patirti ir pralaimėjimų, pvz., Strėvos mūšyje (1348 m.), prie Kauno pilies (1362 m.). 1361 m. jis trumpam buvo patekęs į kryžiuočių nelaisvę.

1349 m. Romos kuriją pasiekus gandams, kad Kęstutis nori krikštytis, popiežius Klemensas VI savo 1349 m. rugsėjo 10 d. bulėje pritarė tokiam Kęstučio norui ir pažadėjo jam Lietuvos karaliaus karūną.

1351 m. rugpjūtį į Trakų kunigaikštystės rusėniškas žemes Lietuvos katalikiško krikšto sumetimais atvykus Vengrijos karaliui Liudvikui Didžiajam, Kęstutis jam žadėjo „kartu su broliais ir visa tauta“ priimti krikštą, o Vengrijos karalius Kęstučiui − išrūpinti pastarajam iš popiežiaus Lietuvos karaliaus karūną ir padėti atgauti Ordino užgrobtas žemes.

1358 m. liepos−rugsėjo mėn. Kęstutis (?) dėl jo ar jo brolio Algirdo vainikavimosi Lietuvos karaliumi ir Lietuvos katalikiško krikšto Niurnberge derėjosi su Vokietijos imperatoriumi ir Čekijos karaliumi Karoliu IV (Vokiečių ordinas, bandydamas nutraukti jam pražūtingus Lietuvos ir Čekijos ryšius bei užkirsti kelią tolimesniam Lenkijos stiprėjimui, 1352–1356 m. netgi talkininkavo Kęstučiui ir Liubartui jiems kovojant su Lenkija dėl Volynės ir Palenkės žemių).

Kova su Jogaila

Po Algirdo mirties Kęstutis pripažino didžiuoju kunigaikščiu Algirdo sūnų iš antrosios santuokos, Jogailą, kurį savo įpėdiniu pasirinko pats valdovas. Turėdamas autoritetą Lietuvoje ir Žemaitijoje Kęstutis galėjo padėti Jogailai įsitvirtinti didžiojo kunigaikščio soste ir kovoti su broliais. Kęstučio populiarumas Jogailą ėmė neraminti ir jis su Teutonų ordinu sudarė prieš jį nukreiptą slaptą sutartį. Sužinojęs apie tai, Kęstutis 1381 m. netikėtai puolė Vilnių, suėmė Jogailą ir pats užėmė didžiojo kunigaikščio sostą. Jogaila gavo valdyti Krėvą ir Vitebską.

1382 m. rugpjūtį Kęstutis buvo klastingai suimtas ir įkalintas Krėvos (ar Vilniaus Kreivojoje) pilyje; to paties mėnesio 15 d. jį šioje pilyje Julijonos Algirdienės ar Skirgailos nurodymu pasmaugė Jogailos tarnai. Jis buvo pagal pagoniškus papročius iškilmingai sudegintas Vilniuje.

Šeima

Tėvai

  • Gediminas (~1275-1341 m. pab.), Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis 1316–1341 m.
  • Nežinomo vardo Gedimino pirmoji (?) žmona.

Žmonos

  • Spėjama pirmoji nežinomo vardo žmona (mirė (?) apie 1349 m.)
  • Birutė (mirė 1382 ar 1389 m.)

Broliai

  • Mantvydas (prieš 1300 – apie 1343 m.), Kernavės ir Slanimo valdytojas (13..?-1343? m.)
  • Narimantas Glebas (prieš 1300–1348 m. vasario 2 d.), Naugardo (1333–1338 m.) ir Polocko (1335–1340 m. (?)), vėliau (1340(?)-1345 ir ~1346-1348 m.) − Pinsko ir Turovo valdytojas.
  • Algirdas (apie 1300–1377 m. gegužės pab.), Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis (1345–1377 m.)
  • Jaunutis Ivanas (po 1300 – apie 1366 m.), Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis (1341–1345), po 1350 m. − Zaslavlio valdytojas.
  • Karijotas Michailas (po 1300 – apie 1365 m.), Naugarduko valdytojas (prieš 1341(?) – ~1365 m.)
  • Liubartas Dimitrijus (apie 1300–1384 m. pab.), Haličo karalius (1340–1349 m.), Volynės valdytojas (1350–1366, 1371–1384 m.)

Seserys

  • Marija (apie 1300–1349 m.), Tverės didžioji kunigaikštienė (1320–1325).
  • Aldona Ona (apie 1309–1339 m. gegužės 26 d.), Lenkijos karalienė 1333–1339 m.
  • Daumilė Elžbieta (13..? – 1364 m.), Plocko kunigaikštienė (~1316-1336 m.)
  • Eufemija (13..? – 1342 m. ?), Haličo-Volynės karalienė (1331–1340 m.)
  • Aigustė Anastasija (13..? – 1345 m. kovo 11 d.), Maskvos didžioji kunigaikštienė (1340–1345 m.)

Sūnūs

  • Patrikiejus (mirė (?) po 1365 m.), Gardino kunigaikštis (gali būti tapatus Vytautui)
  • Butautas Henrikas (mirė (?) 1381 m.), Gardino (?) kunigaikštis.
  • Vytautas Aleksandras (~1350 – 1430 m.), Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis (1392–1430 m.)
  • Tautvilas Konradas (žuvo 1390 m.), Naugarduko valdytojas (1386(?)-1390 m.)
  • Vaidotas, pasižymėjęs Kauno pilies gynime.
  • Vaišvilas (gali būti tapatus Žygimantui)
  • Žygimantas (po 1350 – nužudytas 1440 m. kovo 20 d.), Naugarduko 1398(?)-1421 ir Starodubo 1421-1432 valdytojas, Lietuvos didysis kunigaikštis (1432–1440 m.)

Dukterys

  • Miklausė Marija (1375 m. ištekėjo į Tverę)
  • Danutė Ona (ištekėjo į Mazoviją)
  • Rimgailė Elžbieta (1390 m. ištekėjo už Mazovijos kunigaikščio Henriko, o 1419 m. antrą kartą − už Moldavijos gospodariaus Aleksandro I Gerojo; mirė ne savo mirtimi 1433 m.

LITERATŪRA

Iš laisvosios interneto enciklopedijos Vikipedija. Prieigą per internetą, žiūrėtą 2014-11-18 <http://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%99stutis>.

О {profile::pre} (Русский)

http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/List_of_rulers_of_Lithuania

========

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C4%99stutis

Kęstutis (pronounced /kæsˈtuːtıs/; born ca. 1297, died on August 3 or August 15, 1382 in Kreva) was monarch of medieval Lithuania. He ruled the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1381–82, with his brother Algirdas (until 1377); and was Prince of Trakai. He ruled over the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

The name "Kęstutis" is a suffixed -utis- derivative from old form of name Kęstas or similar, which is shorten version of double theme Lithuanian names such as Kęstaras, Kęstautas (there kęs-ti means to cope). Historic writing sources reflect different Lithuanian pronunciation.[1]

Life

Kęstutis was the son of the Grand Duke Gediminas. His younger brother, Jaunutis, succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Together with his brother Algirdas, Kestutis conspired to remove Jaunutis from power. They were successful in their efforts. They divided their holdings into an eastern and western sphere of influence. Kęstutis' efforts were concentrated in the west, while Algirdas' were concentrated in the eastern part of these territories. Kęstutis organized the defence of western Lithuania and Samogitia against the Teutonic Knights, and organized raids against the German Order. Some historians claim, that this rule by two brothers has no precedent in European history. Kęstutis is sometimes credited (by the Teutonic Order) as being the last pagan with the nobility of a Knight.

Kęstutis employed different military as well as diplomatic means in his struggle on the western borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In order to avoid the further clashes with the Teutonic Order, in 1349, as Lithuanian co-ruler, he started the negotiations with Pope Clement VI for the Christianization of Lithuania and had been promised royal crowns for him and his sons. Algirdas willingly remained aside of the business and was concerned with the order in the Ruthenian part of the state. The intermediary in the negotiations, Polish King Casimir III, made an unexpected assault on Volhynia and Brest in October 1349 that ruined the Kęstutis' plan. During the Polish-Lithuanian war for Volhynia, King Louis I of Hungary made a peace agreement with Kęstutis on 15 August 1351, according to which Kęstutis obliged himself to accept Christianity and provide the Kingdom of Hungary with military aid, in exchange of the royal crown. The agreement was approved with a pagan ritual by Kęstutis in order to convince the other side. In fact, Kęstutis had no intentions to comply with the agreement and ran away on their road to Buda.[2]

Kęstutis was perceived not only as a rival but also as a Knight by the German Order, and it was considered a honor to shake hands with him, although, the Duke did not reach his hand to everyone[3].

In 1382 Jogaila, son of Algirdas and nephew of Kęstutis took control of Vilnius and then Trakai. Kęstutis with his son Vytautas arrived at Trakai with an army. They were to hold negotiations at the camp of Jogaila, but instead were taken prisoner there. Kęstutis was subsequently murdered at Kreva Castle. His son Vytautas the Great was able to escape.

--------------------

Kęstutis (pronounced /kæsˈtuːtıs/; born ca. 1297, died on August 3 or August 15, 1382 in Kreva) was monarch of medieval Lithuania. He ruled the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1381–82, with his brother Algirdas (until 1377); and was Prince of Trakai. He ruled over the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

The name "Kęstutis" is a suffixed -utis- derivative from old form of name Kęstas or similar, which is shorten version of double theme Lithuanian names such as Kęstaras, Kęstautas (there kęs-ti means to cope). Historic writing sources reflect different Lithuanian pronunciation.[

Kęstutis was the son of the Grand Duke Gediminas. His younger brother, Jaunutis, succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Together with his brother Algirdas, Kestutis conspired to remove Jaunutis from power. They were successful in their efforts. They divided their holdings into an eastern and western sphere of influence. Kęstutis' efforts were concentrated in the west, while Algirdas' were concentrated in the eastern part of these territories. Kęstutis organized the defence of western Lithuania and Samogitia against the Teutonic Knights, and organized raids against the German Order. Some historians claim, that this rule by two brothers has no precedent in European history. Kęstutis is sometimes credited (by the Teutonic Order) as being the last pagan with the nobility of a Knight.

Kęstutis employed different military as well as diplomatic means in his struggle on the western borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In order to avoid the further clashes with the Teutonic Order, in 1349, as Lithuanian co-ruler, he started the negotiations with Pope Clement VI for the Christianization of Lithuania and had been promised royal crowns for him and his sons. Algirdas willingly remained aside of the business and was concerned with the order in the Ruthenian part of the state. The intermediary in the negotiations, Polish King Casimir III, made an unexpected assault on Volhynia and Brest in October 1349 that ruined the Kęstutis' plan. During the Polish-Lithuanian war for Volhynia, King Louis I of Hungary made a peace agreement with Kęstutis on 15 August 1351, according to which Kęstutis obliged himself to accept Christianity and provide the Kingdom of Hungary with military aid, in exchange of the royal crown. The agreement was approved with a pagan ritual by Kęstutis in order to convince the other side. In fact, Kęstutis had no intentions to comply with the agreement and ran away on their road to Buda.[2]

Kęstutis was perceived not only as a rival but also as a Knight by the German Order, and it was considered a honor to shake hands with him, although, the Duke did not reach his hand to everyone[3].

In 1382 Jogaila, son of Algirdas and nephew of Kęstutis took control of Vilnius and then Trakai. Kęstutis with his son Vytautas arrived at Trakai with an army. They were to hold negotiations at the camp of Jogaila, but instead were taken prisoner there. Kęstutis was subsequently murdered at Kreva Castle. His son Vytautas the Great was able to escape.

--------------------

Kęstutis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kęstutis (pronounced /kæsˈtuːtıs/; born ca. 1297, died on August 3 or August 15, 1382 in Kreva) was monarch of medieval Lithuania. He was the Prince of Trakai and governed the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 1342–82, together with his brother Algirdas (until 1377), and with his nephew Jogaila (until 1381). He ruled over the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.

The name "Kęstutis" is a derivative from the old form of the name Kęstas, which is a shortened version of such Lithuanian names as Kęstaras, Kęstautas (there kęs-ti means to cope). Historic writing sources reflect different Lithuanian pronunciation.[1]

[edit]Life

Kęstutis was the son of the Grand Duke Gediminas. His younger brother, Jaunutis, succeeded his father as Grand Duke of Lithuania. Together with his brother Algirdas, Kestutis conspired to remove Jaunutis from power. They were successful in their efforts. They divided their holdings into an eastern and western sphere of influence. Duchy of Trakai was established in 1337 for that matter. Kęstutis' efforts were concentrated in the west, while Algirdas' were concentrated in the eastern part of these territories. Kęstutis organized the defence of western Lithuania and Samogitia against the Teutonic Knights, and organized raids against the German Order. Some historians claim, that this rule by two brothers has no precedent in European history. Kęstutis is sometimes credited (by the Teutonic Order) as being the last pagan with the nobility of a Knight.

Kęstutis employed different military as well as diplomatic means in his struggle on the western borders of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In order to avoid the further clashes with the Teutonic Order, in 1349, as Lithuanian co-ruler, he started the negotiations with Pope Clement VI for the Christianization of Lithuania and had been promised royal crowns for him and his sons. Algirdas willingly remained aside of the business and was concerned with the order in the Ruthenian part of the state. The intermediary in the negotiations, Polish King Casimir III, made an unexpected assault on Volhynia and Brest in October 1349 that ruined the Kęstutis' plan. During the Polish-Lithuanian war for Volhynia, King Louis I of Hungary made a peace agreement with Kęstutis on 15 August 1351, according to which Kęstutis obliged himself to accept Christianity and provide the Kingdom of Hungary with military aid, in exchange of the royal crown. The agreement was approved with a pagan ritual by Kęstutis in order to convince the other side. In fact, Kęstutis had no intentions to comply with the agreement and ran away on their road to Buda.[2]

Kęstutis was perceived not only as a rival but also as a Knight by the German Order, and it was considered a honor to shake hands with him, although, the Duke did not reach his hand to everyone[3].

In 1382 Jogaila, son of Algirdas and nephew of Kęstutis took control of Vilnius and then Trakai. Kęstutis with his son Vytautas arrived at Trakai with an army. They were to hold negotiations at the camp of Jogaila, but instead were taken prisoner there. Kęstutis was subsequently murdered at Kreva Castle. His son Vytautas the Great was able to escape.

[edit]See also

House of Kęstutis – family tree of Kęstutis

Gediminids

[edit]References

^ Zinkevičius, Zigmas (2007). Senosios Lietuvos valstybės vardynas. Science and Encyclopaedia Publishing Institute. p. 51. ISBN 5420016060.

^ (Lithuanian) Kęstutis: krikšto priešininkas ar šalininkas? (Kęstutis: was he a proponent or opponent of the Christianization), in Kultūros barai, 2006, 6. accessed on 01-07-2007

^ Gudavičius, Edvardas (1999). Lietuvos istorija. Vilnius. p. 188. ISBN 9986-39-112-1.

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