KARNA (VASUSENA/RADHEYA/VAIK... KING OF ANGA (BAGALPUR) ADHIRATHA

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KARNA (VASUSENA/RADHEYA/VAIK... KING OF ANGA (BAGALPUR) ADHIRATHA

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Panchal, Bankura, West Bengal, India
Death: Died in Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India
Cause of death: MAHABHARATA WAR
Immediate Family:

Son of SURYA KASHYAP; ADHIRATHA SATYAKARMA; KUNTI (pritha) PANDU and RADHA ADHIRATHA
Husband of SUPRIYA (BHANUMATHI'S FRIEND) KARNA; PRABHAVATHI KARNA; VRUSHALI (ANOTHER SAARATHI'S DAUGHTER) KARNA and PONNURUVI KARNA
Father of SUDHAMA KARNA; VRISHASENA KARNA; DVIPATA KARNA; SHATRUNJAYA KARNA; SUSHARMA (BANASENA) KARNA and 4 others
Brother of SHATRUNTAPA ADHIRATHA; DHRUMA ADHIRATHA; VRTHARATHA ADHIRATHA and VTPALA ADHIRATHA
Half brother of YUDHISTHIRA PANDU; ARJUNA PANDU and BHEEMA PANDU

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About KARNA (VASUSENA/RADHEYA/VAIK... KING OF ANGA (BAGALPUR) ADHIRATHA

KARNA IN MAHABHARATA Karna (Sanskrit: कर्ण written Karṇa in IAST transliteration) is one of the central characters in the epic Mahābhārata from ancient India. He was the King of Anga (present day Bhagalpur). Karna is considered to be one of the greatest warrior of Mahābhārata by authorities including Krishna and Bhishma, as stated in the original text by Maharishi Ved Vyasa.[1][2][3][4] He was the son of Surya (the Sun god) and Kunti. He was born to Kunti, before her marriage with Pandu. He is described as the closest friend of Duryodhana. Karna fought on his behalf against the Pandavas (his brothers) at the Kurukshetra war. Karna fought against misfortune throughout his life and kept his word under all circumstances. Many admire him for this courage and generosity. It is believed that Karna founded the city of Karnal.

Mahabharata:Karna Karna or Radheya is one of the central characters in the epic Mahābhārata, from ancient India. He was made the King of Anga by Duryodhana . Karna was one of the greatest warriors whose martial exploits are recorded in the Mahābhārata, an admiration expressed by Krishna and Bhishma within the body of this work. Contents [hide] 1 Childhood and Education 2 Curse from Parashurama 3 Karna's coronation 4 Karna's encounter with krishna 5 Karna's charitable nature - Vaikartana 6 The fall of Karna Childhood and Education Karna was the son of Surya (a solar deity) and Kunti. He was born to Kunti before her marriage with Pandu.The baby was wearing armour ('Kavacha') and a pair of earrings ('Kundala'). Though Kunti had not physically given birth to the baby, she was unwilling to be accused of being an unmarried mother and so with the help of her maid Dhatri, she placed the baby Karna in a basket and set him afloat on a tributary of the holy river Ganges, the Ashwanadi, in the hope that he would be taken in by another family. A charioteer named Adiratha found this baby afloat in the river and decided to foster him, with the help of his wife Radha (Hence Karna is also known as Radheya, the son of Radha) . They named him Vasusena . Karna happily performed his duties as their son, but as he grew up, he became more interested in the art of warfare than in merely being a charioteer like his father Adhirata. Karna met Dronacharya, who was an established teacher in the art of warfare. Dronacharya taught the Kuru princes, but refused to take Karna as his student, since Karna was a son of a charioteer and Dronacharya only taught Kshatriyas, or warriors. After being refused by Dronacharya, Karna sought his brother Shona's help. But according to Indian culture, to learn an art you must have a guru (teacher), so Karna appointed the sun god as his guru, learned to wield his weapons during the day by gathering information about the various ayudhas (weapons) and practiced with them after sundown. He became extremely skilled with his weapons. He was a quick learner and was able to learn various martial arts in a very short time . After being refused by Dronacharya, Karna decided to learn from Parashurama, Dronacharya's own guru, who was known to teach only Brahmins. He appeared before Parashurama as a Brahmin and requested that he be taken on as his student. Parashurama accepted him and trained him to such a point that he declared Karna to be equal to himself in the art of warfare and archery. Curse from Parashurama Parashurama later found out that he was deceived by karna into teaching him although he was not a brahmin. This incident happened when Parashurama deduced that Karna was a kshatriya when he was able to endure extreme pain and bleeding after being stung by a bee when he was one day resting on his lap . Parashurama got enraged and cursed Karna that that he would forget all the mantras required to wield the divine weapon Brahmastra, the most destructive weapon in archery, at the moment of his greatest need. Karna pleaded that any student would have acted in the same way and that he was the son of Vasusena, a mere charioteer and not a Kshatriya. But while Parashurama regretted cursing Karna in a moment of anger, his curse was irrevocable. So he gifted Karna the celestial weapon called Bhargavastra, along with his personal bow called Vijaya, for being such a diligent student. Throughout his life, Karna faced a lot of misfortune and was subject to many curses which eventually acted together resulting in his downfall. Departing from Parashurama's ashram, Karna wandered for some time. On his way, he slayed a cow that was rushing at him by shooting an arrow. Incensed by this incident, the Brahmin who owned the cow cursed him, stating that as he had killed a helpless animal, Karna too would be killed in the same way when he was most helpless with his concentration being diverted away from his enemy at a crucial moment.

Karna's coronation The guru Dronacharya held a tournament at Hastinapur, to display the skills of the Kuru princes. His student Arjuna was shown to be a particularly gifted archer. Karna arrived at this tournament, however, and after surpassing Arjuna's feats, challenged him to a duel. He was however refused the dual since he was not a prince. Duryodhana, the oldest of the one-hundred sons of the blind king Dhritarashtra, knew that the Pandavas, the five sons of King Pandu, younger brother of King Dhritarashtra, were better than he and his brothers at warfare and saw Karna as a chance to get on even terms with them. He immediately offered Karna the throne of the kingdom of Anga, making him a king and hence eligible to fight a duel with Arjuna. When Karna asked him what he could do to repay him, Duryodhana told him that all he wanted was his friendship. This established a strong bond between Karna and Duryodhana and Karna remained loyal to his friend Duryodhana until the war. Karna was a loyal and true comrade to Duryodhana. He helped him to marry the princess of Chitragandha. Following his accession to the throne of Anga, Karna took an oath that anyone who approached him with a request at midday, when he worshiped the sun, would not leave empty-handed. This practice contributed to Karna's fame as well as to his downfall, as Indra took advantage of it. Ultimately, Karna's unfailing generosity resulted in his death on the Kurukshetra battlefield. Karna , however faced wide criticism from historians on his act of "deceiving" Duryodhana in the Mahabharata war. Karna faced many opportunities to kill four of the pandavas but could not do so on account of a promise made to his mother Kunti. This resulted in the kaurava side being put at a huge disadvantage .

Karna developed intense hostile feelings against Arjuna throughout the Mahabharata story. Karna's encounter with krishna Karna successfully built a military camp during the war and reduced many strong enemies to submission. He was acknowledged as Duryodhana's finest warrior. He was met by Krishna after the failure of peace talks between krishna and Duryodhana during which he was revealed his true identity and asked to change sides. This created a lot of psychological turmoil in Karna who was forced to fight at the kaurava's side since he pledged loyalty to Duryodhana. This revelation was kept secret from the pandavas and hence did not impact their motivation to fight in the battle. Karna's charitable nature - Vaikartana Though Karna was shown in a subtle negative light throughout the story and developing hostile feelings against the pandavas ( esp. Arjuna ) , he was a person of noble character and would not reject any request for charity. This was tested by Indra on one occasion when he went to weaken the kaurava side. Indra disguised in the form of a brahmin asked him for his armor ,which was a natural attachment of his body. He gave it away by tearing it from his body without flinching ,fully knowing that it would bring a lot of problems later and after a previous warning from the sun god. Indra, shamed into generosity by Karna's gesture, reciprocated by giving Karna the boon to use his most powerful weapon, the Vasavi shakti, but only once. It was then that Karna earned the name Vaikartana. The fall of Karna Karna met his end in the hands of arjuna on the 17th day of the war. Although the duel was evenly-fought for a long while, Karna was suddenly stricken by the playing-out of the curses that had been thrown at him and which would now put him in grave danger. Hampered as his chariot wheel sank into the ground in loose, wet soil, he found himself unable to remember the incantations for his divine weapons, as cursed by Parashurama. He requested Arjuna to wait until he restores his wheel and Arjuna was postive. Arjuna , however was instigated by krishna to kill Karna . Lord Krishna told Arjuna that it was not adharma to kill a man who had supported evil all his life, and urged Arjuna to kill Karna while he could. Lord Krishna reminded Arjuna of all the adharmic acts done by Karna towards the pandavas and Draupadi. He also added that it would become impossible for Arjuna to win if Karna got restored to full strength. Thus incited, furious Arjuna complied with Lord Krishna's suggesstion and killed Karna. Thus ending the final chapter in a brave warrior's life. According to Karna's dying wish, Karna's Antim Sanskar was performed by none other than Lord Krishna himself. This was the honour given to him by Lord Krishna. Karna is the only person in the Mahābhārata epic who receives this great honour. Karna became famous throughout history as an epitome of generosity , struggling humanity and courage.

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KARNA (VASUSENA/RADHEYA/VAIK... KING OF ANGA (BAGALPUR) ADHIRATHA's Timeline

-3130
-3130
Panchal, Bankura, West Bengal, India
-3093
-3093
- -3093
Age 36
Hastinapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

1) EXHIBITION OF PRINCESS'S SKILLS AND THE TOURNAMENT..

2) KARNA & CROWNED AS KING OF ANGA.

# 3) GURU DRONA'S TUITION FEE

-3093
- -3081
Age 36
Hastinapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Military academy of Drona
Hastinapura the capital of Kuru kingdom was the center of military education during the period ofMahabharata. Drona was the foremost of the preceptors in all modes of warfare. Drona himself learned the science of warfare from his father Bharadwaja and the great warrior of the age viz Bhargava Rama.Bhishma, who was the foremost of the Kuru warriors, also was a disciple of Bhargava Rama. Kripawas another preceptor of arms. Under the guidance of all these scions of military science, the Pandavas and Kauravas became highly skilled in warfare. This military academy was the reason for the dominance of Kauravas and Pandavas among the kingdoms of ancient India. In the academy, Drona taught his disciples skills such as archery, mace fighting, sword fighting, and javelin fighting, among other weaponry skills, and these in permutation with the modes of warfare on foot, on horse, on a chariot, and on a war-elephant. He also taught his students how to form military formations, how to strategize the military moves and how to ride chariots. Drona's specialty was archery, particularly in the situation where the bowman was moving in a chariot. Arjuna was the foremost among his disciples as a bowman. Bhima and Duryodhana excelled in mace-fight; Dhristadyumna, Nakula and Sahadeva excelled in sword-fight.
Even Dhristadyumna, the prince from the Panchala Kingdom who was closest competitor of the Kurus for dominance in Aryavarta, came to study the science of warfare under Drona, in his military academy at Hastinapura, the capital of Kurus (1,169). Others who came to Hastinapura seeking military science were Ekalavya the prince of Nishada Kingdom (1,134) and Karna the prince from Anga Kingdom, ruled by Suta tribes.

-3091
April -3091
Age 39
Panchala, Junagadh, Gujarat, India

1) THE SWAYAMWARA ASSESSBLY

2) KARNA REJECTED BY DROUPADIAS SOOTA

3) ARJUNA'S FEAT

4) THE SUSEQUENT FIGHT & WIN

5) PANDAVA INDENTIFIED

6) DRAUPADI'S WEDDING

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Arjuna Wins Draupadi Translated from Sanskrit
by Hridayananda Dasa Goswami
Disguised as a brahmana,
Arjuna steps forward to meet the challenge
that has humiliated the powerful young kings.

The sage Vaisampayana is telling the history of the Pandavas to their great-grandson, King Janamejaya. As the Mahabharata continues, the Pandavas, disguised as brahmanas, are attending a ceremony in which Princess Draupadi will choose a husband from among many young kings. Draupadi's father set up a challenge for her suitors: They must string a mighty bow and pierce a difficult target. The other kings having failed, the Pandava Arjuna now steps forward.

THEREUPON, WHEN ALL the kings had given up their attempt to string the bow, the wise Arjuna rose up from the midst of the brahmanas. Seeing that Arjuna, Prtha's son, shining like the flag of Indra, had set out for the center of the arena, the leading brahmanas cried out and shook their deerskins. Some were unhappy to see a brahmana going to compete with warriors, and others were filled with joy.

The sages were considered experts, and they lived by their intelligence. Some of them said to one another, "The kings of the earth, led by Karna and Salya, mighty monarchs renowned in all the world as masters of the military science, could not bend the bow. How then can a mere brahminical student, frail, lacking stamina, and untrained in weapons, string the bow? The kings will ridicule us brahmanas when this whimsical and thoughtless act comes to nothing.

"Whether out of pride or impulsiveness or unsteadiness in his life as a religious student, he has gone out to string the bow. He must be stopped! For God's sake, don't let him go! We shall not be ridiculed in public so that we are no longer taken seriously. And we shall not risk a conflict with all the kings of the world."

But others disagreed.

"This young man looks very good. He's built like the trunk of the king of elephants. His thighs, arms, and shoulders are bulging with muscles, and he seems as steady and hard to move as the Himalayan mountains.

"We can infer from his bold confidence that the task of stringing the bow and piercing the target is actually possible for him. He has power and great daring. A weak man could not go out there alone as he is doing. And after all, whether among gods, human beings, or lower life the brahmanas can accomplish any task. Eating only water or living on air or collecting fruits in the forest, brahmanas are fixed in their vows. And though apparently weak, by their spiritual power they are very strong. Abrahmana should never be scorned, whether he behaves properly or has committed some fault, whether his work in this world is great or small, and whether his work brings apparent joy or sorrow."

An Easy Task For Arjuna

Coming to the center of the arena, Arjuna, as unmoving as a mountain, simply stood by the bow. Then he respectfully walked around the bow, keeping it to his right, and bowed down, touching his head to the ground.

Then that fiery warrior happily took the bow in his hands. In the wink of an eye Arjuna fastened the cord, took the five arrows in his hands, and shot the target. Pierced by Arjuna's shafts, the target fell suddenly onto the earth.

The heavens burst into sound, and a great roar filled the stadium. Indra, the lord of heaven, showered flowers on the head of Arjuna, the slayer of the wicked. Throughout the stadium people waved their cloths in jubilation. Some cried out in wonder, and others shouted their disapproval, while showers of flowers fell from the sky, covering the land with celestial blossoms. Hundred-piece bands broke into song, reciters began to recite, and bards and historical chroniclers praised the astonishing event with elegant voices and language.

Seeing Arjuna's feat, Drupada, destroyer of the enemy, was well pleased, and he stood ready with his army to help Arjuna.

As the great uproar continued unabated, the most virtuous Yudhisthira quickly returned to his residence with his twin brothers, Nakula and Sahadeva, the finest of men.

Seeing the target pierced, and seeing Arjuna shining with the brilliance of Indra, Draupadi took the white garland meant for the groom and went broadly smiling to Arjuna, the son of Kunti. As the brahmanas praised and honored Arjuna for he had performed an inconceivable deed he took the woman he had won in the arena of heroes. Followed by his new wife, he walked out of the stadium.

The Kings Protest

When King Drupada desired to give his daughter to the great-spirited brahmana who had won her, fury rose among the assembled kings, and they began to look at one another.

"This king passes over all of us, treating the assembled warriors like straw in the gutter, and instead he wants to give Draupadi, the best of women, to a simple brahmana. Let us kill this wicked king who thinks so little of us. He shows by his qualities that he is unworthy of respect or the consideration offered to the elderly. Let us kill this evil-doer and hater of kings, along with his son. First he calls all the rulers to his city and honors them and feeds them sumptuously, and finally he humiliates them.

"Are we to believe that in this gathering of royalty, like unto a council of the gods, he has not found a single ruler worthy of his family? Sages are not entitled to the privilege of choosing a princess. The Vedas declare that a svayamvara is for men of the royal order. On the other hand, if this fair maiden finds not a single one of us worthy of her, then, fellow kings, let us throw her into the fire and go back to our kingdoms.

"Even though the brahmana, out of immaturity or greed, has so displeased us, in no way is he to be killed. Indeed, we rule our kingdoms, spend our wealth, raise our sons and grandsons,' and live our very lives for the sake of the saintly brahmanas. Still, we must avoid the danger that kings henceforth be regularly insulted. We must protect the sacred principles of warriors so that other svayamvaras do not end like this one."

Bhima And Arjuna Protect Drupada

Having thus spoken, those tigerlike kings, bludgeons in hand and bristling with anger, rushed upon Drupada to arrest him. Seeing the furious kings rushing to attack him with bows and arrows at the ready, Drupada fled in terror and sought shelter of thebrahmanas. The kings charged forward in pursuit like maddened elephants. But then two greatly powerful sons of Pandu Bhima and Arjuna, subduers of enemies went forward against them.

The kings could tolerate no more. Weapons raised with armored hands, their only aim now to kill, they flew forward upon Arjuna and Bhimasena, the two sons of the old Kuru king. Bhima, however, was a warrior of astonishing power and deeds. With his great strength he struck with the shock of a thunderbolt. With his bare arms that unique fighter jerked a large tree out of the ground, and like a lordly elephant he clipped off its leaves [so that the foliage would not soften his blow]. Staying close to Arjuna and brandishing his new weapon in his long, wide arms, Bhima, pain of his enemies, stood like the fearsome lord of death wielding his death-dealing rod.

Having first witnessed Arjuna's feat, which required more than human intelligence, and seeing now the inconceivable prowess of Arjuna's brother Bhima, Lord Krsna, known as Damodara, turned and spoke to His fiercely potent brother, Balarama, who was armed with His plow weapon. Lord Krsna said: "My dear Sankarsana, My brother, that one there who moves with the bearing of a maddened bull and who bent the mighty bow that stood as tall as a palm tree he is Arjuna, as indisputably as I am all-pervading Vasudeva. And that one who returned at once when the kings became wild and who so easily tore out a tree he is Bhimasena, playing the part of a human being, for no man on earth has the power to do what he just did here.

"That other one who left earlier fair-skinned, with large eyes like lotus petals, a more slender physique, the gait of a great lion yet a humble demeanor, and a prominent and handsome nose that enhances his face he, O infallible one, is surely the king of virtue, Yudhisthira.

"Those twins who seem like two young gods of war I reckon to be the sons of the Asvin gods. I have heard that the sons of Pandu and their mother Prtha were saved from the burning house of lac."

Trusting in the words of His younger brother Krsna, Lord Balarama, whose complexion is as white as the purest cloud, said to Him, "I am so happy that by the grace of Providence Our father's sister Prtha and her sons, the best of the Kurus, have all been saved."

The powerful brahmanas, shaking their deerskins and water vessels, said to King Drupada, "You have nothing to fear! We shall fight the enemy!"

When the sages spoke thus, Arjuna smiled and said to them, "Please, be spectators and stand to the side. Just as one can ward off poisonous snakes with mantras, so I shall stop these furious ksatriyas, dispersing them with hundreds of straight-shooting arrows."

Taking his prize bow, Arjuna stood with his brother Bhima like an unmoving mountain, for he was a maharatha, one who can fight alone against thousands of soldiers. Like fearless bull elephants rushing against a hostile herd, the two courageous brothers flew at the angry warriors, headed by Karna, who had now been roused to full fury.

The monarchs and their men declared, "Even a brahmana may be killed in battle if he desires to fight. So says the law."

Karna Fights With Arjuna

Karna went after Arjuna with tremendous power, like a battle-hungry elephant fighting another bull for the sake of his mate. Salya, the mighty lord of the Madras, attacked Bhimasena. Duryodhana and other kings battled the brahmanas, but gently and without effort.

Strongly bending his bow, Arjuna struck the attacking Karna with three arrows. Radheya [Karna] was stunned by the force of the sharp, sizzling arrows and approached with much caution. As Arjuna and Karna furiously battled each other, the skill and speed of the two fighters was incomparable, and each fought hard for victory. They addressed each other in words meaningful to heroes: "Just see how I countered your move!" and "See the strength of my arms!"

Realizing that the power of Arjuna's bow-wielding arms was unmatched on earth prompted Karna to fight with even greater fury. Counteracting the swift shafts fired off by Arjuna, he roared his battle sound, and his fellow warriors shouted with admiration.

Karna said, "I am satisfied by your performance in battle, O brahmana chief. There is great prowess in your arms, you have learned all the weapons, and you do not become discouraged. O noble sage, are you Dhanur Veda himself, or perhaps even Lord Parasurama? Are you Lord Indra, or possibly the infallible Visnu? To disguise yourself you have assumed the appearance of a brahmana, and using the might of your arms you now fight with me. Once I become angry, no one save Indra himself or the Pandava Arjuna can fight me."

Hearing Karna speak to him thus, Phalguna Arjuna replied, "I am not Dhanur Veda, O Karna, nor am I the powerful Parasurama. Quite simply, I am the best of fighting brahmanas, and I am the most skillful in the use of weapons. By the instructions of my guru I am expert in the brahma weapon and in the device of Purandara Indra. I therefore stand here in battle to conquer you, O heroic warrior. Be resolved!"

At these words Radheya Karna, the great chariot fighter, withdrew from the battle, having decided that the power of a brahmana could not be defeated.

At that very moment, O king, the two mighty warriors Salya and Vrkodara Bhima began to fight one another, each maddened with strength and hungry for victory. Like huge enraged bull elephants they taunted one another. With fist colliding against fist, knee smashing against knee, they dragged each other around the fighting ring. Then, in the midst of their battle, Bhima seized Salya in his arms, lifted him high, and slammed him against the ground. The brahmanas broke into smiles. Having brought down powerful Salya, the mighty Bhimasena, best among men, astonished everyone, for he did not strike and kill his foe.

With Salya now brought down and Karna hesitant, the ksatriyas grew doubtful and surrounded Bhimasena.

"These bull-like brahmanas have done very well indeed!" they said. "We should learn where they were born and where they reside, for who has the power to oppose Karna in battle if not Parasurama or Drona or Krpa, the son of Saradvan? Who has the power to meet Duryodhana in battle but Krsna, the son of Devaki, or the fiery Phalguna Arjuna? Salya, king of the Madras, is the strongest of men. Who could fight him but the heroic Lord Baladeva or the Pandava Vrkodara Bhima? Let us forge a truce and suspend fighting with these brahmanas. After we discover who they are, we shall fight again later."

Carefully watching the activities of Bhima, Sri Krsna believed that Bhima and Arjuna were the sons of Kunti. He therefore convinced all the warriors that Draupadi had indeed been fairly won, and thus He restrained them from fighting on. The noble kings were experienced warriors, and on hearing Lord Krsna's remarks they desisted from battle and returned to their kingdoms in utter amazement.

"The competition was dominated by brahmanas. The princess of Pancala now lives with the brahmanas, for they have chosen her." Thus spoke the kings who had gathered for the festival as they journeyed to their homes.

Meanwhile, surrounded by brahmanas clad in deerskins, Bhimasena and Arjuna could hardly move. Those two heroes of mankind at last broke free of the pressing crowd. While their enemies studied and stared at them, and as Draupadi faithfully followed them, they shone beautifully amid the tumultuous scene.

April -3091
Age 39
Panchal, Bankura, West Bengal, India

WHILE the Pandavas were living in disguise as brahmanas at Ekachakrapura, news of the Swayamvara of Draupadi, the daughter of Drupada, King of Panchala, reached them.
Many brahmanas of Ekachakrapura planned to go to Panchala in the hope of receiving the customary gifts and to see the festivities and pageant of a royal wedding. Kunti, with her motherly instinct, read her sons' desire to go to Panchala and win Draupadi.
So she told Yudhishthira: "We have been in this city so long that it is time to think of going somewhere else. We have seen these hills and dales till we are tired of them.
The alms doled out to us are diminishing and it is not good to outstay your entertain- ment. Let us therefore go to Drupada's kingdom which is reputed to be fair and prosperous." Kunti was second to none in worldly wisdom and sagacity and could gracefully divine her sons' thoughts and spare them the awkwardness of expressing them.

-3090
-3090
Age 39
Hastinapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Positive traits in DURYODHANA;
1) FRIENDSHIP:It is said that, Duryodhana never shed a single tear for any of his real brothers who were killed in the bttleafield, but when his beloved friend Karna was slain, he was inconsolable.

VAJRA BODY, MOTHER'S GIFT:-ON this day he gets an super power from his mother gandhari, she told him to come in naked befor him, so that she would see him for once by opening her long tied band,the rays from her eyes would make his full body vajra (Diamond),but krishna confuse him and makes to cover his laps area.so when Gandhari saw Duroyodhan his whole body except his laps area became hard like a diamond.

BRAVE TILL LAST:-_HE cools his body by entering a lake, all hope of winning lost, yet he prepares for his final battle; for a death befitting a warrior on the battle field and hoping to reunite with his friends and relations in the afterlife. He re-emerges from the lake afterAshwathama and Kripa counsel him to face his destiny with courage.

WE may remember that in spite of the fact that he was a personification of evil in the 'Mahabharata', Duryodhana did have some positive traits.
1) Loyal friend and trusting[3]
Duryodhana's wife Bhanumathi and his close friend Karna were playing a game of dice. The stake between them was substantial. As the game progressed, it was evident that Karna was winning and Bhanumathi was losing. Karna could not suppress his delight. Just then Duryodhana entered his queen's chamber. Karna had his back to the door while Bhanumathi was facing it. Seeing her husband coming, she was about to stand up out of respect as was the custom then.. As she was just rising, Karna, thinking that she was trying to get away from the embarrassment of certain defeat in the game, snatched at her drape, studded with pearls.
Tugged at by Karna's powerful hands, the thread snapped and all the pearls rolled on the floor. Queen Bhanumathi was stunned and did not know what to say or do. She was afraid that, for no fault of hers, she would be misunderstood by her husband because of Karna's offensive and insensitive behavior. Bhanumathi was immeasurably upset. Seeing her shocked state and sensing that something was wrong, Karna turned round and saw his friend Duryodhana. He was also deeply shocked and distressed beyond words. Here he was, in the royal chamber, playing a game of dice with his friend's wife and, as if this was not enough, he had the audacity to catch her at the drape, thus embarrassing and endangering her chaste reputation. He stood dumbfounded and transfixed. Surely, Duryodhana would not tolerate such immodesty. He readied himself for the inevitable punishment.
As both she and Karna look down sheepishly, unable to meet Duryodhana's eyes, the Kaurava scion only asks:
"Should I just collect the beads, or string them as well."
Both Bhanumathi and Karna had misjudged him. He had implicit faith and great love for his queen and greater was his faith on his friend Karna. He does not suspect, does not get angry on Karna but helps him in picking up the pearls.
When Karna is killed in the war, Duryodhana mourns his death intensely, even more than the death of his brothers. A translation of one of the many poems that celebrate this shade of the Kaurava prince
.

-3082
October -3082
Age 48
Hastinapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

1) DURYODHANA BURNING WITH ENVY & RESENTMENT

2) DURYODHANA SCHEMING FOR GAMBLING

3) GAME OF DICE & LOSS OF INDRAPRASTA

4) YUDHISTHIRA WAGERING BROTHERS, SELF & DRAUPADI AND LOOSING GAME.

5) DRAOUPADI HUMILIATED and BHISMA'S VOWS.

6) ANOTHER VOW OF BHIMA WHEN SECOND GAME OF DIES LOST BY YUDHISTHIRA WHICH SENT PANDAVAS FOR 13 YEARS EXILE.
(BANISHED TO FOREST 12 YEARS & 13TH YEAR LIVE IN INCOGNITO)

-3081
October -3081
Age 49
Hastinapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Draupadi's Vow
Mahabharata
This episode is from [Maha:2.66-2.72].
The climax of Draupadi’s story is “when the Kaurava brother. DUHSASANA, had DRAUPADI dragged by her long hair into the men’s court and tried to strip off her sari” . Fortunately, through her prayer to SRIKRISHNA, a miracle occurs and she becomes the “visible recipient of divine grace in the form of endlessly descending sarees” (. This event is followed by Draupadi’s vow for vengeance and the beginning of an insatiable desire for justice that is only quenched upon her enemy’s blood running through her hair. The innate qualities with which Draupadi’s character is imbued are truly the basis on which her significance within the Mahabharata is centred.

'BHIMA WITH QUIVERING LIPS, LOUDLY UTTERED THIS TERRIBLE OATH "MAY I NEVER GO TO THE BLEST ABODE OF MY ANCESTORS IF I DO NOT REND THE BREAST AND DRINK THE HEART'S BLOOD OF THIS SINJFUL DUHSASANA. THIS SHAME OF THE BHARATA RACE."'

KRISHNA CONSOLED THE WEEPING DRAUPADI & SAID "THOSE WHO TORMENTED YOU, WILL BE STRICKEN TO DEATH IN THE BLOODY QUAGMIRE OF A LOST BATTLE.WIPE YOUR EYES. I SOLEMNLY PROMISE THAT YOUR GRIEVOUS WRONGS SHALL BE AMPLY AVENGED."

As her robe was being peeled off her body, Draupadi thought off Hari (Krishna), and cried aloud saying, "O Govinda, O thou who dwells in Dwaraka, O Krishna, are you not seeing that the Kauravas are humiliating me. O Lord, the husband of Laxmi, O grinder of foes, rescue me! Save my honor! I have five husbands rivalling the prowess of the celestials, but they are powerless to prevent my humiliation. This assembly is filled with men of great fame, invincible warriors and Brahmanas learned in the scriptures, but none has shown the power to prevent this injustice. I am the most unfortunate of women, for I am being insulted in a public court, by those who ought to be the defenders of my honor. I am the daughter-in-law of the Kurus, and they, for reasons best known to them, have chosen to insult me in this reprehensible manner! O Naryana! you are my sole refuge. You are the only one who can save my honor!"

By his divine insight, Krishna heard the prayer of the Panchala princess, and was deeply moved. By his grace, a miracle took place. As Dushasana pulled off the sole garment of Draupadi, another appeared in place, covering her body from prying eyes! Stunned, but determined, Dushasana pulled the new garment off, and another appeared in its place! In this manner, many hundred times did the wicked Kaurava attempt to disrobe her, only to have a new cloth in a different, brilliant color cover the beautiful form of Yajnaseni! The assembly roared their approval of this miracle, that had saved the Kurus' honor, and applauded the resplendent Draupadi. At last, exhausted and defeated, Dushasana fell down in a swoon to the ground.

Bheema could contain himself no longer. With lips quivering in rage, he strode to the center of the assembly and in a loud voice, swore a terrible oath: "Hear these words of mine, O Kshatriyas of the world. Words such as these have never before been uttered, nor shall ever be uttered in the future. Lords of the earth, having spoken these words, if I do not match them with deeds, let me not attain the blessed regions of my deceased ancestors. Tearing open in battle by sheer force, the breast of this wretch, this wicked minded scoundrel Dushasana, I shall drink his life-blood. If I fail in my quest, let the regions of the blessed dead be ever barred to me!"

Everyone in the assembly was stunned. The body hair of everyone hearing this terrible vow stood on end. A roar from the crowd signified their appreciation of the second Pandava's vow and their censure of the wicked Dushasana.

Once again, Vidura got up and said, "All of you here! Draupadi is weeping helplessly, having posed a question to this assembly. No one save Vikarna has answered her question, and he regards her as a free woman, not the slave of the Kauravas. He has spoken his mind. It is now your turn. One, who despite knowing the rules of morality, does not answer a query put forth, incurs at least half the sin that would have accrued on having spoken a lie. If, despite knowing the truth, he answers falsely, he would incur the sin of a lie. It is time you all spoke up!"

Despite Vidura's pleas, none of the Kings in the assembly dared to answer Draupadi's question. Fear of Duryodhana held them silent. Smiling triumphantly, Karna said to Dushasana, "Take away this serving-woman Draupadi to the abode of your slaves!"

Dushasana began to drag Draupadi out of the assembly, even as she was trembling and crying. She cried, "Wait a little, wretch! I have not saluted the Kuru elders. It is by no fault of mine that I have not paid them their due respects, so busy I have been with saving my honor. Alas! fate is cruel! Only once before, on the occasion of my Swayamvara, I was beheld by the assembled kings in a full court. I, whom even the sun had never before seen in her palace, is today dragged to this assembly and exposed to the gawking crowd. Alas, she, whom her husbands would not suffer to be touched even by the wind, has been dragged to the court by this wretch! How is that the illustrious Kurus have let their daughter-in-law to be insulted thus in a public assembly!"

She continued, "O Kurus, I, the wedded wife of king Yudhishtra the just, ask you one last time! Tell me now if I am a serving-maid or otherwise. I will accept your verdict whatever it be."

"I have already said, O blessed one, that the course of morality is subtle.", said Bhishma. "Even the wise ancients could not fathom all its nuances. It is no wonder that in this instance, I am unable to answer your question. One thing is certain however, as the Kurus have become slaves to covetousness and folly, the destruction of this race shall occur at no distant date. It seems to me, that only Yudhishtra the just can answer your question with certitude."

Duryodhana was getting happier by the minute. He smiled at the thought of the fear that was holding the assembly silent. He said, "O Yajnaseni, your question can be answered only by your husbands. Panchali, let them for your sake declare in the midst of these Kings that Yudhishtra is not their lord, and proclaim him a liar. You will then be freed from the condition of slavery. Or, let the illustrious son of Dharma himself declare that he is not your lord, that he had no right to stake you. If he says these words, you will be a free woman."

A murmur went through the assembly. All were curious to hear what the Pandavas would say. At last, Bheema said, "If the high-souled Yudhishtra were not our lord, we would not have kept quiet so long while Draupadi was being insulted. He is our master, and our lives are his. If he regards himself as won, we too have all been won. Behold these mighty, well-formed arms of mine, like maces of iron. Having once come in their grip, not even he of a hundred sacrifices (Indra) can escape. I have been held silent by the promise given by my elder brother. Let him but give the word, I would slay these wretched sons of Dhritharashtra in the manner of a lion slaying small animals in the forest."

Once again, Karna got up and said, "Of all the persons in this assembly, only Bhishma, Vidura and Drona appear to be independent, for they are always censuring their master as wicked, and do not wish for his prosperity. Everyone else is well disposed towards Duryodhana. The slave, the son, and the wife are always dependent. They may not earn wealth for themselves, for whatever they earn belongs to their master. You are the wife of slaves, incapable of possessing anything on their own. Repair to the inner apartments of King Dhritharashtra and serve there. The sons of Pandu are no longer your masters. It is well known that slaves are not censurable if they proceed with freedom in electing husbands. Proceed to select a new husband, and forsake the worthless Pandavas."

Hearing these words, Bheema's wrath was further inflamed. With burning eyes, and a voice choked with anger, he turned towards his elder brother and said, "O King, I cannot blame this son of a Suta (Shudra), for we have truly become slaves. The root cause of this shame is your staking of the Panchala princess at dice. How could you have done such a vile deed?"

Meanwhile, Duryodhana, with the intention of encouraging his friend Karna, and of further enraging Bheema, quickly removed the robe that covered his thigh, and showed his thigh as a mark of disrespect to Draupadi.

When Bheema saw this, he let out a terrible roar and shouted an oath, "Let me not attain the regions obtained by my blessed ancestors, if I do not break the thigh of this Duryodhana in battle." As he uttered his vow, sparkles of fire began emanating from his pores, and his body shone like a burning tree.

Vidura was alarmed. He said, "O Kurus, behold the great danger that has arisen. Our race is in danger of extermination. The Kauravas have organized this wicked game of dice and, by deceit, have obtained ascendancy over the Pandavas. And here they are, disputing in an open assembly about a lady of the royal household. The prosperity of our kingdom is at an end. O Kauravas, do you not know that if virtue is persecuted, the whole kingdom becomes polluted? It is obvious that Draupadi is not a slave, for Yudhishtra became a slave first himself, and thus lost any right to stake her."

Duryodhana repeated his previous words. "As soon as Yudhishtra admits that he had no right over Draupadi, I shall make her a free woman."

At this moment, a jackal started braying loudly in the sacrificial chamber of the Kurus. The asses in the city started braying in response to that jackal. Birds of ill omen started answering these noises with their cries. All those in the assembly, especially Vidura and Shakuni, who were skilled in the art of interpretting such signs, understood the meaning of these terrible omens.

Dhritharashtra was frightened. He had been in two minds since the gambling began, and these ill omens decided the issue. It was not his sense of justice, but his instinct for self preservation that made him intervene at this point. He said to his son, "O wicked minded Duryodhana, you wretch, you will be the ruin of our race. How could you insult the wife of the great Pandavas?"

He then tried to console the bitterly weeping Draupadi. "Dear daughter, do not grieve. Try to forgive and forget all that has happened here. Ask of me any boon, O princess of Panchala. Chaste and devoted to the path of virtue, you are the first among my daughters-in-law. Ask, and it shall be yours."

Draupadi said, "O King, I ask that the handsome Yudhishtra, the glorious son of Dharma, be freed from slavery. I ask this, so that my son Prativindhya be not called the son of a slave."

Dhritharashtra said, "So be it. The eldest Pandava is now a free man. Ask another boon of me, I am wishful of doing you good."

Draupadi said, "I ask, O King, that Bheema, Arjuna and the twins, with their weapons, be free of bondage."

The king said, "Dear daughter, it shall be as you desire. Ask a third boon, for you are deserving of the greatest honor. Two boons are not enough to honor your virtue."

Draupadi replied, "Father, I do not deserve a third boon. Covetousness always brings loss of virtue. It has been said in the scriptures that a Vaishya lady may ask one boon, a Kshatriya woman, two, a Kshatriya male, three, and a Brahmana, one hundred. O King, with my husbands free from the wretched state of bondage, we will be able to achieve prosperity by their own efforts."

Vexed by the turn of events, Karna said in an aside, "I have never before heard of such a thing. The Pandavas have been saved by their wife! When they would have had to spend an eternity in bondage, Draupadi has secured their freedom by begging Dhritharashtra! How can they ever erase this shame?"

Although the words were spoken a low voice, Bheema heard them, and was sorely afflicted. He turned to Arjuna and said, "O Dhananjaya, it has been said that three lights reside in every person, namely, offspring, virtuous acts and knowledge. When life becomes extinct and the body becomes impure and is cast of by relatives, these three are the means of salvation for every person. How, O Arjuna, can a son born from this insulted wife of ours be our salvation?"

Arjuna replied, "A person becomes impure, loses respect, by the bad deeds committed, not by insults heaped by others. Draupadi is as virtuous as ever, as none of what happened here was her fault. Do not grieve, do not be angry. Ignore the words of Karna, for they have been spoken out of chagrin, and have no basis in truth."

Bheema was still not satisfied. He said to his elder brother, "Shall I, O King, slay without loss of time all these foes here? Or shall I take them outside and kill without mercy? Give but the word, and it shall be done."

Yudhishtra, however, signalled his brother to remain calm. With folded hands, he approached Dhritharashtra and said, "Dear uncle, you are our master. Command us as to what we should do. O King, we will always be obedient to you."

Dhritharashtra replied, "O best of men, go in peace and safety. Go back to your kingdom and rule with justice. You are aware of the subtle path of morality. Not only are you possessed of great wisdom, you are also humble, and respectful unto your elders. The truly wise practice forbearance. Follow the counsels of peace. Forgive and forget the injustice done to you by my sons. Control your anger and that of your brothers, by recollecting the love shown to you by myself and your aunt Gandhari. Let there be peace between your brothers and my sons."

Yudhishtra saluted his uncle and the other elders of the court and took his leave. Soon, the Pandavas, accompanied by Draupadi, mounted their chariots and left for Indraprastha, not wanting to stay in Hastinapura, with which many painful memories were now associated.

November -3081
Age 49
Hastinapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

1) REACTION OF CITIZENS OF HASTINAPUR

2) FOOD FOR BRAHMANAS, VYAS ADVICE TO YUDHISTHIRA TO WORSHIP SURYA AND SURYA'S GIFT OF COPPER PLATE.

3)VIDURA'S ANGER AND PANDAVAS ADVISE

4) DURYODHANA'S ANGER AND CONSULTATION

5) KRISHNA'S DISCUSSION WITH PANDAVAS.

6) ENCOUNTER WITH KIRMIRA ASURA.

7) GIVING SECRET KNOWLEDGE (PRATISMRITI) TO ARJUNA

-3069
-3069
Age 60
Hastinapur, Uttar Pradesh, India

1) PANDAVAS IN DWAITA LAKE & WOODS

2) DURYODHANA'S ENCOUNTER WITH GANDHARVAS IN DWAITAVANA

3) PANDAVAS RESCUE DURYODHANA

4) DURYODHANA HUMBLED

5) VAISHNAVA SACRIFICE