Abdul Aziz Bin Abdulrahman Al Saud (1876 - 1953) MP

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Birthdate:
Birthplace: Riyadh, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia
Death: Died in Taif, Saudi Arabia
Occupation: Founder and King of Saudi Arabia
Managed by: Ric Dickinson
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About Abdul Aziz Bin Abdulrahman Al Saud

Abdul Aziz bin Abdur Rahman Al Saud, King (Malik) of Saudi Arabia (15 January 1876 – 9 November 1953) (Arabic: عبد العزيز آل سعود‎). He was commonly referred to as Ibn Saud.

Ibn Saud was the first monarch of The Third Saudi State known as Saudi Arabia. He was commonly referred to as Ibn Saud

Married:

  1. Wadha bint Muhammad al-Hazzam
  2. Tarfah bint Abdullah al-Shaikh Abdul-Wahab
  3. Lulua bint Salih al-Dakhil
  4. Jauhara bint Musa'd Al Saud
  5. Lajah bint Khalid bin Hithlayn
  6. Bazza (the first wife named Bazza)
  7. Jawhara bint Sa'ad bin Abd al-Muhsin al-Sudairi
  8. Hassa bint Ahmad al-Sudairi
  9. Shahida
  10. Fahda bint Asi al-Shuraim
  11. Bazza (the second wife named Bazza)
  12. Haya bint Sa'ad al-Sudairy
  13. Munaiyir
  14. Mudhi
  15. Nouf bint al-Shalan
  16. Saida al-Yamaniyah
  17. Khadra
  18. Baraka al-Yamaniyah
  19. Futayma

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Wadha bint Muhammad al-Hazzam

  1. Turki
  2. King Saud of Saudi Arabia
  3. Nura
  4. Munira

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Tarfah bint Abdullah al-Shaikh Abdul-Wahab

  1. Khaled
  2. King Faisal of Saudi Arabia
  3. Saad (I)
  4. Anud

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Lulua bint Salih al-Dakhil

  1. Fahd (I)

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Jauhara bint Musa'd Al Saud

  1. Muhammad
  2. King Khaled (II) of Saudi Arabia

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Lajah bint Khalid bin Hithlayn

  1. Sara

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Bazza (1)

  1. Nasser

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Jawhara bint Sa'ad bin Abd al-Muhsin al-Sudairi

  1. Saad (II)
  2. Musa'id
  3. Abdul Mohsin
  4. Al-Bandari bint Abdulaziz

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Hassa bint Ahmad al-Sudairi (The sons are known as the "Sudairi Seven")

  1. King Fahd (II) of Saudi Arabia
  2. Sultan
  3. Luluwah bint Abdulaziz
  4. Abd al-Rahman
  5. Naif
  6. Turki (II)
  7. Salman
  8. Ahmed
  9. Jawaher
  10. Lateefa
  11. Al-Jawhara
  12. Moudhi
  13. Felwa

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Shahida

  1. Mansur
  2. Mishaal
  3. Qumasha
  4. Mutaib

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Fahda bint Asi al-Shuraim

  1. King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
  2. Nuf
  3. Sita

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Bazza (II)

  1. Bandar
  2. Fawwaz
  3. Mishari

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Haya bint Sa'ad al-Sudairy

  1. Badr (I)
  2. Badr (II)
  3. Huzza
  4. Abdalillah

  1. Abdul Majeed
  2. Nura
  3. Mishail
  4. Zubri

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Munaiyir

  1. Talal (I)
  2. Talal (II)
  3. Nawwaf
  4. Madawi

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Mudhi

  1. Sultana bint Abdulaziz
  2. Haya bint Abdulaziz
  3. Majed (II)
  4. Sattam

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Nouf bint al-Shalan

  1. Thamir
  2. Mamduh
  3. Mashhur

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Saida al-Yamaniyah

  1. Hidhlul

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Baraka al-Yamaniyah

  1. Muqran

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and Futayma

  1. Hamad

Children of Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia and unknown wifes

  1. Shaikha
  2. Majed (I)
  3. Abdul Salem
  4. Jiluwi (I)
  5. Jiluwi (II)

Note: All of these carry the surname "bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud" for men and "bint Abdul Aziz Al Saud" for women. Ibn Saud is the father of all the Kings of Saudi Arabia that have succeeded him. King Saud succeeded his father as regent of Saudi Arabia in 1953, three months after being appointed Prime Minister by his father. In 1964 King Saud was deposed by the Saudi Council of Ministers and succeeded by King Faisal, another of Ibn Saud's sons. Faisal was followed by three further sons, King Khalid, King Fahd and King Abdullah. According to the Saudi Basic Law of 1992, the King of Saudi Arabia must be a son or grandson of Ibn Saud.

Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia

Ibn Saud was born in Riyadh into the House of Su'ūd (commonly transliterated Saud), which had followed the Salafi movement of Islam since the 18th century and had historically maintained dominion over the interior highlands of Arabia known as the Nejd (see First Saudi State and Second Saudi State). Beginning with the reconquest of his family's ancestral home city of Riyadh in 1902, Ibn Saud consolidated his control over the Nejd in 1922, conquered the Hejaz in 1925. The nation was founded and unified as Saudi Arabia in 1932. His later reign saw the discovery of petroleum in Saudi Arabia in 1938, and the beginning of large-scale exploitation of that resource after World War II. Ibn Saud was the father of many children, including all of the subsequent kings of Saudi Arabia.

Early life

Abdul Aziz Al Saud was born in 1876 in Riyadh, in the region of Nejd in central Arabia. In 1890 Riyadh was conquered by the House of Al Rashid and the House of Saud went into exile in Kuwait. Ibn Saud was 14. He lived with his family in a simple dwelling. His primary occupation, and the family's sole source of income, was undertaking raids in the Nejd. He also attended the daily majlis of the emir of Kuwait, Mubarak Al-Sabah, from whom he learned much about the world. In the spring of 1901, Ibn Saud and some relatives — including a half-brother, Mohammed, and several cousins — set out on a raiding expedition into the Nejd, targeting for the most part tribes associated with the Rashidis. As the raid proved profitable it attracted more participants. The raider's numbers peaked at over 200, though these numbers dwindled over the coming months.[citation needed] In the fall, the raiders made camp in the Jabrin Oasis. While observing ramadan, Ibn Saud decided to attack Riyadh and retake it from the Al Rashidi. On the night of 15 January 1902 he set out with a raiding party of some twenty men (forty or more, mostly slaves, had remained at the oasis to guard the camels and baggage). Their raid was successful. The Rashidi governor of the city, Ajlan, was killed in front of the gate to his own fortress.

Rise to Power

Following the capture of Riyadh, many former supporters of the House of Saud rallied to Ibn Saud's call to arms. By all accounts he was a charismatic leader, and kept his men well supplied with arms and plunder. Over the next two years, Ibn Saud and his forces recaptured almost half of the Nejd from the Rashidis. In 1904, Ibn Rashid appealed to the Ottoman Empire for military protection and assistance. The Ottomans responded by sending troops into Arabia. On 15 June 1904, Ibn Saud's forces suffered a major defeat at the hands of the combined Ottoman and Radhidi forces.[citation needed] His forces regrouped and began to wage guerrilla warfare against the Ottomans. Over the next two years he was able to disrupt their supply routes, forcing them to retreat to Anatolia. Ibn Saud completed his conquest of the Nejd and the eastern coast of Arabia in 1912. He then founded the Ikhwan, a military-religious brotherhood which was to assist in his later conquests, with the approval of local Salafi ulema. In the same year, he instituted an agrarian policy to settle the nomadic pastoralist bedouins into colonies, and to dismantle their tribal organizations in favor of allegiance to the Ikhwan.[citation needed] During World War I the British government established diplomatic relations with Ibn Saud. Their agent, Captain William Shakespear, was well received by the Bedouin]. Similar diplomatic missions were established with any Arabian power who might have been able to unify and stabilize the region. The British entered into a treaty in December 1915 (the "Treaty of Darin") which made the lands of the House of Saud a British protectorate. In exchange, Ibn Saud pledged to again make war against Ibn Rashid, who was an ally of the Ottomans. Shakespear's death at the Battle of Jarrab ended the diplomatic relationship, and the British began to support Sharif Hussein bin Ali, leader of the Hejaz, with whom the Saudis were almost constantly in conflict. The Treaty of Darin remained in effect, but Ibn Saud did not begin to act upon it immediately. Instead he stockpiled the weapons and supplies with which the British provided him,including a 'tribute' of (£5,000 Sterling per month). After World War One he received further support from the British, including a glut of surplus munitions. He launched his campaign against the Al Rashidi in 1920; by 1922 they had been all but destroyed. The defeat of the Al Rashidi increased the size of Saudi territory twofold. This allowed Ibn Saud the leverage to negotiate a new and more favorable treaty with the British. Their treaty, signed at Uqair in 1922, saw Britain recognize many of his territorial gains.[citation needed] In exchange, Ibn Saud agreed to recognize British territories in the area, particularly along the Persian Gulf coast and in Iraq. The former of these were vital to the British, as merchant traffic between British India and England depended upon coaling stations on the approach to the Suez Canal. In 1925 the forces of Ibn Saud captured the holy city of Mecca from Sharif Hussein bin Ali, ending 700 years of Hashemite rule. On 21 April 1925 the Saudis destroyed some of the most holy place of Islam, Jannat-ul-Baqi and Jannat-ul-Mualla. On 10 January 1926, Ibn Saud proclaimed himself King of the Hejaz in the Great Mosque at Mecca. On 20 May 1927, the British government signed the Treaty of Jeddah, which abolished the Darin protection agreement and recognized the independence of the Hejaz and Najd with Ibn Saud as its ruler. With international recognition and support, Ibn Saud continued to consolidate power throughout the Arabian Peninsula. In March 1929 he defeated elements of the Ikhwan which had ceased to be loyal to him, disobeyed his prohibitions against raiding, particularly in Iraq (the Battle of Sbilla). In 1932, having conquered most of the Peninsula, Ibn Saud renamed his dominions "Saudi Arabia" and proclaimed himself "King of Saudi Arabia".

Oil and the rule of Ibn Saud

Oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1938, and Ibn Saud, through his advisers St. John Philby and Ameen Rihani, granted substantial authority over Saudi oil fields to American oil companies. Saud forced many nomadic tribes to settle down and abandon "petty wars" and vendettas. He also began to fight crime in Saudi Arabia, particularly crimes against pilgrims visiting the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

Foreign wars

One more important remark on the king at that period, the king was able to gain loyalty from tribes even nearby Saudi Arabia, tribes such as those in Jordan. For example, he built very strong ties with Prince Sheikh Rashed Al- Khuzai from Al Fraihat tribe, one of the most influential and royal roots family during the Ottomans Empire. Prince Rashed Al-Khuzai and his tribe had dominated eastern Jordan before the arrival of Sharif Hussein. Ibn Saud supported Prince Rashed Al-Khuzai and his followers in rebellion against the Hussein. Prince Rashed Al Khuzai supported the revolution of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam in Palestine at 1935 which led him and his followers in rebellion against Abdullah I bin al-Hussein, King of Jordan & the British Mandate. And later at 1937, when they were forced to leave Jordan, Prince Rashed Al Khuzai, his family, and a group of his followers chose to move to Saudi Arabia, where Prince Al Khuzai was living for several years in the hospitality of King Abdul-Aziz Al Saud. Ibn Saud positioned Saudi Arabia as neutral in World War II, but was generally considered to favor the Allies. However, in 1938, when an attack on a main British pipeline in the Kingdom of Iraq was found to be connected to the German Ambassador, Dr. Fritz Grobba, Ibn Saud provided Grobba with refuge. It was reported that Ibn Saud had been "on the outs" with the British since 1937. In 1948, Saud participated in the Arab-Israeli War. The contribution of Saudi Arabia was generally considered token.

Family and succession

Succession to Saudi Arabia's throne has been a process that has, to a large extent, excluded all but the senior members of the Al Saud. Male progeny, with tenure in senior government positions, whose mothers were King Abdul Aziz's wives and from prominent peninsula based families and tribes, and who have shown both the willingness and ability to build the necessary consensus from other wings in the family are, in theory, the most eligible candidates. Al Saud are considered to be the richest family in the world.

The number of children that Ibn Saud fathered are unknown. One source indicates that he had 37 sons. His number of wives is put at 22,

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King Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia's Timeline

1876
January 15, 1876
Riyadh, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia
1900
1900
Age 23
1900
Age 23
1902
January 12, 1902
Age 25
Kuwait City, Al Asimah, Kuwait
1904
1904
Age 27
1905
1905
Age 28
1906
1906
Age 29
Riyadh, Riyadh Province, Saudi Arabia
1910
1910
Age 33
1912
1912
Age 35
1914
1914
Age 37