Zvonimir Dmitar Demeter Svetislavić Svetoslavić (c.1050 - 1089) MP

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Birthdate:
Death: Died in Knin, Sibenik-Knin, Croatia
Occupation: Hrvatski kralj 1075. - 1089.
Managed by: Henn Sarv
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About Zvonimir Dmitar Demeter Svetislavić Svetoslavić

Dmitar Zvonimir (srednjovjeki čakavski Zvanimer, latin. Svanimerus): predzadnji hrvatski kralj, vladao je od 1075. do 1089. U srednjovjekim latinskim izvorima se navodi kao Demetrius Svannimerus, a u njegovoj darovnici na Bašćanskoj ploči kao Zvanimer kral harvatski.

Zvonimir je praunuk kralja Stjepana Držislava (969-995) i unuk kralja Svetislava Surine (995-999,- kod jugoistoričara tzv. "Svetoslav Suronja), te sin bana iz bočne loze Stjepana Svetislavića i majke Strezine Šubić-Bribirke.

Legenda o smrti

Poznata je legenda o smrti kralja Zvonimira i kletvi o 900-godišnjem prokletstvu. Pretpostavka je da se vijest o Zvonimirovoj nasilnoj smrti prvi put javila u Ugarsko-poljskoj kronici iz 13. stoljeća. Tamo se spominje hrvatski kralj Kazimir kojega je osvetio mađarski kralj. Zvonimirovo ime vezano uz nasilnu smrt pouzdano se javlja tek u Ljetopisu popa Dukljanina, točnije u prijevodu prva 23 poglavlja djela na hrvatski iz 15. stoljeća. Naime, samo djelo je nastalo u drugoj polovici 12. stoljeća. Postoje 4 redakcije ovog djela: osnovna latinska redakcija, talijanski prijevod latinske redakcije (načinio 1601. god. benediktinac M. Orbini), prijevod prva 23 poglavlja na hrvatski (nepoznati autor), te prijevod hrvatske redakcije na latinski (preveo Marko Marulić, na molbu Splićanina Dmina Papalića).

Po toj legendi, Zvonimir je ubijen 20. travnja 1089. godine u Kosovu (danas Biskupiji) kod Knina. U to vrijeme bizantski car Aleksije I. Komnen bi potučen od Pečenega na donjem Dunavu, a Turci Seldžuci osvojiše Jeruzalem. Aleksije I. Komnen zatraži od pape Urbana II. pomoć za oslobađanje Jeruzalema od Turaka. U isto vrijeme zatraži pomoć i od Dmitra Zvonimira. Kralj Zvonimir sazva sabor u Kosovo kod "pet crkava". No pri pomenu na rat u tuđini nezadovoljnici su ga ubili. Također se vijesti o nasilnoj smrti nalaze u Historia salonitana maior iz 16. stoljeća i Chronicon breve regni Croatiae Ivana Tomašića.

Od hrvatskih povjesničara, Ivan Lučić i većina povjesničara 19. stoljeća su odbacivali ovaj izvještaj. Ferdo Šišić je 1905. objavio raspravu u kojoj je smatrao da je ne treba odbaciti, i u svojim djelima je zastupao ideju da je Zvonimir ubijen, a u tome su ga slijedili Stjepan Gunjača, Viktor Novak i Mario Kostrenčić. Nikola Radojčić i većina povjesničara poslije Drugog svjetskog rata zastupa mišljenje da je riječ o legendi koja ima malo veze sa stvarnim zbivanjima i da je Zvonimir umro prirodnom smrću. U recentnijoj literaturi javilo se mišljenje da je legenda zapravo modificirana verzija češke legende o smrti kneza Većeslava.

Prema "Historia salonitana maior", na Zvonimirovom grobu nalaze se sljedeći stihovi:

   TKO ĆE MOĆI SUZDRŽATI NAROD, DA NE UZDIŠE,
   KADA BUDE GLEDAO OVAJ GROB, DOISTA VRIJEDAN OPLAKIVANJA?
   JER U OVOJ TAMI POČIVA SVIJETLA ZVIJEZDA
   UZVIŠENA PODRIJETLA. KAKO LI SE ČUDNO TRNE!
   JER NJEZINA SE DIVLJAČKA SMRT MOŽE S PROKLINJANJEM TUMAČITI
   CRNIM ZLOČINIMA OPAKOGA NARODA
   BIJESNI POPUSTIŠE DO KRAJNOSSTI SRCU
   I NAJTEŽIM UMORSTVOM POGUBIŠE KRALJA
   KREPKE SNAGE, RUKOM MOĆNOGA,
   POBOŽNOGA ZVONIMIRA, BESKRAJNO POŠTENOGA,
   KOJI JE BIO NJIHOV ŠTIT PROTIV DUŠMANIMA,
   NAVIKAO DA SATIRE NEPRIJATELJSKA VRATA,
   OPLAKUJTE, PRVACI, VEĆ JEDNOM GLAVARA ČASTI,
   STARCI I MLADIĆI HRVATSKE ZEMLJE,
   JER ŠTO BIJAŠE PRVA SVEČANOST KRALJEVSTVA
   I UJEDNO ČAST I SLAVA, SADA JE PROPALO 

Kralj Zvonimir prvo je pokopan u katedralnoj crkvi sv. Marije u Kninu, a poslije je prenesen u Solin. U crkvi Sv.Marka evanđeliste u Zagrebu nalazi se freska Joze Kljakovića s motivom prisege kralja Zvonimira.

http://hr.metapedia.org/wiki/Dmitar_Zvonimir

Demetrius Zvonimir of Croatia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Demetrius Zvonimir or Demetrius Sunimirio (died 1089; Croatian: Dmitar Zvonimir) was the King of Croatia of the Svetoslavić branch of the House of Trpimirović. His native name was Zvonimir, and he added the name Dmitar at his coronation. He began as a ban of Slavonia in the service of King Stephen I and then as Duke of Croatia for his successor Peter Krešimir IV. Peter declared him his heir and, in 1075, Dmitar Zvonimir succeeded to the Croatian throne. He was the last native king who exerted any real power over the entire Croatian state, which he inherited at its height.

Succession and legacy

Demetrius Zvonimir was married to his distant relative Jelena, the sister of Ladislaus I of Hungary.[8] Through Helen, he was connected to the royal families of not only Hungary, but also Poland, Denmark, Bulgaria, and Byzantium. She bore him a son,

-1. Radovan, who predeceased him, and a daughter,

-2. Claudia, who, being married to the vojvoda of Lapcani Lika, was ineligible for the throne. He was succeeded by Stephen II, last of the House of Trpimirović, but he died in 1091, at which point Ladislaus became the best candidate for the succession.

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CROATIA.htm#_Toc221938349

ZVONIMIR DMITRIJE 1075-1087, ILONA 1088-1091


  • 1. ZVONIMIR DMITRIJE (-[1089/90]). Trpimir was the possible descendant of Iljiko Duke of Croatia (see Chapter 1) according to Europäische Stammtafeln[117]. Ban of Slavonia (between the Sava and Drava rivers), as an appanage of the kingdom of Croatia, after 1060. His territory was joined to Croatia, although he continued to enjoy local independence, in return for his being named heir to King Krešimir IV. From this time, Croatian charters were issued in the joint names of King Krešimir and Ban Zvonimir[118]. He appears to have deposed King Krešimir IV, and was crowned in [late 1075/early 1076] as ZVONIMIR DMITRIJE King of Croatia by a Papal legate at Split, confirmed in a charter dated Oct 1076[119]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split names "Stephani, Cresimiri et Suinimiri" as kings while Lawrence was Archbishop of Salona (installed in 1060) and "temporibus Michaelis imperatoris", commenting that Zvonimir was "ultimus rex Chroatorum"[120]. The Normans attacked northern Dalmatia in 1074, making themselves overlords in Split, Trogir, Biograd and Zadar, but were expelled by the Venetians over the following three years[121]. "Zuoinimir seu Demetrius…rex Chrobatorum et Dalmatinorum" recorded the homage of "insule Bracie…nobilibus" by charter dated 1077, witnessed by "Dragote Bani, Slavogosti Jupani, Berislavi comitis…"[122]. The Annales Carinthiæ record that "Zolemyri Dalmatiæ regis" invaded Carinthia "cum Hungarorum auxilio" in [1079/83][123]. The Historia Salonitanorum of Thomas Archdeacon of Split records that "rex Suinimirus" died without leaving an heir from his posterity, and that "quidam ex magnatibus Sclavonie" went "in Hungariam…ad regem Vladisclavum" requesting him to intervene in Croatia to put an end to the chaos which followed the king's death[124]. According to legend he was killed in a brawl during a council meeting[125]. m ([1064]) ILONA of Hungary, daughter of BÉLA I King of Hungary & his wife [Ryksa] of Poland (-before 1095). "Stephanus olim…dux Chroatorum" donated property to "monasterium sancti Stephani", in the presence of "Suinimiri regis domini mei, Lepe regine, Radouani filii regis", by charter dated 1078[126]. Her parentage is confirmed by the Chronicle of Joannes Archidiaconus Goricensis which records that "bano Svinimir" married "Belæ, Geysa et Ladislaus…ducum sororem" in 1064[127]. The Chronica Hungarorum states that "rex Zolomerus Dalmatiæ" was "sororius Geysæ" when recording the help he gave in the Hungarian war against Carinthia[128]. After the death of her son in [1090], she assumed power as ILONA Queen of Croatia. Faced with considerable opposition from the Croatian nobility, her brother László I King of Hungary intervened to protect her interests and occuped much of Croatia and part of Dalmatia. He was obliged to withdraw from Dalmatia to defend Hungary against an attack by Cumans, but retained Pannonian Croatia. In 1091, King László created a Croatian banovina between the Drava River and Gvozd Mountains, ruled by his nephew Almos, but this was recaptured by Petar King of Croatia in 1095[129]. King Zvonimir Dmitrije & his wife had [four] children:
    • a) [CLAUDA . "Suinimirus rex" donated property to "cuidam nobili de genere Lapaç, Vonyça" with "quadam filia sua Clauda" by charter dated to [1076/87], classified as spurious in the compilation consulted[130]. m ([1087/87]) VONICK, of the family Lapčani.]
    • b) [VINICA . "Suinimirus rex" donated "terram Carini" to "Michaeli Nelipçio ab Oršić et eiusdem coniuge filiæ…suæ Winicæ" by letters of Stefan Tvrtko dated 1390, classified as spurious in the compilation consulted[131]. m MIKHAEL Nelipči, son of ---.]
    • c) RADOUAN (-after 1083). "Stephanus olim…dux Chroatorum" donated property to "monasterium sancti Stephani", in the presence of "Suinimiri regis domini mei, Lepe regine, Radouani filii regis", by charter dated 1078[132].
    • d) son. He succeeded his father in [1089/90], but died soon after.
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