Tomislav Trpimirović (c.880 - 928) MP

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Birthdate:
Death: Died
Occupation: prvi hrvatski kralj 925. - o.928.
Managed by: Ivica Domagoj Šunde
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About Tomislav Trpimirović

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomislav_of_Croatia http://hr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kralj_Tomislav

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Kralj Tomislav

Tomislav je bio knez Primorske Hrvatske od oko 910.; tradicionalno se smatra da je proglašen kraljem 925., a vladao je bar do 928. O njemu se pouzdano zna dosta malo, u usporedbi s nekim drugim ranijim i kasnijim hrvatskim vladarima. Iz vladarske je kuće Trpimirovića.

Ne zna se skoro ništa o dolasku Tomislava na vlast i odlasku s nje, a titula kralja je osporavana; ne zna se kad i kako ju je stekao, i što je točno značila, ali historiografija ga tradicionalno smatra prvim hrvatskim kraljem.

Povijesni izvori

O Tomislavu imamo podatke iz svega nekoliko povijesnih izvora:[1] • U zabilješci ispred teksta zaključaka crkvenog sabora u Split 925. godine stoji: "...consulatu peragente in provincia Chroatorum et Dalmatiarum finibus Tamislao rege" "...vladao je u provinciji Hrvata i granicama Dalmacija kralj Tomislav"

Na drugom mjestu, doduše ne imenom, ali titulom "kralja Hrvata" (iz 7. kanona):[2] "Ako bi kralj Hrvata i hrvatski velikaši..." "...rex et proceres Chroatorum"

• U pismu pape Ivana X. navodi se "Tamislao, rege Chroatorum";

• 13. poglavlje djela Historia Salonitana Tome Arhiđakona navodi "godine Gospodnje 914. u vrijeme kneza Tomislava.";

• tzv. Ljetopis popa Dukljanina ili Regnum Sclavorum, piše: "Umjesto njega, vladao je njegov brat Tomislav... Za Tomislavova vladanja pokrene kralj Ugra imenom Atila vojsku da ga svlada. Ali je kralj Tomislav, hrabar mladić i snažan ratnik, vodio s njime mnogo ratova i uvijek ga natjerao u bijeg. I rodi Tomislav sinove i kćeri, i trinaeste godine svoga kraljevanja umre."[3]

Zanimljivo je da Tomislava uopće ne spominju, primjerice, sljedeći izvori: • spis Konstantina VII. Porfirogeneta, poznat pod nazivom De administrando imperio, koji govori o Hrvatskoj tog vremena (npr. govori o ratovima Hrvata i Bugara, gdje su Bugari "poubijani svi od Hrvata")[4]; • veliko djelo Ivana Lučića De regno Croatiae et Dalmatiae libri sex (Šest knjiga o kraljevstvu Hrvatske i Dalmacije) iz 1666.

Osim toga, Toma Arhiđakon izričito tvrdi da je Držislav prvi hrvatski kralj.[1]

Dolazak na vlast i podrijetlo

Tomislav je vjerojatno došao na vlast 914. ili ranije; jedini podatak je napomena Tome Arhiđakona, koji piše "godine Gospodnje 914. u vrijeme kneza Tomislava"[1][5]. Po Ljetopisu popa Dukljanina, Tomislav je naslijedio svog brata.

Vladanje


O Tomislavovoj vlasti zna se malo, poznato je ratovanje s Mađarima i Bugarima, kao i dva održana crkvena sabora u Splitu; stručnjaci se ne slažu je li okrunjen, ili se samo proglasio, ili ga papa spominje kao kralja iz nekog drugog razloga.

Ratovi

Tomislav je vladao u doba prodiranja mađarskih konjanika, prema zapadnoj i južnoj Europi. Nakon osvajanja Panonske, Mađari su napali i Primorsku Hrvatsku, ali Tomislav ih je odbio.

Bizantski car Konstantin VII. Porfirogenet piše[4] da je za u to doba "Hrvatska mogla dići 60 000 konjanika i 100 000 pješaka; da je imala 80 velikih brodova (sagena), na svakome do 40 mornara-ratnika, i 100 manjih brodova (kondura), na svakome 10-20 mornara-ratnika." (većina stručnjaka drži da se radi o preuveličavanju)

On navodi i sljedeće podatke: "Krštena Hrvatska ima ove naseljene gradove: Nin, Biograd, Velicin, Skradin, Hlijevno, Stup, Knin, Kori, Klobuk. Veliku takvu moć i množinu naroda imaše Hrvatska do arhonta Krasimera. Pošto ovaj umre, a sin njegov Miroslav vladaše 4 godine, od ruke bana Pribine pogibe, i u zemlji nasta raskol i razdor veliki, umanji se broj i konjaništva i pješadije i sagena i kondura, što imahu Hrvati. Danas imade sagena 30, male i velike kondure, i konjaništvo i pješadiju."

U djelu je car Konstantin također zapisao: "ni sagene ni kondure Hrvata ne polaze u rat ni protiv koga, osim ako ih netko napadne, nego s tim brodovima hrvatski trgovci plove od luke do luke po neretvanskom kraju i po dalmatinskom zaljevu sve do Venecije."

Godine 924. Bugari su napali Srbiju i porazili župana Zahariju, koji je potom pobjegao u Hrvatsku. Bugarski car Simeon je 926./7. nakon osvajanja Srbije, poslao ogromnu vojsku na Hrvatsku, koja je katastrofalno poražena Bitka u bosankim visoravnima Bosni. Poraz bugarske vojske, u to doba jedne od najjačih u Europi, pokazuje moć hrvatskih vojnih snaga u to doba.

Crkveni sabori

Godina 925. i 928. su u Splitu održani crkveni sabori, koji su se uglavnom ticali crkvene jurisdikcije i upotrebe "slavenskog jezika" u bogoslužju. Na prvom crkvenom saboru 925. odlučeno je da pravo na metropolitsku čast ima splitski nadbiskup Ivana. Odlučivano je između ninskog biskupa Grgura, zadarskog biskupa Formina i splitskoga nadbiskupa Ivana. Ninski se biskup nakon prvog crkvenog sabora žalio papi pošto je mislio da on zaslužuje biti poglavar, pa je održan drugi crkveni sabor na kojem je splitski nadbiskup potvrđen kao poglavar, a ninska je biskupija ukinuta i njezino su područje podijelile druge biskupije. Tomislav je vjerojatno bio prisutan na oba crkvena sabora.

Proglašenje kraljem


Tomislav se prvi put 925. spominje kao rex ("kralj"), u pismu pape Ivana X. U svojoj povijesti, Toma Arhiđakon spominje da je 914. Tomislav dux. Iz toga je povjesničar Franjo Rački godine 1871. zaključio da je Tomislav u međuvremenu postao kralj[1].

Uz to, u djelu Regnum Sclavorum (poznatom pod nazivom Ljetopis popa Dukljanina; smatra se dosta nepouzdanim) se opisuje krunidba jednog slavenskog kralja (koji se ne naziva Tomislav ni u latinskoj verziji, niti u tzv. hrvatskoj redakciji) krunom koju mu je poslao bizantski car na polju Dalmi. Prema pretpostavci Ivana Kukuljevića-Sakcinskog, krunidba kralja Tomislava je obavljena na Duvanjskom polju.

Jedini argument o kraljevanju Tomislava je titula rex, koja se pojavljuje od 925. godine, ali to nije nepobitan dokaz[1]. Primjerice, bugarski kan Boris se u pismu Pape Ivana VIII. spominje kao "rex Vulgarorum" iako je bio samo kan.

O Tomislavu se vjerojatno može zaključiti da ga je papa smatrao kraljem, a da ga Bizant nije priznavao.

Kraj vlasti i nasljednik

Tomislav se spominje u kontekstu crkvenog sabora 928., a nema podataka o njemu s kasnijim datumom. Konstantin VII. Porfirogenet ne spominje[4] Tomislava, ali govori o Trpimiru u to vrijeme, pa se pretpostavlja da je Tomislava 928. ili kasnije naslijedio Trpimir II., otac Krešimira.

Popularna predodžba


Tomislav je vrlo popularan, kao prvi hrvatski kralj, i kao ujedinitelj Primorske s Panonskom Hrvatskom. U mnogim gradovima Hrvatske postoje trgovi i ulice s njegovim imenom, kao i spomenici, od kojih je najznačajniji onaj u Zagrebu i Livnu. Te 1925. godine na mnogim pročeljima crkava diljem Hrvatske niču spomen-ploče sa natpisom: "Ujedinjeni i slobodni narod kralju Tomislavu 925.-1925."


Mnogi prikazi hrvatske povijesti pisani za najšire krugove čitatelja ne spominju nesigurnosti i malu količinu informacija o Tomislavu.

Tako npr. Rudolf Horvat piše[5] (ali uz ograde primjetne u tekstu): "Sada je Tomislav bio na vrhuncu svoje slave i moći. On je toli sjajno odbio Simeona, komu nije moglo odoljeti carstvo bizantinsko! Je li dakle čudo, ako je u narodu hrvatskom zavladalo silno oduševljenje za Tomislava? Hrvati su iskreno štovali bana Tomislava, koji je ujedinio sve zemlje hrvatske, te ih onda sretno i obranio. To bijaše najzgodniji čas, da se banovina proglasi kraljevinom, a Tomislav da dobije kraljevsku čast. Da se to nije dogodilo kasnije, dokazuju spisi prvoga sabora splitskoga. U ovim naime spisima papa god. 925. već naziva Tomislava kraljem hrvatskim. — Krunu i druge znakove krunidbene dobio je Tomislav po svoj prilici iz Rima. Ondje je naime vladao papa Ivan X. (god. 913.—928.), koji je nekoliko godina prije toga poslao krunu i Simeonu Velikomu. Da Tomislav nije krunu primio iz Carigrada, vidi se već po tomu, što ga njegov savremenik — car Konstantin Porfirogenet — u svojim spisima ne priznaje kraljem."

U literaturi, čak i enciklopedijama, se sve ponekad i dalje pojednostavljuje.

Izvori 1. ↑ 1,0 1,1 1,2 1,3 1,4 Ivo Goldstein: Hrvatski rani srednji vijek, Novi Liber, Zagreb, 1995. ISBN 953-6045-02-8 2. ↑ Ferdo Šišić, Povijest Hrvata u vrijeme narodnih vladara 1925, Zagreb 3. ↑ Ljetopis popa Dukljanina, dostupno na montenegrina.net (srp.) 4. ↑ 4,0 4,1 4,2 Konstantin VII. Porfirogenet: De administrando imperio, dostupno na montenegrina.net 5. ↑ 5,0 5,1 Rudolf Horvat, Povijest Hrvatske I. (od najstarijeg doba do g. 1657.), Zagreb 1924., dostupno na Wikizvoru Literatura • Rudolf Horvat, Povijest Hrvatske I. (od najstarijeg doba do g. 1657.), Zagreb 1924, dijelom dostupno na Wikizvoru • Nada Klaić, Povijest Hrvata u ranom srednjem vijeku, Zagreb 1975. • Ivo Goldstein: Hrvatski rani srednji vijek, Novi Liber, Zagreb, 1995. ISBN 953-6045-02-8

Tomislav of Croatia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

King of Croatia Duke of Croatia Reign c. 910 – 925

Predecessor Muncimir of Croatia Successor Possibly crowned King of Croatia King of Croatia Reign 925–928 Coronation 925 Predecessor Tomislav, as duke Successor Trpimir II of Croatia Full name Tomislav Trpimirović House House of Trpimirović Father Muncimir of Croatia Died 928 ? Burial Church of Saint Stephen, Solin ? Religion Christian King Tomislav (died 928) was a ruler of Croatia in the Middle Ages. He reigned from 910 until 928, first as Duke (dux Croatorum) of Dalmatian Croatia in 910–925, and then became first King (rex Croatorum) of the Croatian Kingdom in 925–928. He was probably the son of Muncimir, Duke of Dalmatian Croatia. Tomislav was one of the most prominent members of the House of Trpimirović. He united the Croats of Dalmatia and Pannonia into a single Kingdom in 925. He ruled over the territory of today's Croatia and Bosnia, rounding off his state from the Adriatic Sea to the Drava River, and from the Raša River in Istria to the Drina River.[1][2] Contents [hide] 1 Reign 1.1 Early Duke of Croatia 1.2 Coronation and Croatian Kingdom 1.3 Geographical extent 2 Legacy 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links [edit]Reign

[edit]Early Duke of Croatia

Map of south eastern Europe in 910. Tomislav defeated the Magyar mounted invasions of the Arpads in battle and forced them across the Drava River. Tomislav annexed a part of Pannonian Croatia to his Croatian Dalmatia. This included the area between the rivers Drava, Sava and Kupa, so his Duchy bordered with Bulgaria for a period of time. This was the first time that the two Croatian Realms were united, and all Croats were in one state. The Duke had to face renewed threats from the Bulgarians under Tsar Simeon I who had already conquered the Serbs. In 923, the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Byzantine Emperor offered to deal with Simeon's threat if Pope John X would accept a rejoining of the divided Sees of Rome and Constantinople. The Pope also demanded that the Patriarch give him the sovereignty over the Dalmatian Byzantine Cities. After this was done, the Byzantine Emperor gave Duke Tomislav the coastal Cities under his Governency: the Byzantine Province of Dalmatia (Zadar, Split, Trogir...). In 921-924, the Bulgarian leader Simeon struck through Rascia, enslaving the people, which made many Serbs under the dethroned Prince Zaharije Pribislavljević of the House of Vlastimirović flee and seek shelter in Tomislav's Realm. At the peak of his reign, according to Byzantine emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitos' De Administrando Imperio, written around 950, Tomislav could've raised a vast military force composed out of 100,000 infantrymen and 60,000 horsemen and a sizable fleet of 80 large ships and 100 smaller vessels.[3] These figures are largely disputed due to the historical period, historians argue that the numbers are a clear overexaggeration and an overemphasis that should be interpreted differently. [edit]Coronation and Croatian Kingdom

Coronation of king Tomislav (modern painting by Oton Iveković) By the claiming of the coastal cities of Dalmatia, Tomislav raised the question of sovereignty of the Croatian Bishopric of Nin. In 925 the Pope summoned a synod in Split to resolve the situation, and in a letter sent to Tomislav, recognised him as king (rex) of Croats. According to the latter medieval sources, Tomislav was crowned at the field of Duvno (named Tomislav's City in his honour), although there are no contemporary records of this event. Although he was referred to as King, Tomislav's more frequently used title would be Princeps instead. On the Synod in Split, the Latin Bishops and Abbeys of the Dalmatian coastal towns outvoted Grgur, bishop of Nin, and his supporters, so the supremacy of the Archbishopric of Split was affirmed. Furthermore, the use of the Slavic language in the ecclesiastical service was banned, allowing only the use of Latin. This, however, had very little effect in reality, as the number of clerics who knew Latin was sparse throughout the kingdom. Indeed, the great era of Glagolitic Slavic script was just beginning in Croatia. However, to gain support of the Pope, Tomislav probably[citation needed] sided with the Latinist side and the metropolitan archdioceses of Split. At the council, Split was defined as the religious center of Croats, as well as some Serbs, who were represented by Michael of Zahumlje, who recognized Tomislav's rule. A second synod in Split was summoned in 927 to enforce the conclusions of the first one in 925; the supremacy of the metropolitan Archbishopric of Split was confirmed, and the diocese of Nin was abolished.[4] In 924 the Bulgarians under Emperor Simeon destroyed the Serbian realm, and a large part of the Serbian population fled to Croatia. They were chased by a Bulgarian army led by Alogobotur, but Tomislav cut his advance into Croatian realm and entirely destroyed his army at the Battle of the Bosnian Highlands in 927. The huge battle, considered to be one of the most important battles in the history of south-eastern Europe, took place in the north-eastern part of Bosnia. The Croatians under Tomislav won a great victory, decimating the entire Bulgarian force. It is unknown how Tomislav's life ended, but he disappeared from the political scene after 928. One theory suggests that he might've been poisoned at the order of the Pope.[citation needed] At the time of his death there was discord in the country over whether the liturgical language of the Roman Catholic Church in Croatia would be Latin or Croatian. Decades of famine and pestilence raged through most of the Southern Europe. He was succeeded by Trpimir II, who was either his son or his younger brother. [edit]Geographical extent

The Kingdom of Croatia c. 925, during the reign of King Tomislav The geographical extent of Tomislav's kingdom is not fully known. British writer Marcus Tanner suggested that it covered most of modern Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the coastline of Montenegro. However, Roger Lampe argued that the state did not go as far south as Dubrovnik and that Istria was not included. This view is supported by many Croatian scholars, who argue that the kingdom covered the whole region south of the Drava river to the Drina and Neretva rivers north of Dubrovnik.[5] A similar depiction is shown in J. Lučić and F. Šanjek's 1993 Hrvatski povijesni zemljovid (Croatian historical map). Professor John Van Antwerp Fine addressed the relationship between Tomislav's territory and modern nationalist sentiment in Croatia. He wrote that 10th century sources are unreliable and "roughly a third" of Croatia's perceived eastern land is "entirely speculation".[6] Fine stated, "It is possible that Croatia really did have some of it, but Bulgaria may have had some of it; early Serb entities may have had some of it, not to speak of various župans and other local Slavic lords who in any serious way answered to no one. If the last supposition is true (to any degree), then parts of this territory would not have been held by any 'state.'"[6] While acknowledging the possibility of Croatia having held all the depicted territory and more, Fine stated that whoever controlled the eastern land depicted in Tomislav's kingdom is unknown and should be marked as terra incognita in maps. He criticised Lučić and Šanjek's delineation of Tomislav's eastern border as "nationalist map-making" and that "[s]uch maps, absorbed by schoolchildren, become part of their underlying perceptions on their nation's history. They grow up, and if they become historians of later periods, they may continue, without thinking to question this underpinning, to believe in these images of the earlier past, and thereby to accept uncritically ... that what is found in the fifteenth or sixteenth century must be territorial loss and fragmentation."[6] Croatian historians Nada Klaić[7][8] and Ivo Goldstein disputed the extension of Tomislav's kingdom. Ivo Goldstein claimed that Tomislav never ruled Bosnia in his book Hrvatski rani srednji vijek. Still, dominant modern university history textbooks like Tomislav Raukar's Hrvatsko srednjovjekovlje [9] (Croatia in the Middle Ages), as well as other university textbooks[10] on the medieval Croatian state, consider that during Tomislav's rule his kingdom covered between 60% to 80% of contemporary Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other historical sources tend to be fuzzy: for instance, a European history site[11] gives a similar picture. Even this can be, due to the lack of strong historical evidence, considered mere speculation. This issue is frequently debated due to modern Croatian national ideologies; it actually bears little importance on medieval Bosnian history, since the pre-Ottoman ethno-cultural landscape of this country was formed mainly in the period from the 13th to the 15th century. [edit]Legacy

Tomislav is celebrated as the founder of the first united Croatian state. In the Croatian capital of Zagreb, there is a square dedicated to Tomislav. A monument in Zagreb by sculptor Robert Frangeš Mihanović was raised in his honor. Near the place where he was crowned lies the town of Tomislavgrad (literally:Tomislavcity) which was the name given in 1925 at the 1,000th anniversary of his coronation by Aleksandar Karađorđević. In 1926, the obelisk in his honor was made in Livno. Tomislav's statue in Zagreb is depicted on the reverse of the Croatian 1000 kuna banknote, issued in 1994.[12] He also lends his name to an exquisite 'dark beer' which is brewed in the region.

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