Leah Armstrong Fillmore (Day) (1727 - 1797)

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Birthplace: Attleboro, Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States
Death: Died in Jolicure, West Moreland, New Brunswick, Canada
Managed by: Linda Marie Day
Last Updated:

About Leah Armstrong Fillmore (Day)

Birth 1727Attleboro, Bristol, Massachusetts Posted by patruiz61 Comment

Christening 1727 Posted by patruiz61 Comment

Marriage 1747Attleboro, Bristol, Massachusetts Posted by patruiz61 Comment

Death 1797Jolicure, Westmorland, New Brunswick Posted by patruiz61 Comment

Alt. Deathdate/place 1810Jolicure, Westmorland, New Brunswick, Canada Posted by patruiz61 Comment

Residence USA Posted by patruiz61 Comment

Residence Norwich, New London, Connecticut Posted by patruiz61 Comment

Story: History Of Sackville, NB Sackville, New Brunswick, Canada Posted by patruiz61 Report abuse <p><span style="white-space: pre-wrap"><font size="3"><span style="border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 12px; line-height: 13px; white-space: normal"></span></font></span></p><font size="3"><pre style="word-wrap: break-word; white-space: pre-wrap">HISTORY OF SACKVILLE NEW BRUNSWICK by DR. WILLIAM COCHRAN MILNER Historian, and Former Dominion Archivist (1846-1939) Originally published in 1934 by The Tribune Press, Ltd., Printers & Publishers, Sackville, New Brunswick [EDITOR'S NOTE: When "(sic)" is used in the text, it was put there by the original author and not by us.] CHAPTER I. FRENCH OCCUPATION The first European settlers at Sackville were French. The date of settlement here is uncertain, but it was some years after Bourgeois, a surgeon, (brought to Port Royal by D'Aulnay) settled at Beaubassin, Fort Lawrence, with Thomas Cormier, Jacques Belon, Peter Sire, and Germain Girouard. This settlement had been made in 1671, so it was after this date that clearings were made near the four Corners, (Tantramar), along the ridge from the Town Hall to the farm of the late Philip Palmer's place called in the old maps Pre des Bourg and at Westcock (Veska). These localities were connected by a trail through the woods and Westcock is described as a "Port de mer," seaport, from which intimate connection was made with Port Royal. Tantramar was also connected by a trail across the marshes with the settlements at La Coupe, La Lac, Beausejour, and Beaubassin, which latter place was described as one of the five principal settlements of the French in Acadia, the others being Port Royal, Les Mines, Pisequit and Cobequit. Tantramar like four of the other settlements was an off-shoot of the parent settlement at Port Royal. It grew by degrees to be a populous settlement and in time became the station of a missionary. A chapel was built on the site of Beulah, a Baptist Church at the Four Corners long abandoned. The records of the missionaries here have not come to light and are probably destroyed and with them all trace is lost of the family and local history of the former dwellers in this parish. For a period of eighty years or more they lived here in tranquility protected by their seclusion and remoteness from the theatre of conflict and conquest, and during that time they became a prosperous and populous community. But so completely has the fortune of war blotted out the memorials of them, that even the graveyard, where generations of them were buried has become a matter of tradition. A feature of an English churchyard:-- "Their name, their years, spelt by the unlettered muse, The place of fame and elegy supply And many a holy text around she strews, To teach the rustic moralist to die.-- is here wanting; a field that has been ploughed and tilled for a hundred years is said to be the last resting place of generations of these people who knew no other country as their land and their home. The French having ceded (1713) their ancient Colony of Acadia to the English, the boundaries of which were not defined, it was the policy of the English on the one side to insist the boundary line was as far north and west towards Quebec as possible and of the French on the other to contend that the boundary was at the Missiquash river, now the boundary between the two provinces. In 1750, the Government at Quebec sent a small detachment under an officer named La Corne to establish a post of observation on the promontory at Beausejour, then dotted with farm buildings. In pursuance of the above policy, the French under La Loutre had by threats and persuasions induced the French population living in the villages that remained under British rule to abandon their homes and settle on the French side of the Missiquash, in order to deprive the English of an industrious class of people, as to form a bulwark against British aggression. In 1750, when Lawrence appeared at the French village at Beaubassin -- now Fort Lawrence -- the French people hastily burned their dwellings and left. Gen. Joshua Winslow*, then a young Commissariat officer attached to the command writes in his journal on 8th Sept. 1750: "The Indians set fire to the village Hebert and another village opposite us and burnt a great many houses." [*Joshua Winslow was the father of Anna Green Winslow, a young lady sent from Fort Cumberland in 1770--to go to school at Boston. She kept a diary which has been edited by a successful American authoress, Alice Morse Earle. General Winslow seems to have left Fort Cumberland before 1783. He was paymaster of the troops in Quebec in 1791 and died there 10 years later. When at Fort Cumberland he was engaged in the commissary business with Capt. Huston, who had on one of his trips to Boston picked up a waif, in the person of the afterwards celebrated Brook Watson, and brought him to Nova Scotia. Brook Watson owed much of his knowledge of business and his commercial success in after life to the training he received at the hands of General Winslow who is described as a "most complete accountant". He was Lieutenant under Capt. Light in Col. Moore's regiment at the taking of Louisburg in 1754. He was afterwards Commissary General of the English troops in Nova Scotia, and siding with England in the revolutionary struggle was excited and continued in the royal service till his death.] It must have been with sore hearts that these Acadian farmers turned away from the homesteads made fruitful by the sweat and toil of themselves and forefathers, and that they set out to make new dwelling places, trusting themselves, their wives, and their children to unknown hazards in the game of war between France and England. They poured into the villages west of Missiquash--Beaubassin, Memramcook, Shediac and Petitcodiac. They were supported by rations issued at Beausejour -- 2 lbs. of bread and 1/2 lb. of beef per day, per man. In 1751, La Loutre made a statement of 1111 men, women and children then quartered west of the Missiquish receiving rations. At this period, small detachments of soldiers were kept at the following posts, as follows:-- Gaspereau 1 Officer 15 Men. Baie Verte 1 " 15 " Point de Bute 1 " 30 " Westcock 1 " 15 " Shepody 1 " 10 " The peace and security the people enjoyed came to an end finally in 1755, when the French military post on the Isthmus was deemed a menace to English dominancy in Acadia. The Isthmus was made the base of attack by Indians and gens du bois, led by Bois Hebert, on the English posts; the newly formed settlement at Halifax, as well as the fort at Port Royal were kept in more or less constant alarm, by hostiles who ranged the woods and deterred any attempt at settlement. The English thereupon determined to drive the French flag from the Isthmus and the attempt was made in 1775. Early in the spring, the Acadian farmers witnessed an English fleet of war vessels and transports laden with troops and munitions of war, sail up the Bay and anchor in the Basin below Beausejour. At the season the Acadians of Tantramar were usually occupied in getting in their crops, they were summoned to defend Beausejour against the attack of Lawrence. Their wives and children from their house stoops at Tantramar watched with the keenest interest and anxiety the course of the artillery duel between the English batteries and Beausejour, which ended on 16th June, by the appearance of a white flag at the fort and later by the lowering of the ensign of France. With grief they beheld the garrison march forth and take the road to Baie Verte thence to be shipped to Louisburg. The next act in the drama followed closely enough. On 31st July, Lt. Governor Lawrence forwarded instructions by a military party under Capt. Croxton, to Col. Monckton at Beausejour stating the determination of the government to remove the neutral French from Nova Scotia, commencing with those at the Isthmus, who "were found in arms" at the capture of Beausejour and "entitled to no favor from the government." Transports and instructions were to be sent to him later and he was to use stratagem to arrest all the men. Their cattle and corn were forfeited and must be applied towards the expense of removal. They were to be allowed to carry away only their ready money and household furniture. By a second letter dispatched by Capt. Goreham, he ordered the destruction of the French villages at Shediac and Ramsec (Pugwash). A third letter written on 8th of August, Lawrence orders the destruction of the villages north and north west of Beausejour and to try and save the cattle and crops. On 20th of August a man of war under command of Capt. Proby and eight transports arrived from Halifax and cast anchor at Five Fathom Hole, and four days later two more vessels sailed in. On 26th August Lawrence writes another letter to Monckton, giving further instructions and informing him as to the movements of Winslow at Minas &c. He is to lay hold of the priest Miniac, and send him with the rest. All the cattle that can be brought in from Petitcodiac, Memramcook and Chipoudy are to be distributed amongst the people at Chignecto as they think they can support during the winter and the rest to be used as rations for the troops. The efforts of Monckton to gather the Acadians at Fort Cumberland were only partially successful. Out of over 4,000 of a population in the neighborhood, he secured less than 1200, although he sent Capt. Brook Watson with a detachment to scour the country about Baie Verte. The scenes at embarkation were very painful. Even at this lapse of time one cannot but regard with sorrow mingled with a feeling of horror the tortures of a defenceless people and the cruelties perpetrated on innocent women and children. Abbee La Guerne says that many of the married women, deaf to all entreaties and representations, refused to be separated from their husbands and precipitated themselves in the vessels, where their husbands had been forced. During the last days of August a strong force was despatched from Beausejour on board of two vessels to capture the French at Chipoudy and along the Petitcodiac River. At Chipoudy they found the men had fled leaving 25 women and children who were taken prisoners. They burned 181 houses and barns. On 3rd Sept. they sailed up the Petitcodiac and finding the villages deserted set fire to the buildings for a distance of 15 miles on the north side of the river and 6 miles on the south. In attempting to set fire to the Mass house (presumably at Fox Creek) Boishebert appeared with a large force and two officers Dr. Marsh and Lieut. Billing and six privates were killed and ten were wounded. The whole force narrowly escaping being exterminated, as the armed vessels had drifted down the river in the strong tide and it was not till flood tide, they could get into position to afford the detachment any protection. At high water the men were embarked. They destroyed 253 houses and barns besides the chapel. When in 1755, General Monckton was engaged in the "Grand Derangement" at Chignecto, he sent a corps of New Englanders to destroy the Acadian dwellings at Tantramar. They did that thoroughly, burning 97 buildings. Those Acadians who escaped the expulsion saw from their shelter of the woods the torch applied to their homes. This was a melancholy fate. The innocent suffered with the guilty. The conflagration of the homes of the unhappy Acadians extended to Westcock and Wood Point, so that when the work of destruction was done, only heaps of ashes remained of the Acadian homes. At the close of the year 1755, we find the populous French villages on the Isthmus as well as at Chipoudy, along the Petitcodiac, at Shediac and from thence to Pugwash destroyed, their ancient owners scattered from Quebec to Georgia or else, hiding in the forests, with their Indian allies and their farms acres of desolation. Those who escaped into the forests struggled forward to Miramichi and a few found homes at the head waters of the Saint John. From both of these places numbers were able to seek permanent homes in Quebec. At this period, Miramichi had a French population of 3,500 people. CHAPTER II. ENGLISH SETTLEMENT The second part of the design of Lawrence and his Council at Halifax was now in order, namely to replace the French by English immigrants to strengthen English rule and power in Acadia. There were English garrisons at Beausejour, Fort Lawrence and Fort Monckton and the only English settlers were disbanded soldiers and tradesmen who had commenced to locate themselves around these posts and within the range of their protection. The French inhabitants had been so completely driven off that nine years later (1764) they only numbered 388 men, women and children in this portion of Acadia, when instructions came from the English government to allow them to become settlers on taking the oath of allegiance. Special inducements were held out to the irregulars of New England to become settlers, if they would remain on duty six months longer. To a Colonel was offered 2000 acres of choice land; Major 750 acres; Captain 500; Ensign 450; private soldier 200. The Acadians had not cleared a wide stretch of upland, nor did they build aboideaux across the creeks. Their dikes skirted the rivers and creeks. The houses were of course, logs with roofs of bark and chimneys built up of wood and clay. Sawmills in those days were scarce. After the disappearance of the Acadians, Governor Lawrence issued his Proclamation, offering free grants to actual settlers. Immigration from the New England States at once set in; vessel after vessel came with people from Connecticut, Rhode Island, and other New England colonies. The lands were surveyed; allotments made to the settlers, but they were obviously disappointed, because when Mr. Charles Dixon arrived from Yorkshire, in 1772, all but three New England families had disappeared. Two years after, the first settler from New England, Israel Purdy, arrived with a contingent of settlers from Newberry Port, and settled at Maugerville. At this time, 1772, the Peabody, Symonds, White and Hazen immigration were building up their trading post at the mouth of the Saint John River. Four years after the settlement at Sackville, the German settlement at Hopewell from Pennsylvania was made and also the Commins settlement at Hillsboro. At the same time, William Davidson arrived at Miramichi and established a trading post at Beaubear's Island in fish, furs and masts. When the Yorkshire people came to Sackville, there were only two New England settlers there--Mr. Hawkins, who lived near the land on what was known afterwards as the Oliver Boultenhouse place, which was the site of a former French resident--and Amasa Kellam who lived on the site of the Male Academy. This was exclusive of Moses Delesdernier who lived on the place occupied in recent years by the late Thompson Trueman. Hawkins sold two thousand acres of land to Charles Dixon, all Dixon's Island, and the Island next to it, also the Salem district, including the Christopher Humphrey farm. The Dixons, Humphreys and Parkers came over from England in the same vessel. Mr. Humphrey settled in Falmouth, where he died, leaving a widow with a family. Mr. Parker settled at Windsor, and was the ancestor of the Hon. A. McNeill Parker, later Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. After Dixon settled at Sackville, he sent for Mrs. Humphrey. She settled on the place, known as the Christopher Humphrey farm, where she kept tavern. Mr. Dixon was the most important man in the community. He was a J. P. and held Court in a room in her tavern. Mr. Black, the father of Bishop Black, who afterwards settled in Amherst, also came over in the same vessel, the Ship, "Duke of York". He did not bring his family; he wanted to examine the country first. Mr. Mason from Swansea, who was elected a representative in the Halifax Assembly, lived in the lower part of the parish. The French settlements at Sackville skirted the marshes. The principal one was at Tantramar, where a Chapel had been built. At the time of the expulsion, (1775) the bell and perhaps the Communion vessels were saved and many years after, when there was peace, some Acadians appeared, obtained them and took them away. The Chapel was burned with the houses. In consequence of the Proclamation of Governor Lawrence, dated 12th of October, 1758, offering free grants of lands, right of worship, in 1761, twenty-five families from Rhode Island arrived in a vessel and settled on the vacated French farms. Each family of six with seven head of cattle were to receive a grant of seven hundred and fifty acres; years later a return shows the township had a population of three hundred and forty-nine people, all but six from New England. In 1772, a township elected for the first time a representative to the Assembly at Halifax in the person of a schoolmaster named Foster. A return in the Archives at Halifax shows that in 1763 Sackville's inhabitants consisted of 20 families only and that only 200 acres of upland had been cleared up. They had 12,000 acres of marsh land. At the same time Cumberland, (now the parish of Westmorland) possessed 35 families who owned 600 acres of cleared land and 18,800 acres of marsh land. The N.S. Legislature was constituted at Halifax in 1757 with 22 members, it being arranged that a settlement with 25 qualified electors should send one representative. This place was not accorded a representative. It was not until 1767 that Sackville secured the right to a member, a petition having been sent to the government in 1765 representing that there were then 80 families in this place. Mr. A. Foster was the first member. His name occurs for the first time in 1774, in the proceedings of the House. In 1775, Samuel Rogers succeeded Mr. Foster, Messrs. Gay and Scurr at the same time representing the county (Cumberland). 1758, on 12th October, a proclamation was adopted in Council in Halifax offering the vacant lands to settlers, which "consist of one hundred thousand acres of intervale plough lands, cultivated for more than 100 years past and never fail of crops nor need manuring; also a hundred thousand acres cleared and stocked with English grass, planted with orchards, vineyards, etc. All these are situated about the Bay of Fundy upon rivers navigable for ships of burden." Applications were to be made to Thomas Hancock, Boston, Province agent at Boston, who being applied to by persons desiring to know the kind of government in Nova Scotia and whether toleration to religion was allowed, a second proclamation was issued on 11th January, guaranteeing representative institutions and full liberty of conscience, except to papists. 1759, on 19th July, Messrs. Liss Willoughby, Benjamin Kimball, Edward Mott and Samuel Starr, junr., a committee of agents from Connecticut appeared at Halifax proposing to make a settlement at Chignecto and they were given a vessel to visit the locality. In September they returned and proposed some alterations in the grants, which were agreed to. While there were three garrisons on the Isthmus, settlement was very much hindered by the absence of any security to life or property. The Indians and French scoured the woods, ready to pick off any stragglers. They would even show themselves ostentatiously before the walls of the fort; any settlement out of the reach of guns was not only hazardous but impracticable. The French and Indians exhibited in their raids a skill, and a bravado amounting to recklessness. In April of this year, (1759), two vessels were at anchor at Grindstone Island, one the armed schooner "Moncton" belonging to the Province, the other a transport loaded with beef, pork, flour, bread, rice, peas, rum, wine, sugar, lemons, beer, shoes, shirts, stockings and other goods laden at Halifax for the shop-keepers at the Fort. During the night of 4th., the transport was captured by canoes manned by Acadians and French from the shore, and in the morning, they made a most determined effort to capture the "Moncton", chasing her down the Bay for five hours. The "Moncton" had a boy killed and two men wounded in the fight. The schooner was afterwards ransomed for $1500, the French taking the cargo. A more tragic affair occurred in the year when a sergeant and three men of the Provincial Rangers and seven soldiers of the 46th Regiment then at the Fort went out to cut wood. They were ambuscaded at a place called Bloody Bridge, and five of them were scalped and stripped. It was two years before this (20th July, 1757) that Lieut. Dickson when following Bois Hebert with a small troop, was ambushed where the La Coup stream enters the Aulac and was taken prisoner and conveyed to Quebec. His command was shot and scalped. The capture of Quebec ended the hopes of the Acadians of repossessing their lands and the guerilla warfare in this vicinity ceased leading to a greater sense of security. In 1759, a grant of 50,000 acres at Chignecto made in 1736, was rescinded, none of the conditions having been performed and the land remaining unoccupied. In 1760, the New England soldiers at the Forts nearly all left, their term of enlistment having probably expired, but they could not be induced to remain longer in the country. The first actual settlement in this parish after the deportation of the French may be placed at 1761 -- six years after their deportation and two years after the fall of Quebec. The invitations extended in the above proclamations met with a ready response and a movement took place in Rhode Island to send a contingent here. Some twenty-five families settled here that summer and others came to seek locations and erect habitations to bring their families the next summer. No record is known to have been preserved stating their names, but in the Archives at Halifax there is a "list of subscribers for the township lying on the Tantramar river, represented by Benjamin Thurber, Cyprian Sterry and Edward Jincks from Providence in Rhode Island." It is not dated but it probably belongs to the year 1760 or 1761. The names attached are as follows. CHAPTER III. TANTRAMAR SETTLEMENT "The list of the Subscribers for the Township Lying on Tantramar River, Represented by Benjamin Thurber, Cyprian Sterry and Edmund Jincks, from Providence in Rhode Island." Taken from records in the Province Library at Halifax. The date is probably 1761, but possibly 1760. Jos. Olney John Jenckes Solo Wheat Benj'n Thurber Cyprian Sterry Edmund Jenckes David Burr Jos. Tower Seth Luther Jno. Young Sam Thurber Jacob Whitman Edmund Tripp David Waters William Sheldon Dan'l Wear Rich'd Brown Volintine Esterbrooks Charles Olney Thos. Field Thos. Bowen Jona. Jenckes Step. Jenckes James Olney Wm. Brown Sam'l Lethredge Gershom Holden Sam'l Currey John Foster Sam'l Clark Nathan Case Eben'r Robins Wm. Clark Jona. Olney Wm. Ford Sam'l Wetherby Step. Angel Peleg Williams Jona. Allen Peter Randal John Tripp Nath. Day John Malavery Noah Whitman Nath. Bucklin Noah Mason Robert Sterry 47 23 1/2 ________ 70 1/2 The above mentioned names for One share and a half. Sam'l Briggs James Young Ichabod Cumstock Morris Hern Jos. Burden Ezra Heyley Obediah Sprague (sic.) Edward Thurber John Olney William Olney, Jr. Daniel Thurber Daniel Cahoon Chas. Symons Benj. Gorman John Howland Nathan Jenckes David Tift Jos. Brown Gideon Smith Jos. Hawkins Sarah Cottle Isaac Cole Obediah King Thos. Woodward Rob't Foster Sam'l Toogood Jos. Olney, Jr. Wm. Whipple David Wilbur Oliver Casey Elisha Smith Nathan Case, Jr. Charles Angel Jos. Taylor Oliver Man Moses Man W. Whipple, Jr. Wm. Phillips Benj. Robinson Jona. Pike George Wear Edward Giles John Smith Gilbert Samons Woodbery Morris John Wiever Nehemiah Sweet Stephen Goodspeed Abraham Olney James Muzey Benja. Medberry Nathaneal Woodward Zeph'r Woodward James Jenckes William Emerson Chas. Spaulding John Downer Nath'l Packer Thos. Sterry Amasa Kilburn Nathan Sterry Samuel Mott James Day, of Mass. Asa Foster, " John Peabody, " Isaac Blunt, " Caleby Swan, " Peter Parker, " Daniel Ingols, " John Wilson, " Nath'l Brown, " Abiel Fry, " Simon Fry, " Remsley Stevens," Robert Davis, " Jer. Brownel Nath'l Finney John Dexter Steph. Carpenter Levi Potter Nedebiah Angel John Brown James Foster Elisha Hopkins Wm. Walcot David Alberton Rob't Potter Dan'l Wilcocks John Wullin Rob't Woodward Peter Bateman Jeremiah Dexter William Jenckes Henry Finch Sam'l Shearman Wm. Olney John Olney, Jr. James Olney Francis Swan, of Mass. Coggshal Olney John Power Aaron Mason Nathan Jenckes Freelove Tucker Benja. Cousins Rowland Sprague Nathan Giles Jer. Dexter (erased) These single shares each 154 47 ______ 107 70 1/2 ______ 177 1/2 45 first settlers 66 2 " 66 3 " ______ 177 Some of these names, as Tower, Young, Estabrooks, Jincks, Foster, Curry, Bateman, Cahoun, Brown, Smith, Cole, King, Finney, Carpenter, Briggs, Sprague, Robinson, Seaman, Power, Tucker, Parker, Emerson, Davis, etc., represent well known families in our community. Many of the others probably never came to the country at all and others coming here were not satisfied with the prospect and returned again to the other colonies. The first town meeting--or meeting of the committee for Sackville township took place on 20th July, 1762. It was held at the house of Mrs. Charity Bishop, who kept an inn at Fort Cumberland. There were present Capt. John Huston, Doctor John Jencks, Joshua Sprague, Valentine Estabrooks, William Maxwell and Joshua Winslow. Capt. Huston was made chairman and Ichabod Comstock, clerk. The conditions and locations of the proposed new grant of Sackville were of the first interest to the newly arrived settlers and the proceedings were largely taken up with settling such matters. It was resolved that a family of six, and seven head of cattle should have one and a half shares of 750 acres. At the next meeting held on 31st August, Mr. Elijah Ayer's name appears as a committeeman. At a town meeting held on 18th April, 1770, Robert Scott was appointed moderator and Robert Foster clerk. They with John Thomas were appointed a committee to settle with the old committee for the survey of the lands. There is a record of the settlement the next year; they had 200 acres of land cleared and 12,000 acres of marsh -- the former had probably been cleared by the French, who had reclaimed the marsh. It had 20 families settled. The next immigration appears to have been in 1763, when a Baptist church at Swansea, Mass., left in a body with the pastor and settled here. It was a small body consisting of 13 members only. Their names were, Nathan Mason and wife, Thomas Lewis and wife, Oliver Mason and wife, Experience Baker, Benjamin Mason and wife, Charles Seamans and wife and Gilbert Seamans and wife. Nathan Mason was their pastor. The names Nathan Mason, Thomas Lewis, Gilbert Seaman, Benjamin Mason occur in a document in the Archives at Halifax seven years later (1770) reciting the names of the residents here. The others are said to have returned to Massachusetts in 1771. The first actual grant of Sackville appears to have been made on 12th October, 1765. Previous to that date, settlers had no title to lands they occupied beyond orders-in-council, issued at Halifax and which the grant confirmed. This grant was for 35,250 acres. The consideration was a quit rent of one shilling sterling for ten years for every fifty acres. If no rent be paid for three years and no distress be found, or if the granters sell the same within ten years the grant is void. The township was to consist of 100,000 acres. It was divided into three sections, known as letters A B and C. Letter B division embraced the district between Foundry St., and Morice's mill pond. "A" district was south of Foundry St.; "C" north of Morice's mill pond. There were home lots for actual settlers, who had wood lots and marsh lots bearing corresponding numbers. This grant contained sixty-nine names, in addition to those before mentioned the following were added: Isaac Cole; Amasa Killam, Nath. Lewis; Thomas Lewis; James Estabrooks; Joseph Tingley; Isaac Horton; Gideon Smith; Gideon Smith, Jr.; Jonathan Ward; Asel Carpenter; John Wood; Alex Huston. The grant was divided into 200 shares of 500 acres each. The intention was to give a man of family one share; a single man half a share. Some, however, received a grant of 1 1/2 shares. Each right of share was numbered and specifically granted by three or four different patents to each grantee by number and quantity of acres. There was a good deal of unprofitable land which was not located nor divided. The Committee of the Town of Sackville claimed the right to allot these vacant lands, which was disputed. In 1786 there were 60 families in the township. Each grantee had as follows: Town lot 1/2 acre 4 A lot 7 " lot 16 " pasture 100 " lot 372 1/2 " wilderness __________ Total 500 The wood lots were not then or until many years after considered of any commercial value and when their owners left the country and abandoned them or when changes of title took place and the new owners took no interest or charge of them, the ownership of many became obscured. When the timer on them commenced to be valuable, there suddenly grew up a small class of land jumpers, who ran out vacant lots and exercised acts of ownership. These acts led to a great deal of litigation and, for many years the Supreme Court was kept more or less busy over "Sackville rights." Many of the original grants of lots were voided for want of settlement and other grants issued over the same lands. The names of the original grantees and numbers of lots held by each is as follows: LETTER A. Joshua Sprague 1 1/2 Nathan Mason 1 1/2 Joseph Winsor 1 1/2 James Olvay 1 1/2 Elijah Sprague 1 1/2 William Sprague 1 1/2 James Sprague 1 1/2 Isaac Cole 1 1/2 LETTER B. Amasa Killam 1 1/2 Daniel Hawkins 1 1/2 Wm. Jinks 1 1/2 Charles Hawkins 1 Josiah Hawkins 1 Superam Killam 1 1/2 Levis Eddy 1 1/2 Deborah Eddy 1 1/2 Nathal Mason 1 Nathal, Mason, Jr. 1 1/2 Isaiah Mason 1 1/2 Jno. Day 1 Benj. Mason 1 Natel, Lewis 1 1/2 Charles Seamans LETTER C. Phinias Potter 1 1/2 Thomas Lewis 1 1/2 James Estabrooks 1 Nathel. Jacobs 1 1/2 Jacob Whitmond 1 1/2 Pno. Thomas 1 1/2 Val'tine Estabrooks 2 Josiah Tingley 1 Benj. Emerson 1 1/2 Eph'rm Emerson 1 Isaiah Horton 1 Daniel Eddy 1 Samson Mason 1/2 Matthew Mason 1/2 Gideon Smith 1 1/2 Stephen Smith 1 1/2 Gideon Smith, Jr. 1 1/2 Benijah Lewis 1/2 Jonathan Ward 1 Oliver Mason 1 Robert Williams 1 1/2 Asel Carpenter 1 John Eddy Benjamin Mason 1 1/2 Michael Cushion 1 Sam'l Emmerson 1 1/2 David Alvason 1 1/2 Eben'r Salisbury 1 1/2 Israel Thornton 1 1/2 Eden. Salisbury Jr. 1 Jabish Salisbury 1/2 Richard Salisbury 1/2 Reuben Salisbury 1/2 Enemer Olvey 1/2 Eleazer Martin 1/2 Samuel Lewis 1 1/2 John Thomas, Jr. 1/2 Nicholas Thomas 1/2 John Manley 1 Elijah Ayer, Jr. 1 Henry Glin 1 1/2 Joseph Emerson 1 1/2 Seth Hervey 1 John Wood 1/2 Alex'r Huston 1 David Latimor 1 Thomas Hunt 1 Most of these are said to have represented actual settlers at the time, but when the war of Independence broke out sixteen years later, many of these settlers actively sympathized with the revolting colonies and returned to United States. Some of them joined Col. Eddy in his attack on Fort Cumberland and fled at his defeat to Machias. For these and other reasons this grant seems to have been superseded by other and later grants over the same lands. The Eddy war, as it was called, was one of the most stirring episodes in early history. In 1767, Sackville had already made considerable progress. A return made by Lieut. Governor Franklin, embracing a census of the 30 townships into which the Province was then divided, shows Sackville had then a population of 349 persons, 343 of whom were Americans. It possessed also the following:-- Horses 48 Oxen 133 Cows 250 Young head cattle 347 Swine 63 Grist Mills 1 Saw 1 Produce in 1766-- Wheat, bus.-- 1035 Rye, bus. 1278 Pease, bus. 53 Barley, bus. 35 Oats, bus. 34 Hemp seed 10 1/2 Flax seed 53 Flax 9 Born during the year 26 Died 6 In 1763, a petition from Cumberland for land grants was sent to the government. Amongst the names on the petition were: Brook Watson, John Horton and Alex and William of the same name, Joseph Moore, Elijah Ayre, Obediah Ayre, Joseph Ayre, Samuel Gay and Martin Gay, Jonathan Eddy, Jonathan Coe, Daniel Gooden, Charles Oulton, Liffy Chappel, Jabez Chappell, Anthony Buck, Abel Richardson, George Allen, Nehemiah Ward, John Fillmore. CHAPTER IV. INHABITANTS 1876 List of settlers in Sackville in 1786 in Trueman's Isthmus of Chignecto Book, page 41:-- The Yorkshire immigrants 1772-73-74 who settled in Sackville were Dixon, Bowser, Atkinson, Anderson, Bulmer, Harper, Patterson, Fawcett, Richardson, Humphrey, Carnforth and Wry. At this time the township of Amherst had a population of 123 and the township of Cumberland 325; Hopewell (all Albert County) 159; Moncton 60. A third immigration took place, commencing in 1772. On 16th May, 1772, a body of Yorkshire settlers landed at Fort Cumberland, having arrived at Halifax the previous months, from England. They embraced the Blacks, Bowsers, Dixons, Chapmans, Freezes, Bulmers, Lowerisons, and other well known families. Other parties followed. This immigration was most important from a commercial as from a political standpoint. The loyalty of these men was a tower of strength, when the attempt was made by Col. Eddy, aided by the New England settlers, to rush this country into union with the revolted colonies. Another grant dated January 30th, 1773, is signed by Lord William Campbell, styled Captain General and Governor in chief in Acadia. By this document 51 shares or rights of 500 acres each are granted. It is recited that the township consisted of 200 rights, being in all 100,000 acres. The grantees with the numbers of their lots are as follows: LETTER A. DIVISION Samuel Bellew 1 Joseph Brown 1/2 of 5 Nicholas Cook 6 John Jinks 11 Samuel Curry 13 Benjamin Harper 17 Gilbert Seamans 20 Joseph Owens 21 John Thurber 29 George Shearman 32 Japhet Alverson 1/2 of 37 Jeremith Alverson 1/2 of 37 William Alverson 43 and 1/2 of 48 Charles Olney 25 and 1/2 of 49 John Jenks 1/2 of 44 Samuel Curry 1/2 of 46 Benjamin Thurber 1/2 of 46 Samuel Saunders 1/2 of 47 John Barnes 1/2 of 48 Nicholas Cook 1/2 of 50 Thomas Barns 1/2 of 53 LETTER B. Bernoni Williams 4 Timothy Williams 6 Jesse Jenks 8 Joseph Cook 9 Michael Joseph Delesdernier 31 Samuel Hicks 40 Josiah Hicks 1/2 of 41 Nicholas Cook 10 Jesse Cook 11 Joseph Bennett 12 Comer Smith 15 John Hawkins 1/2 of 17 Richard Cumberland 22 & 23 & 24 Paul Ferdinand Delesdernier 29 Moses John Fred Delesdernier 30 William Lawrence 42 Nathan Seamans 43 Jeremiah Brownell 44 George Shearman 45 Joshua Shearman 46 Benjamin Tower 1/2 of 47 Joseph Tower 1/2 of 47 Ambrose Hicks 1/2 of 60 Samuel Eddy 1/2 of 65 John Eddy 1/2 of 66 Abraham Olney 67 LETTER C. Nathan Seamans 4 Reuben Lattimore 6 Samuel Lattimore 10 Robert Lattimore 18 Joseph Tower 1/2 of 20 Benjamin Tower 1/2 of 20 Job Seamans 38 Eliphalet Read 1/2 of 39 Jonathan Jinks 57 and 1/2 of 63 Samuel Hicks 1/2 of 59 William Tower 1/2 of 64 This grant contained fifty-nine names, in addition to those before mentioned the following were added: Isaac Cold; Amasa Killam, Nath. Lewis, Thomas Lewis, James Estabrooks, Joseph Tingley, Isaac Horton, Gideon Smith, Gideon Smith, Jr., Jonathan Ward, Asel Carpenter, John Wood, Alex Huston. The terms of this grant were a quit rent of one shilling for every 50 acres granted payable every Michaelmas, the grant to be void in case no payment be made for three years and no distress be found on the premises; also the grantees bound themselves to cultivate or enclose one third in a year, one in eleven years and one third in twenty-one years; also each grantee to plant annually two acres in hemp; also actual settlement shall be made before the last day of January, 1875, or the grant is void. The next grant is dated 22nd day of July, 1774 and signed by Frances Legge, Captain General, &c. and is for 24 1/2 shares of rights, comprising 12,250 acres as follows: LETTER A. DIVISION Heirs of Thomas Barnes, Lot No. 15 Wm. Maxwell 12 and 1/2 of 53 Cogsholl Olney 1/2 of 31 Abiat Peck 26 and 1/2 of 51 Peleg Williams 34 and 1/2 of 54 Joseph Owen 1/2 of 47 Gideon Young, No. 19 LETTER B. DIVISION Edmund Jinks 3 Benjamin Thurber 73 and 74 Lewis Eddy 1/2 of 49 Deborah Eddy 1/2 of 49 Josiah Tingley 1/2 of 66 Jonathan Cole 68 William Estabrooks 1/2 of 69 Edward Cole 1/2 of 70 Ambrose Cole 1/2 of 70 Samuel Jones 1/2 of 58 Joseph Rood's Heirs 1/2 of 58 Gideon Young 1/2 of 50 Simon Rood 1/2 of 50 Job Archer 64 Joseph and Jonas Bennett 13 LETTER C. William Brown 12 Andrew Waterman 7 Heirs of Benjamin Wilbur 2 Samuel Rogers 1/2 of 10 Robert Foster 22 John Foster 24 The terms are the same as in the former grant except the quit rent is made one farthing per acre and actual settlement has to be made within two years. About 1786, the inhabitants of Sackville made a return of the state of the settlement to the government to shew that if a proposed escheat was made it would be attended with great confusion as but few of the grants had not been improved. The actual settlers at that date as set forth in the return appear to have been as follows:-- LETTER A. Samuel Bellew Joseph Brown Samuel Rogers Samuel Saunders Valentine Estabrooks Andrew Kinnear James Jincks Eleazer Olney Nathan Mason John Peck John Barnes Ebenezer Burnham Simon Baisley Wm. Carnforth Abial Peck Nathaniel Shelding Job Archernard Jonathan Burnham LETTER B. Charles Dixon John Richardson John Fawcett George Bulmer Thomas Bowser Gilbert Seaman Joseph Read Wm. Carnforth John Wry Moses Delesdernier Joseph Delesdernier Michael Burk Samuel Seamans Joseph Tower Joseph Thompson Mark Patton Nehemiah Ayer James Cole Hezekiah King Daniel Tingley Wm. Lawrence Ben Tower Elijah Ayer John Thompson Eliphalet Read Josiah Tingley Jonathan Cole Valentine Estabrooks LETTER C. Wm. Estabrooks Daniel Stone Nehemiah Ward Pickering Snowdon Nehemiah Ward John Fillmore John Grace Angus McPhee Wm. Fawcett Jonathan Eddy Gideon Smith Patton Estabrooks Thomas Potter John Weldon Jos. C. Lamb Josiah Hicks Joseph Sears Benjamin Emmerson Titus Thornton OLD TIME HOMES The following statement dated April, 1820, shows how the Sackville people were housed:-- John Humphrey built what is known as the Lyons House. It was occupied by Pacon, a blacksmith, who had a blacksmith shop adjacent to it. Christopher Richardson purchased from Amos Seaman the lands afterwards owned by John R. Richardson, now possessed by Gershom Maxwell. Christopher Humphrey inherited from his mother the farm he occupied during his life. She had built there a commodious log house. It had four rooms downstairs and was more luxuriously appointed than most dwellings because it had two chimneys. She kept public house there. She had two daughters, one married Charles Dixon, the other married John Morice. The next house was west of Salem Street--(Queen's Road). It was occupied by the widow Richardson, her husband having died at Horton, It was a log house and built for her by her eldest son, Christopher. She had besides him, Joseph and Thomas. Her daughter, Sallie, married _____ Wilkinson and Charlotte married _____ Horton. At this date, 1820, there were no houses on Lower Fairfield Road which was not cut out until 1823. The next house was the two story frame house built by George Bulmer and purchased by Jonathan Black. It was the first frame house built in Sackville. The builder had to purchase some of the lumber from United States. Lieutenant Duncan Shaw purchased in 1812 from John Wry the lot of land known as Shaw's Hill, the site of the Baptist Church. His name occurs often in the old records. He was a prominent man. He built one or more vessels about 1800. He was a brother-in-law, of William Harper, the first merchant store keeper, both of them having married daughters of Capt Hamm, a Loyalist living at Portland, Maine. Mr. Harper with his schooner was a Bay of Fundy trader and lived in Sackville from 1796 to 1800. A most interesting account of these days is given by a descendant of Mr. Harper -- Mrs. Steeves, Shediac, in her book -- "The First Store Keeper at the Bend". The next house up street was built by (Duncan) Shaw; a tramp came along, got in it, was drunk, set fire to it and was burned with it. His remains were afterwards found. The next house was John Wry's. It was a log house until about 1820 when Mr. Wry replaced it with a frame house. He purchased it originally from Gershom Maxwell. The next, Crane's Corner was the Bowser House, in a garden with cherry trees on a side hill. The brick house remembered by the older generation was erected about 1825. The old house was then turned into a school house. The next house was the Killam house John Harrison lived in a small red frame house on the site of the Edward Trueman place in Maple Hill. John Fawcett built a frame house near the Academy Brook. He owned the farm where the late Robert Fawcett lived. Cyrus Tingley occupied a log house almost opposite the Charles Fawcett residence. Mr. Tingley died and his widow married one Mahoney. John Ogden lived on the place afterwards occupied by Marcus Trueman (near the Purington residence.) He traded places with George Kinnear (father of the late Edmund and William Kinnear) who owned the Bloomer Ogden farm, and moved there on the next hill. Deles Dernier lived in a log house on one side of the highway and Major Wilson occupied a frame house on the other side. Major Wilson had two sons, Harper and Richard. Harper built opposite his father's place. George Lawrence -- father of Nathan and Leban, had a house back in the field near where Leban afterwards lived. Wm. Lawrence lived in a frame house on the same property that was afterwards owned by his son, Nelson. John Outhouse lived on the Alder Trueman place. Old Mr. Lawrence lived opposite the Mariner Wood house. It was brick on a side hill -- two storeys in front and one in the rear. Back of the Philip Palmer house, was a two storey house where Capt. Tom Ayers lived. Above that came the Tingley, Ayers and Harper houses. The first was the Tingley where the late Amos lived. Nehemiah Ayer lived where the late Wm. Ayer resided and across the road was Obediah Ayer's house. Further up the crest of the hill, Michael Grace lived. William Harper lived on the hill occupied by the late I. C. Harper. He had a nice farm house. John Harper lived in the Morice place. He and Obediah Ayer were partners in carrying on a saw and grist mill. They sold out to John Morice. David Stone lived on the 'Squire Titus Hicks place. John Sharpe lived above Bethel Meeting House. Joshua Read succeeded his father to the place on the hill owned afterwards by Nathan Lawrence and later by William Smith. Samuel Hicks, the projenitor of all the Hicks in the Country first lived in the Nath. Ward place which had previously been owned by the Reads. Tolar Thompson lived next. Joseph Thompson cousin of Toler's lived on the Thomas Anderson place. A blacksmith named Woodworth had a house and Smithy at the Four Corners -- South side. On the opposite corner, Mr. Thornton built a house which was occupied by "Long" John Thompson -- the father of Wilson and Jacob. Thomas Wheaton built above the graveyard --the house has long disappeared. Wm. Fawcett lived on the James George place and John Fawcett on the Chappel Fawcett place. Mr. Emmerson, the great grandfather of the late Hon. H. R. Emmerson lived in a log house on the site of the Elisha Wheaton house. He had the reputation of being a good farmer. He left two children:--one of them married Mrs. Lefurgy mother of late Hon. Mr. Lefurgy of Summerside. David Wheaton purchased the place afterward. Benjamin Wheaton lived on the John Bickerton place and Josiah Hicks on the opposite hill. Next to him, Jonathan Hicks lived. Joseph Sears occupied the same place that his son Frederick Sears and later grandson Joseph Sears lived. At Jenck's Brook, Joseph Sears was the only settler. "Corner" Bill Estabrooks was the first settler at the edge of Log Lake -- then bog, now solid marsh 10 feet deep. Tusket was settled by Thomas McPhee. CHAPTER V. YORKSHIRE SETTLERS CHARLES DIXON The following paper was read before the Chignecto Historical Society on 9th July 1892, at the celebration on the Dixon homestead of the 120th anniversary of the landing of Charles Dixon at Sackville, by his grandson, James D. Dixon, Esq.: To the ridge of land upon which we stand belongs perhaps as much of historic interest as any spot in Sackville. Upon it once stood a row of tenements erected and inhabited by the Acadian French. As the French gained access by water conveyance to the country threading the various rivers and streams in boats and small vessels, and as at this point the upland extends to the river which, with a single exception it does not do upon the whole length of the Tantramar, thus affording exceptional facilities for landing. I deem it more than probable they first landed and commenced their occupation of Sackville at this point. The marsh land to the Eastward now called the Dixon Island marsh, to the extent of 200 acres and upwards was reclaimed, occupied and cultivated by them from which they derived their principal means of support. Traces of these tenements were distinctly visible 50 years ago. Frequently in my youthful days I have ploughed over their foundations and turned up quantities of the marsh mud of which with a few sticks, their chimneys were constructed. There was also to be seen a hollow or depression of the surface indicating the existence of a cellar. In 1765 this locality was granted by the Nova Scotia Government to one Daniel Hawkins and was by him occupied and improved until the year 1772. Hawkins was one of the New England immigrants who were induced to come here by Governor Lawrence of Nova Scotia. One hundred and twenty years have passed since Charles Dixon, one of the first of the Yorkshire immigrants, who were induced to come to Nova Scotia by the influence of Lieutenant Governor Franklyn, arrived and settled upon this farm, with his family consisting of his wife and four children. We are met today to celebrate events of historic interest and importance, rather than for the purpose of glorifying individuals, yet it may be well that we should not overlook or under estimate the difficulties to be surmounted and the privations endured by these English immigrants, in bidding adieu to old England and encountering a rough and tedious passage from Liverpool to Halifax of nearly seven weeks' duration and from thence to Fort Cumberland in which nearly three more weeks were spent. Mr. Dixon found a refuge for his family in the Fort a couple of weeks, and employed his time in exploring and visiting the neighboring localities and in the purchase of the property upon which we are assembled of Daniel Hawkins, to which he removed his family on the 8th of June, 1772. The property consisted of 2,500 acres in all, about 260 of which was in this immediate locality and 186 acres of which was marsh, nearly all of which was dyked and 35 acres of improved upland. There was also included a farm of 200 acres and upwards on the lower Mill creek or Frosty Hollow, so called 20 acres of which were cleared and upwards of seventy acres was dyked marsh. The balance of his purchase consisted of 2000 acres of wilderness land nearly 700 of which lay on the lower Fairfield road to the south-west. For this property he paid the sum of 260 pounds sterling. He also purchased the stock upon the farm which consisted of 13 cows, 6 oxen and 25 young cattle, 6 horses, 36 sheep, 13 hogs and 2 goats. A house and barn and some outhouses stood upon the property very near where the house of the late Captain Towse now stands. There was also a house and barn on the farm at Frosty Hollow and about 20 head of stock which was under rental to one Daniel Dickinson. To this land where we are assembled he gave the name Pathos Isle. Mr. Dixon himself was not a farmer and had never followed that occupation. The spring he arrived here was late, cold and discouraging. He says he found almost the whole population, who had come here from New England some seven years previously much discontented and desirous of selling their lands and returning to New England. He strove to ascertain the cause of such universal discontent and soon arrived at the conclusion it was due to indolence and ignorance. Accustomed as he had been to notice the agricultural operations of Yorkshire, perhaps at that time the most advanced of any part of England or even of Europe, the newer and cruder operations which here met his observation could not but suffer by comparison. It is but reasonable to suppose the New Englanders with their seven years' experience with the soil and climate of this country, should have acquired a more correct general knowledge of the country and its capabilities than a stranger, who had no practical knowledge of agricultural pursuits could be capable of forming with only a couple of weeks' observation. Here, however he applied himself diligently to the cultivation and improvement of his estate in which he was assisted the first year by Thomas Anderson who with his youthful bride were his fellow passengers from England. It is said of Mr. Anderson that upon their arrival at Halifax, she was so homesick she earnestly desired to return to England in the same ship. A year later Mr. Dixon writes a paper recording the circumstances of his early life, his occupation, his religious views, his marriage, the reasons inducing him to leave England and his coming to America and his settlement here concluding with the words following "and now let us adore that Providence that has brought us through many dangers from our Father's house and given us a lot in a strange land and an inheritance which we never deserved nor expected." Between 1772 and 1777 a considerable number of other families from Yorkshire came out and settled in Sackville and adjoining localities, some of whom were encouraged to do so by Mr. Dixon while some were aided and assisted by him in procuring suitable locations for settlement. The loyalty of these English immigrants was almost immediately put to a severe test by circumstances connected with the revolutionary war, and the fact that so large a proportion of the New England settlers here actually sympathized with the revolted Colonies. But to the honor of the Yorkshire settlers be it said, they were almost a unit in adhering to the cause of Great Britain, though for a time they suffered the indignity of having their houses robbed and pillaged, and themselves forbidden to stir off their premises. To a man like Charles Dixon this was a terrible humiliation. His loyalty to the crown and government of England was intense; he could not conceive of anything so foolish and wicked as rebellion against such a government and such a King as George the third and his feelings towards such persons and their sympathizers were such that he did not wish his family to associate or intermarry with them in after life. Of the Yorkshire immigrants, it can safely be said they were honest, moral, industrious, and loyal citizens, very plain spoken, when they said yea or nay, whatever that implied could be relied upon. If they differed, as they sometimes did, they expressed themselves upon the points at issue with admirable directness and without prevarication. They did much to improve the condition of the country both morally and physically. I rejoice to be permitted to participate in any demonstration to honor their memory, and to declare my conviction that none of their descendants have any cause to be ashamed of their ancestry. The first grant of the parish of Sackville comprised 35,250 acres all to New England people and was issued in 1765. A later grant must have been issued soon after, as an assessment of the land owners of Sackville was made in 1777 by James Law and Charles Dixon in which the quantity assessed is over 90,000 acres and in which there are many names of New England people. The largest land holder in Sackville at that date was Samuel Rodgers, one of the most active participators in the Eddy war, so called, to whose name stands 4,746 acres. I recollect this old man who died at a great age in 1831 or thereabouts, having been for several years previously a town charge. The next largest proprietor of land were Esterbrooks and Mason, 3,344 acres. Next comes John Barnes 2,750 acres and next comes Charles Dixon with 2,510 acres. Elijah Ayer 2,090 acres and Edward Barron 2,000 acres, Benjamin Emmerson 2,000, Robert Scott 2,000 and others with a less quantity. Of the 120 persons who were proprietors of land at that time there are not more than 25 surnames to be found on our assessment roll of the present year, corresponding to those in the list above mentioned. Thus we see that the names of nearly all of the landed proprietors of 1777 have removed from the country or became extinct. Mr. Dixon as a Justice of the Peace, to which office he was appointed soon after he came to the country, was authorized to perform the marriage service. A few may be mentioned as follows, viz.: David Wheaton and Mary Barker in 1793; John Harper and Mary Thornton in 1791; John Dobson and Mary Fawcett in 1794; William Lawrence and Sally King in 1795; Michael Grace and Ruth Carnforth in 1792; Thomas Easterbrooks and Ruth Smith in 1793; James Hicks and Sarah Easterbrooks in 1785; John Wry and Phoebe Maxwell in 1786; Bedford Boultenhouse and Charlotte Harper in 1794; Timothy Lockhart and Elizabeth Teed in 1793. THE OLDEST DESCENDENT of Charles Dixon at the date of the meeting was Mr. Nelson Bulmer then in his 86th year. Mr. Bulmer's father George Bulmer purchased his property of Nicholas Cooke, a son of one of the original grantees of Sackville in the year 1785 and immediately settled thereon. The adjoining property to the northeast was owned by William Maxwell and was transferred to his son-in-law, John Wry; next to Wry, Thomas Bowser settled, and next to him Robert Atkinson, who purchased his property from his father-in- law, Amasa Killam. These four lots comprised all the land between the Upper and Lower Fairfield roads with the exception of a half lot which was purchased by John Richardson. This block of land now constitutes a very valuable and populous part of Sackville, embracing the Mount Allison institutions, the English, Methodist and Baptist churches, hotels and private residence, stores and public buildings including the post office. The Dixon estate also contains a fair proportion of the natural growth and increase of the population and buildings of Sackville. The oldest surviving descendant of Charles Dixon bearing the name Dixon was William C. Dixon, of Maidstone, Essex County, Ontario, who though in his 79th year is here present. There were fourteen of the grandchildren of Charles Dixon still living, eight bearing the name of Dixon, and two bearing the name of Bulmer and four females bearing the names of O'Hara, Wightman, Simons and Smith. The descendants, over 2000 in number are widely scattered and are to be found in Australia, California, South Sea Island, Japan, England, in many of the States of the Union and in nearly all of the provinces of Canada. At the conclusion of his interesting paper Mr. Dixon read a letter from his cousins Charles and Edward Dixon and their sisters Ruth, Martha and Mary of Payson, Utah, expressing regret at their inability to be present at the celebration and also extending to their relatives in the east an invitation to visit them should the occasion offer. Shortly before the gathering broke up Mr. Wm. C. Dixon of Ontario, read an amusing poem appropriate to the occasion in which was set forth many historical and personal episodes of the early settlers. Among the historical relics exhibited were a spider used for heating flat irons, etc., a walnut tea tray, a clock of very early make, and an account book kept by Mr. Dixon the first entry in which bears the date 1760. VISIT TO WINDSOR, HUNDRED YEARS AGO An old letter describes a trip from Chignecto to Halifax by the Parrsboro-Windsor route. The writer says he took his wife with him, and both being young did not mind a hard seated wagon and rough roads. "On our arrival at Parrsboro we found there Jim White with a drove of cattle for Halifax. The old packet was covered with cattle and there was no room for my horse, so we had to wait until the return of the packet from Windsor. Mr. Ratchford was then doing a large business at Partridge Island and was very kind to us. On the return of the packet we were landed at Horton. There was great excitement at Windsor and many strangers attending the trial of a couple of men for the murder of Deputy Sheriff Kennedy. The Judge presiding was Haliburton, afterwards Chief Justice Sir Brenton. He was a small, delicate, light complexioned man. He possessed a clear voice and a distinct utterance and seemed to be an able man. The prosecuting officer was Attorney General Uniacke. He was a tall, powerfully built man, with massive head and strongly marked features. He spoke with a good deal of brogue. He was a powerful speaker. I looked at him with a good deal of interest. I had often heard my father speak of him. (After referring to Mr. Uniacke's connection with the Eddy war, the writer proceeded.) I have forgotten who defended. The case was one of circumstantial evidence and the verdict of not guilty having been rendered, the men were discharged. We had difficulty in obtaining quarters, but Mr. Wilcox kindly gave us a private room and we were very comfortable. I heard Job Ross had a marvellous hog. I went and found Ross--an old man, selling spruce beer and gingerbread. I asked to see the hog. He took me through a passage to the back of the house and close to it was the pen. There were three apartments for his hogship, a dining room, a bedroom and an outside apartment. The whole was scrupulously clean; the hog, being called, came to Job who scratched him, for which he received grunting thanks. The hog weighed 1100 pounds. The skin was perfectly clean. Ross said he washed and scrubbed him every day. The result was he ate less and thrived better. We started for Halifax, where we arrived in the evening, passing on the road White and his cattle, approaching the city. It took him over a week to get his cattle there, much shrunk and deteriorated in value", etc., etc. CHAPTER VI. PROVINCIAL SETTLEMENTS It was not until three years after 1755 that Acadia was opened up for settlers from New England, previously which the whole country was practically all wilderness. In 1761 there were only six families in the territory outside of Port Royal, and only seventy-four in Port Royal. There were only ten families along the Saint John river as late as 1695. The first English settlement in the Province of New Brunswick took place in 1761 when twenty-five families came in and occupied the deserted French farms in Sackville. About the same time about the same date the English settlers arrived in Amherst. Israel Perley of Newburyport, Mass., after an exploratory trip up the Saint John River, arrived there in 1763 with four vessels, laden with settlers for Maugerville and Sheffield. At this time the Peabody, Symonds, White and Hazen trading establishments at the mouth of the Saint John River commenced to build up large interests. The Hopewell, Hillsboro and Moncton settlements largely by Germans from Pennsylvania were made in 1765, when also William Davidson built up a trade of fish, furs and masts at Beaubear's Island. Most of the original English settlers were merely squatters; immense grants of land having been made by Governor Wilmot in Halifax to non-resident land grabbers and speculators such as Boquet, Haldimand, Desbarres, McNutt and many others. These were either escheated later on by the Crown or sold under judgments obtained by settlers. McNutt had a grant of a territory not less than 1700 square miles along the Saint John River. When in 1765 General Monckton was carrying on the "Grand Derangement" at Chignecto, he sent a corps of New Englanders to destroy the Acadian dwellings at Tantramar. It was not long before the smoke and flames burst from 97 buildings. Those Acadians who escaped the expulsion saw from the shelter of the woods the torch applied to their homes. Theirs was a melancholy fate. The innocent suffered with the guilty. The conflagration of the homes of the Acadians was not limited to Tantramar but extended to Westcock and Woodpoint so that when the work of destruction was done only heaps of ashes were left to remind one of the Acadian homes. The Acadians had not cleared a wide stretch of upland nor did they build aboideaux across the creeks. Their dykes skirted the rivers and creeks. The houses were of course log ones with roofs of bark and chimneys built of wood and clay. After the disappearance of the Acadians Governor Lawrence issued his proclamation offering lands to actual settlers. Immigration from New England States commenced in due course. People came from Connecticut, Rhode Island, and other New England places. The lands were surveyed; allotments made to the settlers but they were obviously disappointed because when Mr. Charles Dixon arrived at Sackville from Yorkshire in 1772 all but three families had disappeared. The first settlers to come were twenty- five families from Rhode Island. This was in 1761. APPLICATIONS FOR GRANTS The following is a list of applications for grants at the years named. Many of the applicants were never in the country, others came and returned to the colonies south. The list is of interest to show the land grabbing tendencies of the age. Name Acreage 1763 Day, John 500 O'Brien, Henry 500 France, John 500 Fitzsymons, Francis Fitzsymons, James & John 1500 Foster, Christian & Another 1000 Marshall, Richard 1000 Proctor, Thomas Peck, Martin & Others Philmore, John 89000 Lewis, Nathaniel & Others ) Lewis, Thomas & Others ) Lewis, Benjamin & Others ) 35250 Lewis, Samuel & Others ) 1765 Cole, Isaac & Others ) Carpenter, Asel & Others ) Custen, Michael & Others ) Tingley, Josiah & Others Thournton, Israel & Others Thomas, John R. & Others Thomas, Nicholas & Others Mason, Nathan & Others Mason, Nathaniel & Others Mason, Nathaniel, Jr. & Others Mason, Isaiah & Others Mason, Benjamin & Others Mason, Matthew & Others Mason, Oliver & Others Mason, Benjamin & Others Martin, Eleanor & Others Manly, John & Others Killam, Amasa & Others Killam, Superam & Others Lewis, Nathaniel & Others Lewis, Thomas & Others Lewis, Benjamin & Others Winsor, Joseph & Others Whitmond, Jacob & Others Williams, Rob & Others Wood, John & Others Ward, Joshua & Others Day, John & Others 1768 Sherman, George & Others Saunders, Samuel & Others Smith, Coomer & Others Simmons, Gilbert & Others Simmons, Nathaniel & Others Sherman, George & Others Simmons, Samuel & Others Simmons, Job & Others Simmons, Nathan & Others Simmons, Henry & Others Jenks, John & Others Jenks, James & Others Jenks, Edward & Others Jenks, Jesse & Others Johnston, Stephen & Others Jenks, Jonathan & Others Irons, Samuel & Others Mason, Nathaniel & Others Martin, Experience & Others Moore, John & Others Moore, Rev. Wm. & Others Glebe, Land & Others Thurber, Benjamin, 2d. & Others Towers, Benj. & Jos. & Others Thurber Benjamin & Others Tower, Wm. & Others Thomas, John & Others Young, Gideon & Others Wilber, Benjamin & Others Williams, Peleg & Others Williams, Benoni & Others Watts, John & Others Watts, Samuel & Others Otway, John, Sr. & Others Owens, Joseph & Others Olney, Charles & Others Olney, William & Others Olney, John R. & Others Olney, Abraham & Others Peck, John & Others Peck, Abiel & Others Leland, Amiriah & Others Lewis, Timothy & Others Lattimore, Ruben & Others Deslesdernier, Paul & Others Deslesdernier, Moses & Others Alverson, Japhet & Others ) Alverson, Jeremiah & Others ) Alverson, William & Others ) 47000 Archer, Job & Others ) ) Newton, Hibbert & Others 2000 1772 Barron, Edward ) 2000 1773 Hawkins, John & Others Hicks, Samuel & Others Hicks, Josiah & Others Hicks, Ambrose & Others Hawkins, John & Others Hicks, Samuel & Others Hicks, Joseph & Others Hicks, Ambrose & Others Belew, Samuel & Others Brown, Joseph & Others Barnes, John & Others Barnes, Thomas & Others Bennett, Joseph & Others Brownell, Jeremiah & Others Owens, Joseph & Others Olney, Charles & Others Olney, Abraham & Others Cook, Nicholas Others ) Corey, Samuel & Others ) Cook, Joseph & Others ) 25500 Cook, Jesse & Others ) Cumberland, Richard & Others ) Eaddy, Samuel & Others Eaddy, John & Others Williams, Benonie & Others Thurber, Benjamin & Others Towers, Benjamin & Others Towers, Joseph & Others Towers, William & Others Seaman, Gilbert & Others Shearman, George & Others Saunders, Samuel & Others Smith, Coomer & Others Simmons, Nathan & Others Shearman, Joshua & Others Simmons, Job & Others Barnes, John & Others ) Barnes, Thomas & Others ) 25500 Bennett, Joseph & Others ) Bronil, Jeremiah & Others ) Lawrence, Wm. & Others Lattimer, Ruben & Others Lattimer, Lemuel & Others Lattimer, Robert & Others Jenks, John & Others Jenks, Jesse & Others Jenks, Jonathan & Others Alverson, Jophet & Others Alverson, Jeremiah & Others Alverson, William & Others Foster, Robert ) 12250 Foster, John ) 1774 Barnes, Thomas & Others ) Brown, Wm. & Others ) 12250 Bennett, Joseph and Jonas, Jr. & Others ) Read, Joseph & Simon Rodgers, Samuel Williams, Peleg & Others ) Waterman, Andrew & Others ) 12250 Willber, Benj. & Others ) Maxwell, Wm. Archer, Job 12252 Eyre, Joseph & Others Eddy, Jonathan & Others Eddy, Lewis & Others Eddy, Deborah & Others Eddy, Lewis & Others Eddy, Deborah & Others Easterbrooks, Wm. & Others Foster, Robert, and Andrew & Others Jenks, Stephen & Others Jenks, Edward Jenks, Edward & Others Olney, Coggshell & Others Alvason, David & Others Sprague, Joshua & Others Sprague, Elijah & Others Sprague, William & Others Sprague, James & Others Semons, Charles & Others Smith, Gideon & Others Smith, Stephen & Others Smith, Gideon, Jr. & Others Salisbury, Ebenezer & Others Salisbury, Ebenezer, Jr. & Others Salisbury, Jabesh & Others Salisbury, Ruben & Others Glin, Henry & Others ) 35250 Glen, Henry & Others ) Olway, James & Others Olway, Emmer & Others Jacobs, Nathaniel & Others Johnnot, Peter 500 Jenks, Wm. & Others Hawkins, Daniel & Others Hawkins, Charles & Others Hawkins, Josiah & Others Horton, Isiah & Others Herway, Seth & Others Huston, Alex & Others Hunt, Thomas & Others Kennedy, Hugh & Others Knaut, Philip & Others 29750 Potter, Phensake & Others Eaddy, Lewis & Others Eaddy, Deborah & Others Easterbrooks, James & Others Easterbrooks, Valentine & Others Emmerson, Benjamin & Others Eaddy, Daniel & Others Eaddy, John & Others Emmerson, Samuel & Others Emmerson, Joseph & Others 1766 Scott, Robert 2000 1766 Scott, Robert 2000 Manly, John, license alienate to J. Winslow 500 Huston, Wm. ) Huston, Alex, license to alienate to J. Huston ) 1600 Owen, Joseph & Others Cole, Jonathan & Others Cole, Edward & Others Thurber, Benjamin & Others Tingley, Josiah & Others John Thompson, Jos. Thompson, David Blackburn: Ask for about 300 acres of marsh land in the Great Marsh which they want to improve. Granted 17th August, 1786. Charity French: Came from New York State and viewed the lands on River Petitcodiac, Westmorland County, and wants the lands of Wetmore's Survey for himself and associates, Josiah Stebbens, Benj. Clees' Wm. D. Vine, Zebulon Ross-Jar. Council grants 200 acres each, on condition they settle at once and report situation. Sept 15th, 1786. Report of Mr. Milledge re Tingley and Chappel: Encloses certificate that Chapel has been in possession and made improvements in tract surveyed for him at Baie Verte. Also sends affidavits respecting Tingley's claims. States he has sent a memo of fees due on Mr. Kinnear's grant. April 17th, 1793. Wm. Lawrence, Jim S. Outhouse, John Ogden, Nehemiah and Thos. Ayer: Applicants are destitute of woodland and ask for a vacant tract between the land of John Fawcett and Richard Wilson, and to the line in Dorchester. They ask for a warrant of survey and grant of 200 acres each. Sackville, January, 1801. (149) Petition for 100 acres of marsh in Sackville on the River au Lac, joining the town line, and 500 acres on the North side of Gaspero River on Point Bonagr or Timber river, Fort Cumberland, January, 1801. Thos. Wheaton, Jos. Seeds, Jas. Hicks: Petitions for vacant tract of land in the town of Sackville, near Point Midget, and greater part of tract consists of lakes and sunken lands and has never been granted or applied for. Sackville, January 6, 1801. Simon Outhouse: Memorial for undyked marsh on the easterly side of Tantramar river, containing about 12 or 14 acres, and asking for a warrant of survey. Sackville, January, 1801. Inhabitants of Cumberland: Appeal to the Lieut. Governor re the possession of Lot 5, formerly Collins, now Dr. Brown or Siddall, and No. 6, 7, formerly Catherwood, now 6 & 7 to Mr. Wells Nevart, now John Fillmore, which lie on Point Midget on which the inhabitants depend for fuel and which they wish to remain on. Jan. 31, 1801. Lois Fitzgerald: Petitioner states that the debts against the estate of her deceased husband exceed the personal estate and will scarcely cover the just debts. She asks for authorization to sell the real estate of deceased so as to discharge her indebtedness. July 18th, 1805. Thomas Easterbrooks: Memorialist is in possession of the following parcels of land: One eight acre lot, one twenty-one acre lot of marsh, which land he has improved at considerable expense, and his dyked two and half acres of said marsh, and asks that his title to the same right of marsh contained 21 acres, of No. 37, Letter B. Division, same situated on Cole's Island, also the wood lot No. 39 in Letter A. Division containing 100 acres. No. 53 Letter B. Division and No. 39 Letter A. Division are ungranted, the others are already granted. June 28th, 1808. Thomas Herrett: Mr. Watson also pleads the cause of John and Berony Savoy who possessed and improved a vacant tract of land at the head of Bouktouche, Harbour, which land is now claimed through Jos. Guguen, by Simon and Placid Desroches, Bouktouche. Mr. Watson considers land really belongs to former possessors and recommends their retaining same. Obtained a grant of 360 acres of wilderness lands which he improved and cultivated, but having no marsh land included in said grant, petitioner asks for 21 acres of same which is claimed by James Rogers, but which property he has not improved; as also a seven acre lot, both of which have been in his possession for 30 years without improvement of any sort, and lie in the center of the land owned by Memorialist No. 20, Letter A. Division Sackville, affidavit of Chas. Dixon re said statement. Commission to issue at the expense of applicants. Sept. 1st, 1809. Wm. Crane, Bardin Turner, Thos. Ayer, Edward Burk: Petition for No. 14, Lot A. Division in Sackville, between Cape Meringuen and the Dorchester Line, fronting Chepody Bay, containing 60 acres and a quarry of Plaster of Paris, which they possess in common. They ask for a grant of the shore between high and low water mark in front of Lot No. 14. Referred to Surveyor-General. Lot No. 14 measures 48 rods in front of Shepody Bay. 1816. Inhabitants of Sackville: Petition from inhabitants of Sackville praying for the appointment of Sewers Commissioners. January 7th, 1813. Robert Atkinson, D. Shaw, Christ. Atkinson. Thos. Anderson: Make application for a Board of Sewers and recommend candidates for the same. January 21, 1814. Joseph Gatso: Petitions for 300 acres wilderness meadow, lying in the rear of lands granted to Nathaniel Gilbert, and northward of the tract granted to Samuel Underwood, for stocking cattle and improving land. Sackville 11th of June, 1814. (No exact location given.) Simon Outhouse, Wm. Lawrence: State that lots No. 39 and 72 in Sackville, Letter B. Division have never been granted, that the marsh lot and 16 acres lot of No. 37 would accommodate Simon Outhouse, and the marsh lot and 16 acres of No. 72, Wm. Lawrence so they pray for a warrant of survey and a grant for same accordingly. Sept. 28th, 1816. Tolar Thompson: Wishes to obtain a proportion of the vacant sunken bog in Sackville, for the erection of fences to keep the cattle in, and as a compensation for a road he has undertaken to make and on which he has expended 364 pounds leading from Great Bridge River to Point Midgic. Petitioner holds by purchases lot 60 in letter C. Division bounded by a brook which prevents from making fence, hence his request for 100 acres adjoining. Land contains 700 acres most of which is now sunken land, Affidavits attached. Filed March 3rd, 1817. Paid. DEEDS AND TRANSFERS Deed from William Shaw, (Dy. Provost Marshal of Nova Scotia) to Christopher Harper on 22 June, 1785, certain lands owned by Samuel Smith, William Jones, William Lawrence, Parker Clark, Simon Clark and Elijah Ayer to satisfy executions for 1247 pounds -9-8. List of lots, 8, 50, 13, 13, 50, 32, 34, 34, 45, 50. 1785 Asa Fillmore, Wm. Taylor to Robert Keech, 200 acres upland -- 60 marsh. 1802, John Keillor, and Elizabeth his wife, 4 acres to the Justices of Westmorland for the Court House Square, Dorchester, 51 acres of marsh. 20 pounds. 1790 Allen, Winkworth, William, George and Isabella to Brook Watson et al, mortgage for 1,295 pounds Ayers, Obediah, Thomas and Nehemiah to Jonathan Cole, lands at Midgic. Heirs of Amasa Killam lands to Richard Wilson. R. Lowerison lands to Thos Anderson. 1796--Jonathan Eddy lands to Elizah Ayre. 1804, Andrew Kinnear to John Anderson, lands at Midgic. 1816, Robert Atkinson to Trustees of Schools, land at Crane's Corner. Israel Thornton lands to Wm. Fawcett, 27 acres. 1789--132, Martha Burnham to Ambrose Hicks in Northport, 21 acres. Harlow Jonathan to Michael Grace. Jonathan Barlow lands to Silas Thornton. Jonathan Barlow lands to Silas Thornton. 1789 Michael Burke to John Fawcett, 7 1/2 acres. Bulmer, George, to Amos Botsford--lot on King's Marsh. A--1785, Chris. Harper to Amos Botsford, 14 pounds, lot on West Marsh. 1797, Elijah Ayer to Amos Botsford. 1797, Elijah Ayer to S. Milledge. 1802, Elijah Ayer to R. Wilson. Michael Grace sold to Wm. Campbell 20th Oct. 1794, 60 acres upland on land called Isle of Patmos Nos. 9, 10 and 11. Also 12 acres of land on Marsh called the Cove for 52 pounds. In 1794 Richard Wilson leased his farm and stock for 3 years to John Ogden. His stock to be returned being 8 cows, 2 oxen, 1 horse, one bull 15 sheep and farm utensils. The inhabitants of Sackville appointed a Committee to make a survey of the lands of the township and in 1791, the work was accomplished, so far as grants were then issued, and a plan was made. In 1808 Surveyor-General Sproul made a second plan embracing all the grants made up to that date. The parish was partitioned into three grand divisions, known as Letter A, Letter B and Letter C Divisions. Letter A embraced the township below Mill Creek; Letter B between Mill Creek and including Morice's Pond, and separated from the wood lots in Letter C Division A four rod space, which is substantially the road to Beech Hill leading past the residence of Mr. W. W. Fawcett. The fathers of the parish deemed Westcock a very suitable location for a town, and accordingly they reserved the uplands, enclosed in the roads about old Westcock house as a town flat, for residences and laid out seven acre lots East and West of it, suburbs of the new town. CHAPTER VII. SACKVILLE IN 1777 An assessment of the land owners of Sackville made in 1777 showed ninety thousand acres owned or occupied. The largest land owner was one Samuel Rogers who had won the disfavor of Loyalist Britains by his part in the Eddy War two years before. He was then a very old man and had become a town charge while at the same time he owned 4746 acres. Estabrooks and Mason owned 3344 acres; John Barnes owned 2750 acres; Charles Dixon 2510 acres; Elijah Ayer 2,090 acres; Edward Barron 2000 acres; Benjamin Emmerson 2000 acres; Robert Scott 2000 acres. SACKVILLE IN 1803 Below is "A" list of the inhabitants of Sackville taken January 1803". Many of the names are well known throughout the parish yet; a few are not so well known, while others will scarcely be recognized at all. The list is as follows: Robert Atkinson, N. Ayer, Obediah Ayer, Thos. Anderson, Thos. Anderson, Jr., James Anderson, John Anderson, A. Botsford, John Burnham, John Barnes, Peter Barnes, Ezra Barnes, Oliver Barnes, Bedford Boultenhouse, Thomas Bowser, Thomas Bowser, Jr., George Bulmer, Isaac Bradshaw, Simon Bazely, Samuel Balau, Charles Boyle, Jona. Cole, Martin Cole, Laban Cushing, Joseph Crossman, John Crossman, Edwin Crossman, David Crossman, Charles Dixon, Edward Dixon, William Dixon, Charles Dixon, Jr., Ferdinand Delesdernier, Jos. Delesdernier, Henry Delesdenier, Major Delesdernier, James Estabrooks, James Estabrooks, Jr., W. S. Estabrooks, Edward Estabrooks, Thos. Estabrooks, Benj. Emerson, Jon. Eddy, Lydia Evans, William Fawcett, William Fawcett, Jr., John Fawcett, John Fawcett, Jr., James Fitzgerald, James Fitzgerald, Jr., Daniel Fletcher, Nath. Finney, Caleb Finney, Caleb Finney, Jr., John Fawcett, Thos. Grainge, Michael Graves, Thos. Gorman, Chris. Harper, William Harper, Wm. Harper, Jr., John Harper, John Harris, Thos. Harrison, Thos. Herrett, Wm. Humphrey, Samuel Hicks, Josiah Hicks, James Hicks, John Hicks, Simeon Jenks, Benj. King, H. King, James Kay, Will. Lawrence, Wm. Lawrence, Jr., George Lawrence, John Lowe, Tim. Lockhart, Stephen Millidge, Gersham Maxwell, Angus McFee, James McCormick, Simon Outhouse, John Ogden, John Patterson, Elijah Reid, William Reid, Chris. Richardson, Jos. Richardson, Tim. Richardson, Samuel Rogers, James Rogers, Joshua Reid, Duncan Shaw, Pickering Snowdon, William Snowdon, Gideon Smith, Gideon Smith, Jr., Joseph Sears, David Stone, Joseph Thompson, F. Thompson, _____ Thornton, Titus Thornton, Benj. Tower, Benj. Tower, Jr., Josiah Tingley, Jos. Tingley, Jr., A. Tingley, Jon Teed, George Tower, Samuel Taylor, Richard Wilson, Thos. Wheaton, David Wheaton, Neh. Ward, Joseph Ward, Edw. Ward, Daniel Ward, John Ward, John Wry, John Wood, Thos. Wade, William Kay, Jas. Smith, Benj. Reid. Men, 134; Women, 121; Children under 10, 136; Children over 10, 231. Total 622. SACKVILLE BEFORE 1820 When the first settlers came from New England, they found the forest had been cut away, by the Acadians, only in patches and those bordering on the marshes, which were protected from the sea by the dykes running up and down the creeks, -- they had avoided making aboideaux. Their homes were marked by cellars and the ashes of their dwellings burned by a detachment from Fort Cumberland in 1755. These communities were connected by roads -- or rather trails leading to Beausejour on the East and to the Memramcook and Petitcodiac river on the West. Therefore the New England pioneers largely hewed out homes for themselves in the green woods, built roads, bridges, churches, schools, and also boats and small schooners to maintain communication with the outside world; the main highways connecting the centres of trade and population being the work of another generation. The following notes as to the inhabitants of Sackville were supplied about 1890, by an old lady long since gone to her rest, viz.: Mrs. Cynthia (Barnes) Atkinson. By her account, in 1820, the following persons lived below the Westrock Aboideau: Mark Campbell, School Master, _____ Snowdon, Christopher Boultenhouse, Oliver Barnes, James Ward, Joseph Atkinson; At Joggins: John Bulmer, David Cole, Joseph Tower, Benjamin King, Squire Cole, Capt. Martin Cole, Gersham Maxwell, Jon. Ward. John Humprhey built what was known as the Lyons house near the Westcock aboideau. Payson, a blacksmith occupied it and had a smithy there. Christopher Richardson purchased from Amos Seaman the lands later owned by John R. Richardson, now owned by Mr. Maxwell. Christopher Humphrey inherited from his mother the farm that he occupied. She had built there a commodious log house. It had four rooms downstairs and two chimneys with fireplaces. She kept public house there for some years. She brought up a family of five children, as follows: William, who became a successful farmer near the Great Bridge; John, who lived and died in the home place; John A., a prominent citizen of Monckton; Betsy, who married Mr. Dixon, and Jane, who married Mr. John Morice. The next house was west of the Queen's Road, formerly Salem Street. It was occupied by a widow, Mrs. Richardson. Her husband died at Horton. It was a log house built by her eldest son, Christopher. She had besides him, Joseph and Thomas. Her daughter, Sally married Mr. Wilkinson and Charlotte married Mr. Horton. At this date there were no houses on the Lower Fairfield Road which was not cut out until 1824. Robert Bowser's farm was on the cross street between York Street and the Upper Fairfield Road. His descendants were Robert Richard, who went to Mass., established himself in business there and was highly thought of as a citizen. He died in 1832. Charles A., who became an enterprising citizen and merchant of _____, Mass., Rev. Alex T. Bowser, a Unitarian preacher who was regarded as a sincere and able preacher. He died in 1833. Eugene who held the home farm; Henrietta who married Mr. George McCord and Miss Susan Bowser. The next house -- the first frame one built in the parish was owned by George Bulmer. It was located at Boultenhouse's Corner and is still an architectural ornament to the plan. It was later sold to and occupied by Jonathan Black. The rough lumber for it, was obtained from Tower's Mill at Frosty Hollow and the finishing came by vessel from United States. The next house was on Shaw's Hill. It was built by Duncan Shaw. A tramp came along, got in it, was drunk, set fire to it and was burned with it. His remains were afterwards found. The next house was John Wry's. It was a log house until about 1820 when he replaced it with a frame house. John Wry married a daughter of Gersham Maxwell and acquired some hundred acres of land from him. They had nineteen children, eighteen of them married and had children. The next Crane's Corner was the John Bowser House on a side hill, in a garden with cherry trees. The brick house remembered by the older generation was erected about 1825. The old house was then turned into a school house. Charles Dixon occupied a two story brick house on the site of the late Harmon Humphrey place. About 1820 William Dixon erected a frame house opposite Mrs. Geo. E. Ford's residence. It was a good home for a time. It had a chimney in the centre with three fire places. Joseph Richardson had built about 1800 a frame house where later his son the late Charles Richardson lived near the Island Marsh Road. Charles Dixon erected a brick house on the site of the A. E. Wry residence. It was demolished in 1848, by the late Christopher Milner. It was occupied for many years by John Wry. Charles Dixon built a log house West of the Richardson house; then he erected a brick house near the site of the residence of the late James D. Dixon -- in Yorkshire style -- on the side hill, two storeys in front and one in the rear. It was in good style -- was one of the very few that had chimneys at both ends and plenty of fire places. A lot at Crane's Corner had been owned by Amasa Kellam, who being mixed up with the Eddy War, his property was confiscated and sold at auction and purchased by his son-in-law, Atkinson, who married his daughter. By her he had: a. John; b. Christopher; c. Joseph; d. Sarah -- wife of Richard Bowser; e. Nancy (married Christopher Richardson); f. Richardson married the second time; g. Elizabeth married Anthony Lowe; h. Polly, not married; i. Robert Atkinson, went to Ohio; j. Thomas, who went West; k. Andrew married _____ Phinney and went West; l. Elizabeth married George Patterson; m. Olive, who went to United States; n. _____, who lived in the home place. The house stood near the site of the Charles Fawcett Hall. It was a brick house. The bricks were made on the Island Marsh Road. About 1839 or 1840, the late Hon. Charles F. Allison purchased the place from William Atkinson who removed to Ohio, demolished the house and replaced it by a frame house which was destroyed by fire. John Harrison lived in a small red frame house on the site of the Edward Trueman place in Maple Hill. John Fawcett built a frame house near the Academy Brook. He owned the farm where the late Robert Fawcett lived. Cyrus Tingley occupied a log house almost opposite Fawcetts. Tingley died and his widow married one Mahoney. John Ogden lived on the place afterwards occupied by Marcus Trueman (near the Purington residence.) He traded places with George Kinnear (father of the late Edmund and William Kinnear) who owned the Bloomer Ogden farm, and moved there on the next hill. Moses Delesdernier lived in a log house on the west side of the highway. Moses Delesdernier lived on the site of the house later occupied by the late Thompson Trueman. Mr. Delesdernier was a prominent actor in the Revolutionary War. He was a Trader. On one occasion he was in New York and met on a wharf, to which his vessel was tied up, a stalwart young Irishman, to whom quite a romance attaches -- to wit: Richard John Uniacke, distinguished in Nova Scotia history. Uniacke sailed with him to Sackville, fell in love with his daughter Martha, whom he married. The lake at his country residence -- Mount Uniacke is named after her, Lake Martha. Major Wilson occupied a frame house on the other side. He had two sons -- Harper and Richard. Harper built opposite his father's place. George Lawrence -- father of (Nathan and Leban) had a house back in the field near where Laban afterwards lived. Wm. Lawrence lived in a frame house on the same property that was afterwards owned by his son Nelson. John Outhouse lived on the Alder Trueman place. Old Mr. Lawrence lived opposite the Mariner Wood house. It was brick on a side hill -- two storeys in front and one in the rear. Back of the Philip Palmer house, was a two storey house where Captain Tom Ayres lived. Above that came the Tingley, Ayers and Harper houses. The first was Mr. Tingley's where the late Amos lived. Nehemiah Ayers lived where the late Wm. Ayer resided and across the road was the Obediah Ayers house. Further up on the crest of the hill, Michael Grace lived. William Harper lived on the hill later occupied by Chipman Harper. He possessed a nice frame house. John Harper lived in the Morice place. He and Obediah Ayer were partners in carrying on a saw and grist mill. They sold out to John Morice. David Stone lived on the Titus Hicks place. William Estabrooks lived on the Timothy Hicks place on the Back Road. He came here about 1762 or 1763. He was the father of "Corner Jim" who lived across the road. This was an old French place. John Sharpe lived above Bethel Meeting House. Joshua Read succeeded his father to the place on the hill owned afterwards by Nathan Lawrence and later by William Smith. Josiah Hicks, the projenitor of all the Hicks in the country first lived in the Nath. Ward place which had previously been owned by the Reads. Tolar Thompson lived next. Joseph Thompson cousin of Tolar's lived on the Thomas Anderson place. A blacksmith named Woodworth had a house and smithy at the Four Corners -- south side. On the opposite corner, Mr. Thornton built a house which was occupied by "Long" John Thompson--the father of Wilson and Jacob. Thomas Wheaton built above the graveyard -- the house has long disappeared. Wm. Fawcett lived on the James George place and John Fawcett on the Chappel Fawcett place. Mr. Emmerson, the great grandfather of the late Hon. H. R. Emmerson lived in a log house on the site of the Elijah Wheaton house. He had the reputation of being a good farmer. He went to P. E. Island. He left two children: Benjamin and a daughter who married Mr. Lefurgy, father of the late Hon. Mr. Lefurgy of Summerside. David Wheaton purchased the place afterward. Benjamin Wheaton lived on the John Bickerton place and Josiah Hicks on the opposite hill. Next to him, Jonathan Hicks lived. Joseph Sears occupied the same place that his son Frederick Sears and later his grandson Joseph Sears lived. At Jenck's Brook, Joseph Sears, was the only settler. "Corner" Bill Estabrooks was the first settler at the edge of Log Lake -- then bog, now solid marsh 10 feet deep. Tusket was settled by Thomas McPhee, Titus Thornton, and Jeremiah Sears. At Cookville, the first settlers were:--Towse and Samuel Boyce. About 1870, David Cook, John Lund, Gideon Estabrooks and Angus McPhee. At Midgic the first settlers were:--Jonathan Hicks, Amos Hicks, John Anderson. FIRST TRANSFER OF LANDS IN SACKVILLE 1765--Benjamin Mason to Nath. Jacob, 4 acres. 1768--Thomas Lewis to Benjamin Emmerson, 2 acres. 1768--V. Estabrooks to Thomas Lewis, 3 1/2 acres 1769--Reuben Lattimore to Nathan Seaman, 16 acres. 1769--Robert Lattimore to Thomas Lewis, 7 acres. 1770--Thomas Lewis to Benjamin Mason, Lot on road to Cut Creek. 1770--Thomas Lewis to Jobe Seaman, 18 acres. 1770--Thomas Lewis to Nathan Mason, 1/2 16 acre lot. 1770--Nathaniel Lewis to Joseph Alverson, Lot. No. 5. 1770--Nathaniel Jacobs to Jacob Alverson, 2 1/2 acres. 1770--Nathaniel Jacobs to Nathaniel Mason, 8 acre lot. 1774--Benjamin Mason to Nehemiah Wood, 16 acres. Lieutenant Duncan Shaw purchased in 1812 from John Wry the lot of land known as Shaw's Hill, the site of the Baptist Church. Lieutenant Shaw's name occurs often in the old records. He built one or more vessels about the year 1800. He was a brother-in-law of William Harper, the first Moncton storekeeper, both having married daughters of Captain Hamm, a Loyalist living at Portland, Maine. Mr. Harper with his schooner was a Bay of Fundy trader and lived in Sackville from 1796 to 1800; a most interesting account of those days is given by a descendant of Mr. Harper's -- Mrs. Steeves of Shediac in her book -- "The First Storekeeper at the Bend." ABOUGOGGIN SETTLEMENT 1817 The Memorial of Philip Palmer, Valentine Esterbrooke, Courtney Kinnear, Wm. Read, Samuel Durant, Caleb Babcock, James Easterbrook, Jr., Thomas Ayer, Jr., Samuel Easterbrook, James Hicks, John L. Smith, Henry Babcock, Daniel Esterbrooks, Joseph Reed and Eliphalet Reed, Jr. That your memorialist, Philip Palmer, is thirty-one years of age, has a wife and three children; your Memorialist, Valentine Easterbrooks, is 29 years of age, and unmarried; that your Memorialist, Courtney Kinnear, is 28 years of age, has a wife and two children; that your Memorialist, Samuel Durant is 23 years of age, and unmarried, that your Memorialist, Caleb Babcock is 23 years of age and unmarried; that your Memorialist, James Easterbrooks has a wife and five children; that your Memorialist, Thos. Ayer, Jr., is 28 years of age and unmarried, that your Memorialist, Samuel Easterbrooks, is 30 years of age, has a wife and three children; that your Memorialist, James Hicks, is forty-four years of age, has a wife and seven children; that your Memorialist, John L. Smith is 34 years of age, has a wife and six children; that your Memorialist, Henry Babcock is 25 years of age, and unmarried; that your Memorialist, Daniel Easterbrooks is 34 years of age, has a wife and six children; that your Memorialist, Joseph Reed, is 21 years of age and unmarried, and that your Memorialist Eliphalet Reed, Jr., is nineteen years of age, and single. That your Memorialist Philip Palmer has heretofore had granted to him 300 acres of wilderness land situated and lying in the gore between the townships of Dorchester and Sackville, for the accommodation of a saw mill which he has built, and now owns. That your Memorialist, Valentine Easterbrooks, had heretofore granted to him one hundred acres of low, sunken marsh land lying at the head of Great Marsh in Sackville, which he has enclosed and been at some considerable expense in draining, and also fourteen acres of marsh situated on the Coles Island marsh, so called, in Sackville, which he has been at the expense of dyking and ditching. That your Memorialist, Courtney Kinnear, heretofore had granted to him a tract of wilderness land containing two hundred acres situated on the Gulf Shore, in the Township of Botsford which domestic circumstances prevented him from settling, which your Memorialist has since sold, and upon which improvements have been made by the person who bought it,--and also about twelve acres of marsh land situate upon Sunken Island marsh in Sackville, which your Memorialist has been at the expense of dyking. That your Memorialist, Thos. Ayer, Jr., has heretofore had granted to him fourteen acres of marsh situated upon Cole's Island, which your Memorialist has been at the expense of dyking. That your Memorialist, James Hicks heretofore had granted to him fifty acres of low sunken marsh situated at the head of Great Marsh in Sackville. That your Memorialist, Wm. Reed, Jr., Samuel Durant, Caleb Babcock, James Easterbrooks and Samuel Easterbrooks, John L. Smith, Henry Babcock, Daniel Easterbrooks, Joseph Reed and Eliphalet Reed, Jr. have never had any land granted to them or either of them. That your Memorialists are all residents in Sackville and are desirous of forming a settlement upon the new road leading from Sackville to the Beaujoggin River, upon the South-eastern Branch of that River, where there is a large tract of vacant wilderness land. That should your Memorialist be so fortunate as to obtain allotments of land upon the said Southeastern Branch of the Beaujoggin River, they will immediately settle the same, having the means for so doing. Your Memorialist asked a grant to each of your Memorialists three hundred acres of land in severalty, of the above wilderness land. The facts stated in the foregoing Memorial are correct and the Memorialists in the aforegoing Memorial will immediately settle the Lands applied for, if allotted to them, and possess the means for so doing which is humbly submitted by Samuel Easterbrooks Philip Palmer James Hicks Valentine Easterbrooks John L. Smith Courtney Kinnear Henry Babcock William Read, Jr. Daniel Easterbrooks Samuel Durant Joseph Read James Easterbrooks, 2nd Eliphalet Read Thomas Ayer, Jr. W. BOTSFORD J. EASTERBROOKS CHAPTER VIII. THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND TEACHERS The old Sackville Academy opened its doors in 1843, but before that date, the Westmorland Grammar School had been established near the site of the Academy. It was the second grammar school established in the Province, the first one being that at St. Andrews in 1821. The Rev. Christopher Milner, then rector of the Parish, was the first teacher. The early minutes of this school are missing, the first available were those of November, 1831. There were present at the meeting then: Hon. Mr. Chandler, Hon. Mr. Crane, and Rev. C. Milner. At this date Mr. Ross was the master. He was afterwards president of Dalhousie College. The students were as follows: Martin Palmer; Stephen Palmer; W. B. Chandler; R. S. Bowser; James Dixon; Blair Botsford; Raper Milner; and Cochran Milner. These were all students in Latin and Greek, as well as English. A. L. Palmer; Richard W. Neilly; James Robson; Amos Ogden; Alfred Dixon; James Kimball; Andrew Kinnear; Edmund Kinnear; Amos Harris; James Cole; Amos Tingley. Besides Latin and Greek, they were taught history, geography, grammar, reading, writing and arithmetic. The trustees in 1841 were: Richard Bowser and Charles F. Allison. The teachers were: No. 1, John Hicks; No. 2, Ichabod Powell; No. 3, Edward Bowes; No. 4, William McDonald; No. 5, Sophia M. Nisbet; No. 7, Thomas Atkinson; No. 8, Lawrence O'Flannigan; No. 9, Ann Cowdell; No. 10, Abel S. Gore; No. 11, James Purdy; No. 12, Frederick Sears. THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL At a meeting held in November, 1831, attended by Rev. C. Milner, William Crane, Esq., and Edward B. Chandler, Esq., the scholars were examined and "it appeared that many of them made considerable progress." The following were the pupils: in Latin and Greek: Martin Palmer, Stephen Palmer, W. B. Chandler, James Dixon, Blair Botsford, Ralph Milner, Cochran Milner, Acalus Palmer, Richard Neilly, James Robson, Amos Ogden, Alfred Dixon, James Kimball. All but the three last also studied history, geography and grammar. The latter together with Andrew Kinnear, Edmund Kinnear, Amos Harris, James Cole and Amos Tingley, studied reading, writing, etc. There were 19 pupils. At the next meeting, held in December, resolutions were passed to employ Mr. James Ross as Principal. He became later President of Dalhousie University. It was also resolved that the rate of tuition should be three pounds per annum. Also that a proper building had been secured in Sackville for the school, and fifty pounds subscribed for the teacher's salary. The Trustees attending that meeting were Rev. C. Milner and Messrs. Crane, Chandler and Edward Dixon. Wm. Crane and Edward Dixon, Esquires,- -reported the pupils having been examined, exhibiting satisfactory progress. At the next meeting, 22nd May, 1832, present Rev. C. Milner and Messrs. Crane and E. Dixon. It was resolved that Messrs Milner and James Ross be a committee to collect the subscriptions. The next meeting -- 5th December, 1832, held in the School House. Present, Rev. C. Milner. Meeting held at Dorchester on 26th April, 1832. Present, Mr. Killam, Rev. C. Milner, Mr. Dixon, Mr. Crane and Mr. Chandler. Resolved that the School House be removed from the present site to the estate of late George Bulmer and that Mr. Dixon, Rev. C. Milner and Mr. Crane be a committee to attend to it. Meeting 4th March, 1832. Meeting at house of John Kellam, Esq., at Dorchester. Present, Rev. C. Milner, Edward Dixon, Esq., Wm. Crane, John Kellam, Ed. B. Chandler. Resolved that Mr. Ross be continued another year, provided he keep the School House in proper repair and provide a stove. SCHOOL HOUSES Christopher Atkinson gave a lot for a school at Crane's Corner. Charles Dixon and John Harris were commissioners for holding it. This was about 1820. The house was square and had accommodation for 30 pupils. The pay for a teacher was forty shillings a pupil. The government allowed 20 pounds per annum. The first teacher in it was a Yankee named Pendleton who boarded around. The next Delancy Crandall. The last teacher was Sarah Towse (afterwards Mrs. J. E. Estabrooks). It was located nearly opposite the western end of the Wood store. It was burned down by an incendiary about 1860. About 1812, a boy's school house at Westcock--(later the Barnes place.) Mark Campbell was the teacher. A little later, James Rogers opened a school near the corner of Lower Fairfield Road. Mr. Gallagher, the father of the late Hugh Gallagher taught school near the Academy opposite the Brook. Mr. _____ Taylor taught school in a building under the Willows, below James Rainnie's house. An effort was made to erect a schoolhouse in Middle Sackville on John Fawcett's Land, where Moses Delesdernier had lived. The leading subscribers were Robert Fawcett, Simon Outhouse, John Fawcett and John Ogden. Other subscribers were Nathaniel Kimball, Richard Wilson, Peter Neilly, George Lawrance, William Lawrence, James Lawrence, Agreen Tingley, Thomas Burnham, Christopher Atkinson, George L. Kinnear, Simon Mahoney, Henry Ogden and Edwin Atkinson. The attempt was abandoned. In the early days the teachers were paid partly by government grants and the rest by the parents; a condition that ceased when free schools were inaugurated in 1874. The government grant was ten pounds. In addition to that the teachers received from twenty pounds to sixty pounds and board from the districts. Considering the meagre facilities teachers enjoyed for obtaining expert education to qualify them for their work, it is a little remarkable how

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Leah Armstrong Fillmore's Timeline

1727
September 17, 1727
Attleboro, Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States
November 17, 1727
Attleboro, Bristol, MA, USA
1747
November 12, 1747
Age 20
Attleborough, Bristol, Massachusetts, United States
1748
May 16, 1748
Age 20
Norwich, New London County, Connecticut, United States
1750
April 21, 1750
Age 22
Norwich, New London County, Connecticut, United States
1750
Age 22
1752
February 6, 1752
Age 24
Norwich, New London, Connecticut, USA
1754
March 6, 1754
Age 26
Norwich, New London County, Connecticut, United States
1756
1756
Age 28
Franklin, , Connecticut, United States
1758
1758
Age 30
Jolicure, West Moreland, New Brunswick, Canada