Liudolf I "the Great", Herzog von Sachsen

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Liudolf "the Great" von Sachsen

Nicknames: "Ludolf von Sachsen", "Ludolf van Sachsen"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Engern/Angaria (Present Niedersachsen), Sachsen/Saxe, Ostfrankenreich (Present Germany)
Death: Died in Sachsen/Saxe, Ostfrankreich (Present Germany)
Place of Burial: First Kloster Gandersheim, Brunshausen (Present Bad Gandersheim), (Present Landkreis Northeim, Niedersachsen), Sachsen/Saxe, Ostfrankenreich (Present Germany)
Immediate Family:

Son of Bruno III, duke of Saxony and Susanna Ode d Enghers Von Montfort, Duchess of Saxony
Husband of Oda Billung
Father of Hatumoda; Liutgard von Sachsen; Waldrada of Worms; Bruno; Oda von Sachsen and 12 others

Occupation: Dux Orientalium Saxonum, Graf von Sachsen (844-866), Duke of Saxony, Milite, duc de Saxe, Margrave de Saxe-Orientale (840-850), Graaf van Wormsgau, książę saski, Duke
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:
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Immediate Family

About Liudolf "the Great" von Sachsen

Ben M. Angel's summary:

Relationships:

Known Parents: Graf Brunhart von Engern/Angaria (Mittelalter Genealogie), all other information unknown or unconfirmed (spouse unknown)

Siblings: Unknown

Spouse: Oda von Sachsen (daughter of a Billung prince and Aeda), c.805-913

Children:

  • 1. Bruno von Sachsen (d. 880) died crossing a flooded river or in battle during an expedition against the Danes.
  • 2. Otto "der Erlauchte" von Sachsen (d. 912), Graf im Südthüringau, Graf im Eichsfeld (888), Lay Abbot of Hersfield (908), husband of Hedwig/Hathui.
  • 3. Thankmar, Abbot of Corvey (877/879)
  • 4. Liutgard, wife of Ludwig III der Jungere, King of the East Franks (876-911), King of Bavaria (879-911), King of Lotharingia/Lorraine (880-911).
  • 5 Enda, wife of Unknown
  • 6. Hathmod (840-874), first Abbess of Gandersheim (852/856-874)
  • 7. Gerberga (d. 896/897), second Abbess of Gandersheim (874-896/897)
  • 8. Christina (d. 919/920), third Abbess of Gandersheim (897)
  • One unnamed daughter and three unnamed sons, died young.

Basic information and justifications:

Birth: circa 805 (English and German Wikipedia, Genealogie Mittelalter says 805/820) - location unknown, but most likely in the historic province of Engern/Angaria (present Niedersachsen), Stammesherzogtum Sachsen (Duchy of Saxony), Eastern Franconia

Wedding: c820/835 - location unknown

Death: 11 March 866 (FMG) - location unknown

Burial: First Kloster Gandersheim in Brunshausen (Bad Gandersheim), Landkreis Northeim, Niedersachsen

Alternate names: Ludolf

Occupation: Dux Orientalium Saxonum, Graf von Sachsen (844-866)

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From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Saxony (covering his birth family):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866A

Three brothers, parents not known, although the primary source which confirms this relationship has not so far been identified.

It is assumed that the brothers were related to Bruno (d. after 775) and his son Ekbert (d. after 834, husband of Ida). If this is correct, from a chronological point of view they may have been brothers of Ekbert. It is also possible that the relationship was through Ekbert's (unknown) mother.

1. BRUNO .

  • Brun was named as father of Liudolf in the early 13th century Gandersheimer Reimchronik[103], but no earlier source has so far been identified which confirms the relationship.
  • m ---. The name of Bruno's wife is not known.

Bruno & his wife had one child:

a) LIUDOLF (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen). Graf.

Reference:

  • [103] Wolff, L. (ed.) (1969) Die Gandersheimer Reimchronik des Priesters Eberhard 2nd Ed. (Altdeutsche Textbibliothek, Tübingen), 9, lines 139-44, cited in Jackman, D. C. (1997) Criticism and Critique, sidelights on the Konradiner (Oxford Unit for Prosopographical Research), p. 146 footnote 40.

------------------

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy page on Saxony (covering his married life):

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SAXONY.htm#Liudolfdied866B

LIUDOLF, son of BRUNO & his wife --- (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen).

Brun was named as father of Liudolf in the early 13th century Gandersheimer Reimchronik[105], but no earlier source has so far been found which confirms the relationship.

The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that Liudolf founded the abbey of Gandersheim in 852, first at Brunshausen[106]. Widukind records that "Liudulfus" transferred relics of Pope Innocent to Rome[107].

The Annales Alamannicorum record "Ludolfus dux Saxoniæ avus Heinrici" among those who swore allegiance in 864[108].

The Annales Xantenses record the death in 866 of "Liudolfus comes a septentrione"[109].

m ODA, daughter of BILLUNG princeps & his wife Aeda (-17 May 913).

The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[110].

"Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, by charter dated 885[111].

"Arnolfus…rex" confirmed donations of his predecessor of land "in pago Nordthuringa dicto in comitatu Liudulfi in loco Uuanzleua" to Kloster Gandersheim naming "fideli costræ in sanctimoniali habitu constitutæ…Odæ" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92], which names "filia eius Gerberga abbatissa"[112]. "Otto…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Gandersheim "avo illius Sigihardo comiti in pago Chiemihgovue in comitatu Sigihardi" to "comiti nostro Eberhart" by charter dated 4 May 947 in which he names "proavo nostro Liutulfo…et eius coniuge Oda…et avo nostro Ottone" recalling their involvement in the foundation of the monastery[113].

Liudolf & his wife had [twelve] children:

1. BRUNO (-killed in battle in Saxony 2 Feb 880).

  • The Annalista Saxo records "Brunonis ducis" as brother of "Otto filius Liudolfi ducis"[114]. "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostri fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[115].
  • The Annales Fuldenses name "Brun ducem et fratrem reinæ, Wicmannum, Bardonem, alterum Bardonem et tertium Bardonem, Thiotherium, Gerrichum, Liutolfum, Folcwartum, Avan, Thiotricum, Liutharium" as those killed in battle in 880 in Saxony against "Nordmannis"[116]. The Gesta Francorum lists "Brun ducem et fratrem reginæ" as one of the twelve counts who were killed fighting the Danes in 880[117]. Thietmar records that "Duke Bruno…great uncle" of Bruno Archbishop of Köln, was drowned in a flooded river on 2 Feb while on an expedition against the Danes[118]. The Erchanberti Breviarum records that "Ludovicus rex Franciæ" had one son "Hug…de concubina" who [in 880] fought the Vikings "cum Theoderico et Marcwardo…episcopis et Bardone fratre Liutkardæ reginæ"[119], "Bardone" presumably being an error for "Brunone", although this version appears to conflate two battles (one at the river Scheldt and one in Saxony) which are reported separately in the Annales Fuldenses. The Gesta Francorum lists "Bardonum…alterum Bardonum [et] tertium Bardonum" as three of the twelve counts who were killed fighting the Danes in 880[120]. The other two counts named "Bardo" or "Bruno" have not been identified.

2. OTTO "der Erlauchte" (-30 Nov 912[121], bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche).

  • The Annalista Saxo records "Otto" as "filius Liudolfi ducis"[122].
  • Graf im Südthüringau.
  • Graf im Eichsfeld 888.

3. THANKMAR .

  • Europäische Stammtafeln[123] names Thankmar as a son of Liudolf & his wife but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.
  • [Abbot of Corvey 877/79]. “Ludolphus comes” donated property “in Daelhem et in Adonhusen” to Corvey monastery “pro filio suo Tancmaro”[124].

4. LIUTGARD (-17 or 30 Nov 885, bur Aschaffenburg).

  • Widukind names "Liudgardam sororem Brunonis ac magni ducis Oddonis" as wife of "orientales Francos imperantium Hluthowicus"[125]. "Hludowicus…rex" made a donation of property in "villa…Winenheim" to Kloster Lorsch in the name of "comiti…Werinhario" by charter dated 4 Jan 877, naming "coniuge nostra Liutgarda"[126].
  • The necrology of Fulda records the death in 885 of "Liutgart regina"[127]. The death and burial place of "Liudgardis regina" are recorded in the Annalista Saxo[128].
  • m (before 29 Nov 874) LUDWIG, son of LUDWIG II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks & his wife Emma [Welf] ([835]-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Jan 882, bur Kloster Lorsch).
  • He succeeded his father in 876 as LUDWIG III "der Jüngere" King of the East Franks, Saxony and ½ Lotharingia.
  • King of Bavaria 879.
  • King of Lotharingia 880.

5. ENDA .

  • Europäische Stammtafeln[129] names Enda as a daughter of Liudolf & his wife, and her marriage, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.
  • m ---.

6. HATHUMOD (840-29 Sep 874, bur Brunnshausen).

  • The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Hathamodam eius ducis [Liudolfi] filiam" was was installed as first abbess of Gandersheim in 852, and that she died 18 years later[130]. Her life and death are recounted in the Vita et Obitus Hathamodæ[131]. Her death is recorded in the Annalista Saxo[132].

7. GERBERGA (-5 Sep [896/97]).

  • The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Gerbergam sororem [Hathamodæ]" succeeded her sister as second abbess of Gandersheim[133]. "Gerburgis" is named sister of "Hathumod"[134], whom she succeeded as Abbess of Gandersheim in 874[135]. "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostril fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[136].

8. CHRISTINA (-1 Apr [919/20], bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche).

  • Thankmar records that "Sororem autem eius [=Gerburgis [et] Hathumod] Cristinam" entered Gandersheim, specifying that they were all daughters of "Oda"[137].
  • Abbess of Gandersheim 897-897.

9. daughter (-young).

  • Europäische Stammtafeln[138] refers to an unnamed daughter of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.

10. son (-young).

  • Europäische Stammtafeln[139] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.

11. son (-young).

  • Europäische Stammtafeln[140] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.

12. [son (-young).

  • Europäische Stammtafeln[141] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.]

References:

  • [105] Wolff, L. (ed.) (1969) Die Gandersheimer Reimchronik des Priesters Eberhard 2nd Ed. (Altdeutsche Textbibliothek, Tübingen), 9, lines 139-44, cited in Jackman (1997), p. 146 footnote 40.
  • [106] Chronicon Hildesheimense 4, MGH SS VII, p. 851.
  • [107] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.16, MGH SS III, p. 425.
  • [108] Annales Alamannicorum continuation Sangallensis prima 864, MGH SS I, p. 50, alternative text quoted in footnote 1.
  • [109] Annales Xantenses 866, MGH SS II, p. 231.
  • [110] Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis, MGH SS IV, p. 306.
  • [111] Riedel Mark 1 [the full reference is not given], p. 25, quoted in Raumer, G. W. von (1836) Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis Tome I (Berlin) (“Regesta Historiæ Brandenburgensis”), p. 24.
  • [112] D Arn 107, p. 157.
  • [113] D O I 89, p. 171.
  • [114] Annalista Saxo 907.
  • [115] D LJ 3, p. 335.
  • [116] Annales Fuldensium Pars Tertia, auctore incerto 880, MGH SS I, p. 393.
  • [117] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 880, MGH SS I, p. 393.
  • [118] Thietmar 2.23, p. 108.
  • [119] Erchanberti Breviarum, MGH SS II, p. 330.
  • [120] Gesta quorundam regum Francorum 880, MGH SS I, p. 393.
  • [121] Thietmar 1.7.
  • [122] Annalista Saxo 907.
  • [123] ES I.1 10.
  • [124] Traditiones Corbeienses 235, p. 96.
  • [125] Widukindi Res Gestæ Saxonicæ I.16, MGH SS III, p. 425.
  • [126] D LJ 2, p. 334.
  • [127] Annales Necrologici Fuldenses, MGH SS XIII, p. 123.
  • [128] Annalista Saxo 885, which gives the exact date.
  • [129] ES I.1 10.
  • [130] Chronicon Hildesheimense 4, MGH SS VII, p. 851.
  • [131] Agii, Vita et Obitus Hathamodæ, MGH SS IV, p. 166 et seq.
  • [132] Annalista Saxo 870.
  • [133] Chronicon Hildesheimense 4, MGH SS VII, p. 851.
  • [134] Thangmari, Vita Bernwaldi Episcopi Hildesheimensis 12, MGH SS IV, p. 763.
  • [135] Annalista Saxo 870.
  • [136] D LJ 3, p. 335.
  • [137] Thangmari, Vita Bernwaldi Episcopi Hildesheimensis 12, MGH SS IV, p. 763.
  • [138] ES I.1 10.
  • [139] ES I.1 10.
  • [140] ES I.1 10.
  • [141] ES I.1 10.

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SACHSEN, BRAUNSCHWEIG OG HANOVERS REGENTER

Indhold

  • Indledning
  • Sachsen
  • Sachsiske fyrster
  • Braunschweigs fyrster numbered B-01 -
  • Hanovers fyrster numbered H-01 -
  • Saxony-Coburg-Gotha fyrster numbered S-01 -

Indledning

Kejsermagtens rolle var meget international, mens de enkelte fyrstedømmer levede deres eget lokale liv, hvilket kunne være nok så indholdsrigt og farligt som kejserens. I perioder var kejserens magt svækket i forhold til de største fyrsters magt. Oplysninger om kejserslægten er lagt ud under Germania sammen med den tidligste historie for Det tyske Rige under Karl den Store og Ottonerne. For links til de øvrige tyske delstater se Germaniaoversigten.

Sachsen

I tidlig middelalder havde området Sachsen stor betydning og flere af fyrsterne blev kejser, konger eller fik andre titler i riget.

Sachsennavnet har været knyttet til flere områder i Tyskland, så det er nødvendigt at tidsfæste en omtale for at vide, hvad der tales om. Under Rejseoplysninger fra Tyskland 2005 er der nogle detaljer herom.

Området Sachsen er noget kompliceret at få overblik over. Det første område - frem til ca. 1200 - kendt under navnet Sachsen omfattede det allernordligste Tyskland med Holsten samt områder syd for Elben fra Lüneburg til Erfurt og mod vest næsten til Rhinen. Hovedområdet lå langs Weserfloden. Det var fra dette område, at sakserne invaderede England 420-440. Fra dette område blev hertug Henrik af Sachsen - også kaldet Henrik Fuglefænger - valgt til tysk konge i 919. Han grundlagde det ottonske fyrstehus, der styrede Germania til 1024.

Det andet område med navnet Sachsen benyttes for tiden mellem 1180 og 1423. Her er tale om to adskilte landskaber: det ene er på Elbens østside fra Østersøen mod Lüneburg og et mindre område længere oppe ad Elben nord for Leipzig. Det første rige blev revet op i 1180 efter Henrik Løve (se også Braunschweig) blev erklæret fredløs af kejser Frederik I Barbarossa. Den nordlige del blev kaldt for Sachsen-Lauenburg og den sydlige for Sachsen-Wittenberg. Fra midten af 1200-tallet var fyrsten blevet en af valgfyrsterne til det tysk-romerske kejservalg. Det var Wittenbergfyrstelinjen, der beholdt valgretten efter 1356 indtil linjen uddøde i 1422, hvorefter Frederik I den Stridbare fik retten, indtil hans linje uddøde i 1689, hvorefter Hanoverlinjen fik retten.

Endelig det tredje Sachsen, som benyttes fra ca. 1423 til vor tid. I denne periode bliver Sachsen til et stort landområde i det centrale Tyskland, men ikke med samme udstrækning i hele perioden. I 1485 får Frederik II den Mildes to sønner, Albert / Albrecht og Ernest, ved Leipzigtraktaten aftalt en permanent deling af hertugdømmet i en østlig del, der tilfaldt slægten Albert = Albrecht og derfor kaldes for den Albertine Del. Den vestlige del tilfaldt Ernest og kaldes for den Ernestinske Del. Albert fik således området med Meissen og gjorde Dresden til områdets hovedstad.

I 1500-tallet blev det Albertinske Sachsen protestantisk under hertugerne Henrik, -1541, og Maurice, -1553. Under den næste hertug, Augustus, der styrede fra 1553-1586, blev der kodificeret betydelige lovværker, og hovedstaden blev flyttet til Leipzig. Hertug Johann George I, der styrede fra 1611-1656, blev hovedmanden i organisationen af protestantiske fyrster under trediveårskrigen 1618-1648. Efter denne krig blev Preussen den fremtrædende stat i det Tyske Rige. Hertug Friedrich Augustus I, regerede 1694-1733 og blev også konge af Polen.

Da Sachsen valgte side med Napoleon blev landet stærkt beskåret efter Wienerkongressen. Fra 1871 var landet en del af det nye tyske rige. I 1900-tallet har Sachsen både været en fri stat i Weimarrepublikken, et land under Hitlertiden og et land i DDR-tiden. Bemærk også, at der efter sammenlægningen af de to Tysklande i 1990 er dannet et land, Sachsen-Anhalt med hovedstad i Magdeburg. Der er således nu tre lande, hvori navnet Sachsen indgår: Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt og Niedersachsen.

Her er valgt dansk sprog, men en del navne kan være givet med også engelske og tyske varianter i stavemåde, så der bør søges med fantasi.

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From the Wikipedia page on Liudolf, Duke of Saxony:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liudolf,_Duke_of_Saxony

Liudolf (born about 805 or, died 11 or 12 March 864 or 866) was a Saxon count (probably 840-866), son of one count (Graf) Brun (Brunhart)[1] and his wife Gisla von Verla[2] ; later authors called him duke of the Eastern Saxons (dux orientalis Saxonum, probably since 850) and count of Eastphalia.

Liudolf had extended possessions in eastern Saxony, and was a leader (dux) in the wars of King Louis the German against Normans and Slavs. The ruling Liudolfing House, also known as the Ottonian dynasty, is named after him; he is its oldest verified member. (German Wikipedia suggests that the family was already elevated among Carolingian Officials in Saxony.)

(German Wikipedia says that Liudolf's ancestry is uncertain. His parents are historically elusive: "Markgraf Bruno the Younger" and "Gisla of Verla". Other sources say that Liudolf's mother is Addida, who was the daughter of Saxon Duke Ekbert and St. Ida von Herzfeld.)

(German Wikipedia says that Liudolf had extensive estates in the western Harz mountains in the area of Leine, on which in 852 (with Oda, Altfrid Bishop of Hildesheim, and maybe his cousin) he founded a convent at Brunshausen (where Liudolf was later buried). In 881, the monastery in Gandersheim was moved to new buildings. In Gandersheim, Oda found her final resting place. The monastery became the burial site for the early Liudolfingers, and central place for their memorials. Liudolf is said to have been one of the greatest rulers of Saxony. It is suggested that the son of Louis the German, heir to the eastern part of the empire, Louis the Younger, married with his daughter.)

Before 830 Liudolf married Oda, daughter of a Frankish princeps named Billung and his wife Aeda. Oda died on 17 May 913, supposedly at the age of 107.[3]

They had six children:[4]

  • 1. Brun, Graf in 877
  • 2. Otto the Illustrious (d. 912, married Hadwig or Hathui, d. 903, daughter of Heinrich dux austriacorum Poppon), father of Henry the Fowler
  • 3. Thankmar, Abbot of Corvey 877/879
  • 4. Liutgard married Carolingian King of East Francia Louis III the Younger (before 29 November) 874.[5] (d. 20 January 882), (testified in 877, d. 17/30 November 885, buried in Aschaffenburg)
  • 5. Hathumoda (b. c.840, d. 29 November 874, became an abbess of Gandersheim 852)
  • 6. Gerberga, (d. 5 September 896/897, became an abbess of Gandersheim 874)
  • 7. Christina, (d. April 1, probably 919/920, became an abess[6] of Gandersheim 896-897, buried in Gandersheim church)
  • 8. One daughter and two sons who died young.

By marrying a Frankish nobleman's daughter, Liudolf followed suggestions set forth by Charlemagne about ensuring the integrity of the Frankish Empire in the aftermath of the Saxon Wars through marriage.

In 845/846, Liudolf and his wife traveled to Rome in order to ask Pope Sergius II for permission to found a house of secular canonesses, duly established at their proprietary church in Brunshausen around 852, and moved in 881 to form Gandersheim Abbey. Liudolf's minor daughter Hathumod became the first abbess.

Liudolf is buried in Brunshausen.

Notes

1.^ The Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol 24, Ed. Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 268.

2.^ de:Liudolf (Sachsen)

3.^ Saint Odilo (Abbot of Cluny), Queenship and sanctity: The lives of Mathilda and The epitaph of Adelheid, translated by Sean Gilsdorf, (Catholic University of America Press, 2004), 24.

4.^ Althoff, Gerd, Christopher Carroll, Family, friends and followers: political and social bonds in medieval Europe, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 38.

5.^ The rise of the medieval world, 500-1300: a biographical dictionary, Ed. Jana K. Schulman , (Greenwood Press, 2002), 271.

6.^ The rise of the medieval world, 500-1300: a biographical dictionary, 271.

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From the English Wikipedia page on the Ottonian Dynasty:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottonian_dynasty

The Ottonian dynasty was a dynasty of Germanic Kings (919-1024), named after its first emperor but also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin. The family itself is also sometimes known as the Liudolfings, after its earliest known member Liudolf and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers are also regarded as the first dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, as successors of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty and Charlemagne, who is commonly viewed as the founder of the Holy Roman Empire.

Ottonian family tree

Ruling in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire

Although never Emperor, Henry I the Fowler, Duke of Saxony, was arguably the founder of this imperial dynasty, since his election as German king made it possible for his son, Otto the Great to take on the imperium. Since Otto I most of the German kings were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor.

Under the reign of the Ottonian rulers, the kingdom of the Eastern Franks finally became Germany with the conclusion of the unification of the duchies of Lorraine, Saxony, Franconia, Swabia, Thuringia and Bavaria into one empire. Also the union of Germany with the Holy Roman Empire, which dominated the German history until 1806, began with the coronation of Otto I the Great in Rome in 962. But the projected restoration of the Roman Empire failed already under Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor.

After the extinction of the Ottonian dynasty with the death of Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1024 the crown passed to the Salian dynasty. Luitgard, a daughter of Emperor Otto I had married the Salian Duke Conrad the Red of Lorraine. His great-grandson was Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor.

Ottonian Kings and Emperors:

  • 1. Henry I the Fowler, King of the Germans and Duke of Saxony, died 936
  • 2. Otto I the Great, Holy Roman Emperor and Duke of Saxony, died 973
  • 3. Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor, died 983
  • 4. Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, died 1002
  • 5. Saint Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, died 1024

Some other famous members of the Liudolfing or Ottonian House:

  • Liudolf, Count of Saxony, died 864/866
  • Saint Altfrid, Bishop of Hildesheim, died 874
  • Brun, Duke of Saxony, died 880
  • Otto the Illustrious, Duke of Saxony, died 912
  • Gerberga of Saxony, died 954
  • Henry I, Duke of Bavaria, died 955
  • Liudolf, Duke of Swabia, died 957
  • Hedwige of Saxony, died 965
  • Bruno I, Archbishop of Cologne and Duke of Lotharingia, died 965
  • William, Archbishop of Mainz, died 968
  • Matilda, Abbess of Quedlinburg, died 999
  • Adelheid I, Abbess of Quedlinburg, died 1044
  • Otto, Duke of Swabia and Bavaria, died 982
  • Henry II, Duke of Bavaria, the Wrangler, died 995
  • Bruno, Bishop of Augsburg, died 1029

See also

Kings of Germany family tree. The Ottonians were the 3rd dynasty to rule Germany and were related by marriage to all the others.

References

Karl Leyser, "Ottonian Government" The English Historical Review 96.381 (October 1981), pp 721-753.

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Liudolf is buried in Brunshausen; his sons Brun and Otto apparently inherited his property.

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Duke of Saxony

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From the German Wikipedia page on Liudolf (Sachsen):

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liudolf_%28Sachsen%29

Liudolf (Sachsen)

Liudolf (Abbildung aus einer Stammtafel der Ottonen in der Chronica St. Pantaleonis, 2. Hälfte des 12. Jahrhunderts)

Liudolf (* 805 oder 806; † 11. oder 12. März 866) war vermutlich seit 840 Graf in Sachsen und vermutlich seit 850 Herzog der Ostsachsen (dux orientalis Saxonum). Als frühester benennbarer Vertreter Adelsgeschlechtes der Liudolfinger (Ottonen) gilt er als Stammvater dieses Geschlechts. Wahrscheinlich stellte die Familie jedoch bereits vor ihm hohe karolingische Amtsträger in Sachsen.

Liudolfs Abkunft ist nicht sicher zu bestimmen. Seine Eltern sollen der historisch sonst nicht fassbare "Markgraf Brun(hard) der Jüngere" sein, seine Mutter dessen Frau Gisla von Verla. Nach anderen Quellen hieß seine Mutter Addida und war eine Tochter des sächsischen dux Ekbert und der Heiligen Ida von Herzfeld.

Liudolf war verheiratet mit Oda, der Tochter des princeps Billung aus dem Geschlecht der Billunger und der Aeda.

Er hatte umfangreichen Grundbesitz im westlichen Harzvorland, dem Gebiet der Leine, auf dem er 852 (gemeinsam mit Oda und mit Altfrid, dem Bischof von Hildesheim und vielleicht sein Vetter) in Brunshausen ein Frauenkloster gründete (in dem Liudolf beerdigt wurde). 881 wurde das Kloster nach Gandersheim verlegt, als die Neubauten dort fertiggestellt waren. In Gandersheim fand Oda ihre letzte Ruhestätte. Das Kloster wurde zur Grablege der frühen Liudolfinger und damit zum zentralen Ort ihrer Memoria.

Liudolf muss einer der bedeutendsten Machthaber in Sachsen gewesen sein. Darauf lässt die Tatsache schließen, dass Ludwig der Deutsche seinen Sohn und vorgesehenen Erben des östlichen Reichsteils, Ludwig den Jüngeren, mit Liudolfs Tochter verheiratete.

Liudolf und Oda hatten 11 oder 12 Kinder, darunter:

  • 1. Brun (X 880) 877 Graf
  • 2. Otto I. der Erlauchte († 912) ∞ Hadwig (Hathui) († 903) Tochter des Heinrich dux austriacorum (Popponen)
  • 3. Thankmar, 877/879 Abt von Corvey
  • 4. Liutgard (877 bezeugt; † 17. oder 30. November 885) begraben in Aschaffenburg ∞ vor 29. November 874 Ludwig III. der Jüngere König der Ostfranken († 20. Januar 882) (Karolinger)
  • 5. Enda ∞ NN
  • 6. Hathumod (* 840; † 29. November 874) 852 Äbtissin von Gandersheim, begraben in Brunshausen
  • 7. Gerberga († 5. September 896/897) 874 Äbtissin von Gandersheim
  • 8. Christina († 1. April wohl 919/920) 896-897 Äbtissin von Gandersheim, begraben in der Stiftskirche Gandersheim
  • 9. 1 Tochter und 2 oder 3 Söhne gestorben klein

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

  • Ernst Steindorff: Liudolf (Herzog in Sachsen). In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Band 19. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1884, S. 5 f.

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

  • Liudolf auf www.genealogie-mittelalter.de

http://www.genealogie-mittelalter.de/

Herzog von Sachsen 844–866

  • Vorgänger: Widukind
  • Nachfolger Brun

Einzelnachweise

1. ↑ Matthias Becher, Rex, Dux und Gens. Untersuchungen zur Entstehung des sächsischen Herzogtums im 9. und 10. Jahrhundert. Husum 1996, S. 66.

2. ↑ Gerd Althoff, Die Ottonen. Königsherrschaft ohne Staat. 2. erw. Auflage, Stuttgart 2005, S. 25.

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From Mark H. Holmes' personal family research:

http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps08/ps08_313.htm

{Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1956 Ed., 20:33 states:} Ludolph (Liudolf) was appointed about 850 by King Louis "the German" as margrave to defend the Limes Saxoniae' (a narrow strip of land on the eastern frontier) against the Slavs. Ludolph vigorously fought the Slavs and extended the frontier and his own influence. {-This source states he died in 866.} He was succeeded by his son Bruno who was killed fighting the Normans in 880; the second son, Otto the Illustrious, then succeeded and was recognized Duke of Saxony by King Conrad I.

References: [AR7],[Weis1]

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Presumably the Norwegian Wikipedia article on Liudolf:

Storhertug av Sachsen 844 - 866.

Liudolf (Ludolf) er berømt som stamfar til det sachsiske hertughus. Liudolfingerslekten var hertuger av Sachsen fra 844 til 961 og ble etterfulgt av Billungslekten. Slekten etterfulgte også Karolingerslekten som konger av Tyskland og som tysk-romerske keisere fra 919 til 1024. Keiserriket gikk deretter over til Salierslekten.

Han var på pilgrimsferd til Roma sammen med sin gemalinne Oda under Pave Sergius II i årene 844 - 847.

Liudolf stiftet Gandersheim i 856 sammen med sin hustru.

I 852 grunnet Liudolf et kloster i Brunshausen hvor han døde i 866.

Tekst: Tore Nygarrd

Kilder:

Allgemeine deutsche Biographie. Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 47. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 68.

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Count of East Saxons -------------------- hrabia Saksonii od ok. 840

książę Saksonii Wschodniej (dux orientalis Saxonum) od ok. 850

założyciel dynastii Ludolfingów

Liudolf i Oda mieli 11 lub 12 dzieci. Oprócz wyszczególnionych także córkę i dwóch lub trzych synów zmarłych w młodości -------------------- From Wikipedia:

Liudolf (born about 805, died 12 March 864 or 866) was a Saxon count, son of one count (Graf) Brun (Brunhart) and his wife Gisla von Verla ; later authors called him duke of the Eastern Saxons (dux orientalis Saxonum, probably since 850) and count of Eastphalia. Liudolf had extended possessions in eastern Saxony, and was a leader (dux) in the wars of King Louis the German against Normans and Slavs. The ruling Liudolfing House, also known as the Ottonian dynasty, is named after him; he is its oldest verified member.

Before 830 Liudolf married Oda, daughter of a Frankish princeps named Billung and his wife Aeda. Oda died on 17 May 913, supposedly at the age of 107.

They had six children:

   * Brun
   * Otto the Illustrious, father of Henry the Fowler
   * Liutgard married King Louis the Younger in 874.
   * Hathumoda, became an abbess
   * Gerberga, became an abbess
   * Christina, became an abbess[6]

By marrying a Frankish nobleman's daughter, Liudolf followed suggestions set forth by Charlemagne about ensuring the integrity of the Frankish Empire in the aftermath of the Saxon Wars through marriage.

In 845/846, Liudolf and his wife traveled to Rome in order to ask Pope Sergius II for permission to found a house of secular canonesses, duly established at their proprietary church in Brunshausen around 852, and moved in 881 to form Gandersheim Abbey. Liudolf's minor daughter Hathumod became the first abbess.

Liudolf is buried in Brunshausen. -------------------- Ruled 844-864 -------------------- Liudolf was a Saxon count, son of one count Brun and his wife Gisla von Verla; later authors called him duke of the Eastern Saxons and count of Eastphalia. -------------------- LIUDOLF, son of BRUNO & his wife --- (-11 Mar 866, bur Brunshausen).

Brun was named as father of Liudolf in the early 13th century Gandersheimer Reimchronik[105], but no earlier source has so far been found which confirms the relationship.

The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that Liudolf founded the abbey of Gandersheim in 852, first at Brunshausen[106]. Widukind records that "Liudulfus" transferred relics of Pope Innocent to Rome[107].

The Annales Alamannicorum record "Ludolfus dux Saxoniæ avus Heinrici" among those who swore allegiance in 864[108].

The Annales Xantenses record the death in 866 of "Liudolfus comes a septentrione"[109].

m ODA, daughter of BILLUNG princeps & his wife Aeda (-17 May 913).

The Carmen de Primordiis Cœnobii Gandersheimensis names the wife of "Liudulfus" as "Oda…Francorum…de stirpe potentum, filia Billungi…atque Aedæ"[110].

"Oda comitissa, Pipini regis Italiæ ex filia neptis, Hliudolfi Ducis vidua" founded Kloster Calbe an der Milde, by charter dated 885[111].

"Arnolfus…rex" confirmed donations of his predecessor of land "in pago Nordthuringa dicto in comitatu Liudulfi in loco Uuanzleua" to Kloster Gandersheim naming "fideli costræ in sanctimoniali habitu constitutæ…Odæ" by an undated charter, placed in the compilation among charters dated [891/92], which names "filia eius Gerberga abbatissa"[112]. "Otto…rex" confirmed privileges to Kloster Gandersheim "avo illius Sigihardo comiti in pago Chiemihgovue in comitatu Sigihardi" to "comiti nostro Eberhart" by charter dated 4 May 947 in which he names "proavo nostro Liutulfo…et eius coniuge Oda…et avo nostro Ottone" recalling their involvement in the foundation of the monastery[113].

Liudolf & his wife had [twelve] children:

1. BRUNO (-killed in battle in Saxony 2 Feb 880).

The Annalista Saxo records "Brunonis ducis" as brother of "Otto filius Liudolfi ducis"[114]. "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostri fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[115]. The Annales Fuldenses name "Brun ducem et fratrem reinæ, Wicmannum, Bardonem, alterum Bardonem et tertium Bardonem, Thiotherium, Gerrichum, Liutolfum, Folcwartum, Avan, Thiotricum, Liutharium" as those killed in battle in 880 in Saxony against "Nordmannis"[116]. The Gesta Francorum lists "Brun ducem et fratrem reginæ" as one of the twelve counts who were killed fighting the Danes in 880[117]. Thietmar records that "Duke Bruno…great uncle" of Bruno Archbishop of Köln, was drowned in a flooded river on 2 Feb while on an expedition against the Danes[118]. The Erchanberti Breviarum records that "Ludovicus rex Franciæ" had one son "Hug…de concubina" who [in 880] fought the Vikings "cum Theoderico et Marcwardo…episcopis et Bardone fratre Liutkardæ reginæ"[119], "Bardone" presumably being an error for "Brunone", although this version appears to conflate two battles (one at the river Scheldt and one in Saxony) which are reported separately in the Annales Fuldenses. The Gesta Francorum lists "Bardonum…alterum Bardonum [et] tertium Bardonum" as three of the twelve counts who were killed fighting the Danes in 880[120]. The other two counts named "Bardo" or "Bruno" have not been identified. 2. OTTO "der Erlauchte" (-30 Nov 912[121], bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche).

The Annalista Saxo records "Otto" as "filius Liudolfi ducis"[122]. Graf im Südthüringau. Graf im Eichsfeld 888. 3. THANKMAR .

Europäische Stammtafeln[123] names Thankmar as a son of Liudolf & his wife but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. [Abbot of Corvey 877/79]. “Ludolphus comes” donated property “in Daelhem et in Adonhusen” to Corvey monastery “pro filio suo Tancmaro”[124]. 4. LIUTGARD (-17 or 30 Nov 885, bur Aschaffenburg).

Widukind names "Liudgardam sororem Brunonis ac magni ducis Oddonis" as wife of "orientales Francos imperantium Hluthowicus"[125]. "Hludowicus…rex" made a donation of property in "villa…Winenheim" to Kloster Lorsch in the name of "comiti…Werinhario" by charter dated 4 Jan 877, naming "coniuge nostra Liutgarda"[126]. The necrology of Fulda records the death in 885 of "Liutgart regina"[127]. The death and burial place of "Liudgardis regina" are recorded in the Annalista Saxo[128]. m (before 29 Nov 874) LUDWIG, son of LUDWIG II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks & his wife Emma [Welf] ([835]-Frankfurt-am-Main 20 Jan 882, bur Kloster Lorsch). He succeeded his father in 876 as LUDWIG III "der Jüngere" King of the East Franks, Saxony and ½ Lotharingia. King of Bavaria 879. King of Lotharingia 880. 5. ENDA .

Europäische Stammtafeln[129] names Enda as a daughter of Liudolf & his wife, and her marriage, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. m ---. 6. HATHUMOD (840-29 Sep 874, bur Brunnshausen).

The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Hathamodam eius ducis [Liudolfi] filiam" was was installed as first abbess of Gandersheim in 852, and that she died 18 years later[130]. Her life and death are recounted in the Vita et Obitus Hathamodæ[131]. Her death is recorded in the Annalista Saxo[132]. 7. GERBERGA (-5 Sep [896/97]).

The Chronicon Hildesheimense records that "Gerbergam sororem [Hathamodæ]" succeeded her sister as second abbess of Gandersheim[133]. "Gerburgis" is named sister of "Hathumod"[134], whom she succeeded as Abbess of Gandersheim in 874[135]. "Hludowicus…rex" granted immunities to Kloster Gandersheim, naming "Brun et Otto nostril fideles comites…[et] Liutolf genitor eorum…[et]…Gerbirg soror eorundem comitum" by charter dated 26 Jan 877[136]. 8. CHRISTINA (-1 Apr [919/20], bur Gandersheim Stiftskirche).

Thankmar records that "Sororem autem eius [=Gerburgis [et] Hathumod] Cristinam" entered Gandersheim, specifying that they were all daughters of "Oda"[137]. Abbess of Gandersheim 897-897. 9. daughter (-young).

Europäische Stammtafeln[138] refers to an unnamed daughter of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. 10. son (-young).

Europäische Stammtafeln[139] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. 11. son (-young).

Europäische Stammtafeln[140] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified. 12. [son (-young).

Europäische Stammtafeln[141] refers to two or three unnamed sons of Liudolf & his wife who died young, but the primary source which confirms this has not so far been identified.]

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Liudolf I "the Great", Herzog von Sachsen's Timeline

805
805
Engern/Angaria (Present Niedersachsen), Sachsen/Saxe, Ostfrankenreich (Present Germany)
840
840
Age 35
844
844
- March 12, 866
Age 39
845
845
Age 40
Sachsen, Germany
845
Age 40
Sachsen, Ostfrankenreich (Present Germany)
849
849
Age 44
849
Age 44
Saxony, Germany
850
850
Age 45
of,Paris,Seine,France
851
851
Age 46
Memleben, Herrschaft Ostfalen (Present Bugenlandkreis), Herzogtum Sachsen (Present Sachsen-Anhalt), Ostenfrankenreich (Present Germany)
852
852
- March 12, 866
Age 47
Lower Saxony, Germany