Louis II, 'The German'

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Ludwig / Louis II "der Deutsche" von Bayern (Carolingian son of Louis I & Ermengard), König von Ost-Frankia

Also Known As: "The German", "/Louis/II", "'The German'", "Emperior Louis I of the Holy Roman Empire"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Alsace, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
Death: Died in Frankfurt, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia (Deutschland)
Place of Burial: Lauresheim Abbey, Prussia (Germany)
Immediate Family:

Son of Louis I, son of Charlemagne & Hildegard and Ermengarde de Hesbaye
Husband of Emma of Altdorf and Richilde
Father of Hildegard of Bavaria East-Franks, Princess Of Germany; Ludwig III, König von Bayern; Carloman; Berta of the East-Franks, Princess Of Germany; Charles III 'the Fat', King of the Franks and 2 others
Brother of Emperor Lothair I; Pépin I son of Louis I & Ermengard, Roi d'Aquitaine; Rotrude, daughter of Louis I the Pious and Ermengard; Berte, daughter ot Louis I the Pious and Ermengard; Adélaïs (Adelaide, Aélis) de Aquitane, abbesse de Saint-Pierre and 2 others
Half brother of Gisela of Cysoing, daughter of Louis and Judith; Charles II "the Bald", Western Emperor; Aelis (Adelaide) du Wormsgau; Arnoul (Arnulf) de Sens and Alpaise Elfide Carolingian

Occupation: Kung av Ostfranken 843, Roi, de Bavière, 826, de Germanie, 843, Empereur, 855/875, King of Bavaria, King of East Franks, ROI de GERMANIE de 843 au 28 Aout 876, King of East Franks, Roi de Bavière (817-843), Roi de Germanie (843-876)
Managed by: Bernard Raimond Assaf
Last Updated:

About Louis II, 'The German'

Louis the German

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis (or Ludwig) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 – August 28, 876), the third son of the emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye, was the King of Bavaria from 817, when his father partitioned the empire, and King of Eastern Francia from the Treaty of Verdun in 843 until his death.

-------------------

LOUIS [Hludowic], son of CHARLES I King of the Franks & his second wife Hildegard, married firstly: 1. Ermengard ([794]) ERMENGARD, daughter of ENGUERRAND Comte [de Hesbaye] & his wife --- ([775/80]-Angers 3 Oct 818[189], bur Angers). With her he had six childrenthree sons and three daughters:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

1. 1 Lothaire(795-855)

1.2 Pepin (797-838)

1.3 Rotrude (800-) HROTRUD [Rotrude] ([800]-).

1.4 Berta or Adelaide

1.5 Hildegrard (c802-857)

1.6 Louis (806-876) LOUIS ([806]-Frankfurt-am-Main 28 Aug 876, bur Kloster Lorsch). Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names (in order) "Hlutharius, Pippinus, Hludowicus" as sons of Emperor Ludwig I and his wife Ermengardis[208]. Under the Ordinatio Imperii promulgated by his father at Worms in 817, he became King of Bavaria and Carinthia. Under the partition of territories agreed by the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, Louis was installed as LUDWIG II "le Germanique/der Deutsche" King of the East Franks. Louis the German (c. 805–875), king of East Francia:[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Pious

----------------------------

Divisio imperii and filial rebellion

His early years were partly spent at the court of his grandfather, Charlemagne, whose special affection he is said to have won. When the emperor Louis divided his dominions between his sons in 817, Louis received Bavaria and the neighbouring lands, but did not undertake the governing of such until 825, when he became involved in wars with the Wends and Sorbs on his eastern frontier. In 827, he married Emma of Altdorf, sister of his stepmother Judith of Bavaria, and daughter of Welf, whose possessions ranged from Alsace to Bavaria. Louis soon began to interfere in the quarrels arising from Judith's efforts to secure a kingdom for her own son Charles (later known as Charles the Bald) and the consequent struggles of his brothers with their father.

His involvement in the first civil war of his father's reign was limited, but in the second, his elder brothers, Lothair, then King of Italy, and Pepin, King of Aquitaine, induced him to invade Alamannia — which their father had given to their half-brother Charles — by promising to give him the land in the new partition they would make. In 832, he led an army of Slavs into Alamannia and completely subjugated it. Louis the Pious disinherited him, but to no effect; the emperor was captured by his own rebellious sons and deposed. Upon his swift reinstatement, however, the Emperor Louis made peace with his son Louis and restored Bavaria (never actually lost) to him (836).

In the third civil war (began 839) of his father's ruinous final decade, Louis was the instigator. A strip of his land having been given to the young Charles, Louis invaded Alamannia again. His father was not so sluggish in responding to him this time and soon the younger Louis was forced into the far southeastern corner of his realm, the March of Pannonia. Peace had been made by force of arms.

[edit]Bruderkrieg, 840–843

When the elder Louis died in 840 and Lothair claimed the whole Empire, Louis allied with the half-brother, Charles the Bald, and defeated Lothair and their nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine, son of Pepin, at the Battle of Fontenay in June 841. In June 842, the three brothers met on an island in the Saône to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the Treaty of Verdun, concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands lying east of the Rhine (Eastern Francia), together with a district around Speyer, Worms, and Mainz, on the left bank of the river. His territories included Bavaria (where he made Regensburg the centre of his government), Thuringia, Franconia, and Saxony. He may truly be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile. Having in 842 crushed the Stellinga rising in Saxony, he compelled the Obotrites to own his authority, and undertook campaigns against the Bohemians, Moravians, and other tribes, but was not very successful in freeing his shores from the ravages of the Vikings.

Conflict with Charles the Bald

In 852, he had sent his son Louis the Younger to Aquitaine, where the nobles had grown resentful of Charles the Bald's rule. The younger Louis did not set out until 854, but he returned the following year. In 853 and the following years, Louis made more than one attempt to secure the throne of Western Francia, which, according to the Annals of Fulda (Annales Fuldenses), the people of that country offered him in their disgust with the cruel misrule of Charles the Bald. Encouraged by his nephews Pepin II and Charles, King of Provence, Louis invaded in 858; Charles the Bald could not even raise an army to resist the invasion and fled to Burgundy; in that year, Louis issued a charter dated "the first year of the reign in West Francia." Treachery and desertion in his army, and the loyalty to Charles of the Aquitanian bishops brought about the failure of the enterprise, which Louis renounced by a treaty signed at Coblenz on June 7, 860.

In 855, the emperor Lothair died, and Louis and Charles for a time seem to have cooperated in plans to divide Lothair's possessions among themselves — the only impediments to this being Lothair's sons: Lothair II (who received Lotharingia), Louis II (who held the imperial title and the Iron Crown), and the aforementioned Charles. In 868, at Metz they agreed definitely to a partition of Lotharingia; but when Lothair II died in 869, Louis the German was lying seriously ill, and his armies were engaged with the Moravians. Charles the Bald accordingly seized the whole kingdom; but Louis the German, having recovered, compelled him by a threat of war to agree to the Treaty of Meerssen, which divided it between the claimants.

[edit]Divisio regni and his sons

The later years of Louis the German were troubled by risings on the part of his sons, the eldest of whom, Carloman, revolted in 861 and again two years later; an example that was followed by the second son Louis, who in a further rising was joined by his brother Charles. In 864, Louis was forced to grant Carloman the kingdom of Bavaria, which he himself had once held under his father. The next year (865), he divided the remainder of his lands: Saxony he gave to Louis the Younger (with Franconia and Thuringia) and Swabia (with Raetia) to Charles, called the Fat. A report that the emperor Louis II was dead led to peace between father and sons and attempts by Louis the German to gain the imperial crown for Carloman. These efforts were thwarted by Louis II, who was not in fact dead, and Louis' old adversary, Charles the Bald.

Louis was preparing for war when he died on August 28, 876 at Frankfurt. He was buried at the abbey of Lorsch, leaving three sons and three daughters. His sons, unusually for the times, respected the division made a decade earlier and each contented himself with his own kingdom. Louis is considered by many to be the most competent of the grandsons of Charlemagne. He obtained for his kingdom a certain degree of security in face of the attacks of Norsemen, Magyars, Slavs, and others. He lived in close alliance with the Church, to which he was very generous, and entered eagerly into schemes for the conversion of his heathen neighbours.

[edit]Marriage and children

He was married to Hemma (died 31 January 876). They had seven children:

Hildegard (828-856)

Carloman (829-880)

Irmgard of Chiemsee also known as Ermengard (died 866)

Louis, having established two of his other daughters as abbesses of convents, appointed Irmgard (also known as Ermengard) to govern first the monastery of Buchau and then the royal abbey of Chiemsee in Bavaria. She is commemorated as a saint on 16 July.[1]

Gisela

Louis the Younger (830-882)

Bertha (died 877)

Charles the Fat (839-888)

--------------------

Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 – August 28, 876), was a grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

Louis II was made the King of Bavaria from 817 following the Emperor Charlemagne's practice of bestowing a local kingdom on a family member who then served as one of his lieutenants and the local governor. When his father, Louis I (called the pious), partitioned the empire toward the end of his reign in 843, he was made King of East Francia, a region that spanned the Elbe drainage basin from Jutland southeasterly through the Thuringerwald into modern Bavaria from the Treaty of Verdun in 843 until his death.

Contents [hide]

1 Divisio imperii and filial rebellion

2 Bruderkrieg, 840–843

3 Conflict with Charles the Bald

4 Divisio regni and his sons

5 Marriage and children

6 Ancestry

7 References


[edit] Divisio imperii and filial rebellion

His early years were partly spent at the court of his grandfather, Charlemagne, whose special affection he is said to have won. When the emperor Louis divided his dominions between his sons in 817, Louis received Bavaria and the neighbouring lands but did not undertake the governing of such until 825, when he became involved in wars with the Wends and Sorbs on his eastern frontier. In 827, he married Emma of Altdorf, sister of his stepmother Judith of Bavaria, and daughter of Welf, whose possessions ranged from Alsace to Bavaria. Louis soon began to interfere in the quarrels arising from Judith's efforts to secure a kingdom for her own son Charles (later known as Charles the Bald) and the consequent struggles of his brothers with their father.

His involvement in the first civil war of his father's reign was limited, but in the second, his elder brothers, Lothair, then King of Italy, and Pepin, King of Aquitaine, induced him to invade Alamannia — which their father had given to their half-brother Charles — by promising to give him the land in the new partition they would make. In 832, he led an army of Slavs into Alamannia and completely subjugated it. Louis the Pious disinherited him, but to no effect; the emperor was captured by his own rebellious sons and deposed. Upon his swift reinstatement, however, the Emperor Louis made peace with his son Louis and restored Bavaria (never actually lost) to him (836).

In the third civil war (began 839) of his father's ruinous final decade, Louis was the instigator. A strip of his land having been given to the young Charles, Louis invaded Alamannia again. His father was not so sluggish in responding to him this time, and soon the younger Louis was forced into the far southeastern corner of his realm, the March of Pannonia. Peace had been made by force of arms.

[edit] Bruderkrieg, 840–843

When the elder Louis died in 840 and Lothair claimed the whole Empire, Louis allied with the half-brother, Charles the Bald, and defeated Lothair and their nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine, son of Pepin, at the Battle of Fontenay in June 841. In June 842, the three brothers met on an island in the Saône to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the Treaty of Verdun, concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands lying east of the Rhine (Eastern Francia), together with a district around Speyer, Worms, and Mainz, on the left bank of the river. His territories included Bavaria (where he made Regensburg the centre of his government), Thuringia, Franconia, and Saxony. He may truly be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile. Having in 842 crushed the Stellinga rising in Saxony, he compelled the Obotrites to own his authority and undertook campaigns against the Bohemians, Moravians, and other tribes, but was not very successful in freeing his shores from the ravages of the Vikings.

[edit] Conflict with Charles the Bald

In 852, he had sent his son Louis the Younger to Aquitaine, where the nobles had grown resentful of Charles the Bald's rule. The younger Louis did not set out until 854, but he returned the following year. In 853 and the following years, Louis made more than one attempt to secure the throne of Western Francia, which, according to the Annals of Fulda (Annales Fuldenses), the people of that country offered him in their disgust with the cruel misrule of Charles the Bald. Encouraged by his nephews Pepin II and Charles, King of Provence, Louis invaded in 858; Charles the Bald could not even raise an army to resist the invasion and fled to Burgundy; in that year, Louis issued a charter dated "the first year of the reign in West Francia." Treachery and desertion in his army, and the loyalty to Charles of the Aquitanian bishops brought about the failure of the enterprise, which Louis renounced by a treaty signed at Coblenz on June 7, 860.

In 855, the emperor Lothair died, and Louis and Charles for a time seem to have cooperated in plans to divide Lothair's possessions among themselves — the only impediments to this being Lothair's sons: Lothair II (who received Lotharingia), Louis II (who held the imperial title and the Iron Crown), and the aforementioned Charles. In 868, at Metz they agreed definitely to a partition of Lotharingia; but when Lothair II died in 869, Louis the German was lying seriously ill, and his armies were engaged with the Moravians. Charles the Bald accordingly seized the whole kingdom; but Louis the German, having recovered, compelled him by a threat of war to agree to the Treaty of Meerssen, which divided it between the claimants.

[edit] Divisio regni and his sons

The later years of Louis the German were troubled by risings on the part of his sons, the eldest of whom, Carloman, revolted in 861 and again two years later; an example that was followed by the second son Louis, who in a further rising was joined by his brother Charles. In 864, Louis was forced to grant Carloman the kingdom of Bavaria, which he himself had once held under his father. The next year (865), he divided the remainder of his lands: Saxony he gave to Louis the Younger (with Franconia and Thuringia) and Swabia (with Raetia) to Charles, called the Fat. A report that the emperor Louis II was dead led to peace between father and sons and attempts by Louis the German to gain the imperial crown for Carloman. These efforts were thwarted by Louis II, who was not in fact dead, and Louis' old adversary, Charles the Bald.

Louis was preparing for war when he died on August 28, 876 at Frankfurt. He was buried at the abbey of Lorsch, leaving three sons and three daughters. His sons, unusually for the times, respected the division made a decade earlier and each contented himself with his own kingdom. Louis is considered by many to be the most competent of the grandsons of Charlemagne. He obtained for his kingdom a certain degree of security in face of the attacks of Norsemen, Magyars, Slavs, and others. He lived in close alliance with the Church, to which he was very generous, and entered eagerly into schemes for the conversion of his heathen neighbours.

[edit] Marriage and children

He was married to Hemma (died 31 January 876). They had seven children:

Hildegard (828-856)

Carloman (829-880)

Irmgard of Chiemsee also known as Ermengard (died 866)

Louis, having established two of his other daughters as abbesses of convents, appointed Irmgard (also known as Ermengard) to govern first the monastery of Buchau and then the royal abbey of Chiemsee in Bavaria. She is commemorated as a saint on 16 July.[1]

Gisela

Louis the Younger (830-882)

Bertha (died 877)

Charles the Fat (839-888)

[edit] Ancestry

[show]v • d • eAncestors of Louis the German

                                 

 16. Charles Martel 
 
         

 8. Pepin the Short   
 
               

 17. Rotrude of Trier 
 
         

 4. Charlemagne   
 
                     

 18. Caribert of Laon 
 
         

 9. Bertrada of Laon   
 
               

 19. Bertrada of Cologne 
 
         

 2. Louis the Pious   
 
                           

 20. Hado of Vintzgau 
 
         

 10. Gerold of Vinzgouw   
 
               

 21. Gerniu of Suevie 
 
         

 5. Hildegarde   
 
                     

 22. Hnabi of Alamannia 
 
         

 11. Emma of Alamannia   
 
               

 23. Hereswind 
 
         

 1. Louis the German   
 
                                 





 12. Rodbert   
 
               





 6. Ingerman of Hesbaye   
 
                     













 3. Ermengarde of Hesbaye   
 
                           













 7. Hedwig of Bavaria   
 
                     














[edit] References

^ Jones, G.R.; Carolyn Muessig (2005). "Saints at a glance". University of Leicester. http://www.le.ac.uk/users/grj1/ssaints.html. Retrieved 2007-11-16.

Louis II of Eastern Francia

Carolingian Dynasty

Born: 804 Died: 28 August 876

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Louis I

as King and Emperor of the Franks King of Bavaria

817–843 Succeeded by

Carloman

as King of Bavaria

King of East Francia

843–876

Succeeded by

Louis III

as King of Saxony

Succeeded by

Charles II

as King of Swabia

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_German"

view all 21

Louis II, 'The German''s Timeline

805
805
Alsace, Bas-Rhin, Alsace, France
827
827
Age 22
Regensburg, Germany
828
828
Age 23
Germany
830
830
Age 25
France
830
Age 25
836
836
Age 31
Germany
839
June 13, 839
Age 34
Swabia, Germany
840
840
Age 35
843
August 843
Age 38
King of the East Franks
876
August 28, 876
Age 71
Frankfurt, Hessen-Nassau, Prussia (Deutschland)