Louis VIII le Lion, roi de France

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Louis VIII 'le Lion' de France, roi de France

Also Known As: "Louis VIII 'the Lion' King of France", "le Lion", "the Lion", "Coeur de Lion", "The Lion", "/Louis/", "Louis VIII le Lion", "roi de France", "/Louis/ (Geni Tree Match)"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Palais Royal, Paris, Paris, Île-de-France, France
Death: Died in Montpensier, Puy-de-Dôme, Auvergne, France
Place of Burial: Abbaye royale de Saint-Denis, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Philippe II Auguste, roi de France and Isabelle de Hainaut, Reine de France
Husband of Blanche of Castille and Blanche de Castille, reine consort de France
Father of Louis IX le Saint, roi de France; Blanche Capet, (mort jeune); Agnès Capet; Philippe de France; Jean Capet de France and 8 others
Half brother of Valdemar Gerhardsen Holstein; Pierre Charlot de France, Évêque de Tours; Marie Capet; Philippe de Clermont and Jean Tristan de France

Occupation: Roi de France, King, Kung i Frankrike, King of France, Fransk kung, reigned from 1223-to-1226, m. 5-23-1200, King of the Franks, Rey de Francia (1223-1226), REY DE FRANCIA
Managed by: Sally Gene Cole
Last Updated:

About Louis VIII le Lion, roi de France

From Wikipedia,

Louis VIII the Lion

King of the Franks and Count of Artois

Reign 14 July 1223 – 8 November 1226

Coronation 6 August 1223, Reims

Titles Count of Artois (1189–1226)

King of England (1216–17)

Born 5 September 1187(1187-09-05)

Paris, France

Died 8 November 1226 (aged 39)

Chateau Montpensier, France

Buried Saint Denis Basilica

Predecessor Philip II Augustus

Successor Louis IX

Consort Blanche of Castile (1188–1252)

Issue Louis IX (1214–1270)

Robert I, Count of Artois (1216–50)

Alphonse, Count of Toulouse and Poitiers (1220–71)

Saint Isabel of France (1225–69)

Charles I of Sicily (1227–85)

Royal House House of Capet

Father Philip II of France (1165–1223)

Mother Isabelle of Hainaut (1170–90)

Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

As Prince Louis:

At the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile on 23 May 1200, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England.

In 1216 the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis invaded and was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage to him.

On June 14 he captured Winchester and soon conquered over half of the English kingdom. After a year and a half of war, most of the rebellious barons had defected and so Louis had to give up his claim to be the King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

As King Louis VIII:

Louis VIII succeeded his father on July 14, 1223; his coronation took place on August 6 of the same year in the cathedral at Reims. As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them in 1224. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc.

On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II of France (1180–1223). Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice, according to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication, a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal gray area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.

Twenty six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201–53), the powerful Count of Champagne, did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count of Toulouse, Raymond VII, and declared a crusade against the southern barons. Louis happily renewed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great, count of Foix, tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The king was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

While returning to Paris, King Louis VIII became ill with dysentery, and died on November 8, 1226 in the chateau at Montpensier, Auvergne.

The Saint Denis Basilica houses the tomb of Louis VIII. His son, Louis IX (1226–70), succeeded him on the throne.

Ancestors:

Louis VIII's ancestors in three generations Louis VIII of France Father:

Philip II of France Paternal Grandfather:

Louis VII of France Paternal Great-grandfather:

Louis VI of France

Paternal Great-grandmother:

Adelaide of Maurienne

Paternal Grandmother:

Adèle of Champagne Paternal Great-grandfather:

Theobald II, Count of Champagne

Paternal Great-grandmother:

Matilda of Carinthia

Mother:

Isabelle of Hainaut Maternal Grandfather:

Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut Maternal Great-grandfather:

Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut

Maternal Great-grandmother:

Alice of Namur

Maternal Grandmother:

Margaret I, Countess of Flanders Maternal Great-grandfather:

Thierry, Count of Flanders

Maternal Great-grandmother:

Sibylla of Anjou

Marriage:

On May 23, 1200, at the age of twelve, Louis married Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252).

Issue:

1) Blanche (1205–1206).

2) Agnes (b. and d. 1207).

3) Philippe (9 September 1209 – July 1218), married (or only betrothed) in 1217 to Agnes of Donzy.

4) Alphonse (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213).

5) John (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213), twin of Alphonse.

6) Louis IX (Poissy, 25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270, Tunis), King of France as succesor to his father.

7) Robert (25 September 1216 – 9 February 1250, killed in battle, Manssurah, Egypt)

8) Philippe (1218–1220).

9) John Tristan (21 July 1219 – 1232), Count of Anjou and Maine.

10) Alphonse (Poissy, 11 November 1220 – 21 August 1271, Corneto), Count of Poitou and Auvergne, and by marriage, of Toulouse.

11) Philippe Dagobert (20 February 1222 – 1232).

12) Isabel (14 April 1225 – 23 February 1269).

13) Charles Etienne (21 March 1226 – 7 January 1285), Count of Anjou and Maine, by marriage Count of Provence and Folcalquier, and King of Sicily.

--------------------

On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England (as represented in William Shakespeare's historical play King John).

In 1216, the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis and an army landed in England; he was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage. On 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom.[1]

After a year and a half of war, King John's death, and his replacement by a regency on behalf of the boy king Henry III (John's son), many of the rebellious barons deserted Louis. When his army was beaten at Lincoln, and his naval forces (led by Eustace the Monk) were defeated off the coast of Sandwich, he was forced to make peace under English terms.

The principal provisions of the Treaty of Lambeth were an amnesty for English rebels, land possession to return to the status quo ante, the Channel Islands to be returned to the English crown, Louis to undertake not to attack England again, and to attempt to give Normandy back to the English crown, and 10,000 marks to be given to Louis. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

Louis VIII succeeded his father on 14 July 1223; his coronation took place on 6 August of the same year in the cathedral at Reims. As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them in 1229. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc.

On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II Augustus. Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice, according to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication, a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal gray area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.

Twenty-six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201–53), the powerful Count of Champagne, did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery.

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count of Toulouse, Raymond VII, and declared a crusade against the southern barons. Louis happily renewed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great, count of Foix, tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The king was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

While returning to Paris, King Louis VIII became ill with dysentery, and died on 8 November 1226 in the chateau at Montpensier, Auvergne.

The Saint Denis Basilica houses the tomb of Louis VIII. His son, Louis IX (1226–70), succeeded him on the throne.

--------------------

Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

At the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile on 23 May 1200, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England.

In 1216 the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis invaded and was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage to him.

On June 14, Louis captured Winchester and soon conquered over half of the English kingdom.[1] After a year and a half of war, however, most of the rebellious barons defected and so Louis had to give up his claim to be the King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, (Bibliothèque nationale)

Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, (Bibliothèque nationale)

Louis VIII succeeded his father on July 14, 1223; his coronation took place on August 6 of the same year in the cathedral at Reims. As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them in 1224. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc.

On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II Augustus. Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice, according to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication, a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal gray area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.

Twenty-six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201–53), the powerful Count of Champagne, did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery.

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count of Toulouse, Raymond VII, and declared a crusade against the southern barons. Louis happily renewed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great, count of Foix, tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The king was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

While returning to Paris, King Louis VIII became ill with dysentery, and died on November 8, 1226 in the chateau at Montpensier, Auvergne.

The Saint Denis Basilica houses the tomb of Louis VIII. His son, Louis IX (1226–70), succeeded him on the throne.

--------------------

Louis VIII of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

As Prince Louis

At the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile on 23 May 1200, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England.

In 1216 the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis invaded and was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage to him.

On June 14 he captured Winchester and soon conquered over half of the English kingdom. After a year and a half of war, most of the rebellious barons had defected and so Louis had to give up his claim to be the King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

As King Louis VIII

Louis VIII succeeded his father on July 14, 1223; his coronation took place on August 6 of the same year in the cathedral at Reims. As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them in 1224. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc.

On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II of France (1180–1223). Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice, according to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication, a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal gray area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.

Twenty six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201–53), the powerful Count of Champagne, did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery.

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count of Toulouse, Raymond VII, and declared a crusade against the southern barons. Louis happily renewed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great, count of Foix, tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The king was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

While returning to Paris, King Louis VIII became ill with dysentery, and died on November 8, 1226 in the chateau at Montpensier, Auvergne.

The Saint Denis Basilica houses the tomb of Louis VIII. His son, Louis IX (1226–70), succeeded him on the throne.

Marriage

On May 23, 1200, at the age of twelve, Louis married Blanche of Castile (March 4, 1188 – November 26, 1252).

Issue

Blanche (1205–1206).

Agnes (b. and d. 1207).

Philippe (9 September 1209 – July 1218), married (or only betrothed) in 1217 to Agnes of Donzy.

Alphonse (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213).

John (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213), twin of Alphonse.

Louis IX (Poissy, 25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270, Tunis), King of France as succesor to his father.

Robert (25 September 1216 – 9 February 1250, killed in battle, Manssurah, Egypt)

Philippe (2 January 1218–1220).

John Tristan (21 July 1219 – 1232), Count of Anjou and Maine.

Alphonse (Poissy, 11 November 1220 – 21 August 1271, Corneto), Count of Poitou and Auvergne, and by marriage, of Toulouse.

Philippe Dagobert (20 February 1222 – 1232).

Isabel (14 April 1225 – 23 February 1269).

Charles Etienne (21 March 1226 – 7 January 1285), Count of Anjou and Maine, by marriage Count of Provence and Folcalquier, and King of Sicily.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_VIII_of_France

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_VIII_of_France

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BIOGRAPHY: b. Sept. 5, 1187, Paris

d. Nov. 8, 1226, Montpensier, Auvergne, Fr.

byname LOUIS THE LION, OR THE LION-HEART, French LOUIS LE LION, OR LOUIS COEUR-DE-LION, Capetian king of France from 1223 who spent most of his short reign establishing royal power in Poitou and Languedoc.

On May 23, 1200, Louis married Blanche of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who effectively acted as regent after Louis's death. In 1212 Louis seized Saint-Omer and Aire to prevent a powerful Flanders from being on the flank of his county of Artois. In 1216, after the barons rebelling against King John of England had offered the English throne to Louis in return for his aid, Louis went to England to aid the rebels. Initially he was successful, but eventually he was defeated at sea and suffered defections. In 1217, when peace was concluded at Kingston, Louis was secretly paid 10,000 marks. In 1224, now king, he seized Poitou and, in 1226, he launched a successful crusade against the Albigensian heretics, capturing the major fortress of Avignon before returning toward Paris because of illness.

Louis was the first Capetian to grant appanages on a large scale and to have a reversion clause that made alienation of royal property more difficult. Louis also developed other particular rights for the kingship, such as the concept that fealty was sworn not only to the individual king but also to the kingship. His eldest son, Louis IX (afterward St. Louis), peacefully succeeded him while his other sons received appanages.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

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Louis VIII of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II of France and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

As Prince Louis

At the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile on 23 May 1200, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England.

In 1216 the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis invaded and was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage to him.

On June 14, Louis captured Winchester and soon conquered over half of the English kingdom.[1] After a year and a half of war, most of the rebellious barons had defected and so Louis had to give up his claim to be the King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

As King Louis VIII

Louis VIII succeeded his father on July 14, 1223; his coronation took place on August 6 of the same year in the cathedral at Reims. As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them in 1224. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc.

On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II of France (1180–1223). Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice, according to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication, a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal gray area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.

Twenty six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201–53), the powerful Count of Champagne, did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery.

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count of Toulouse, Raymond VII, and declared a crusade against the southern barons. Louis happily renewed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great, count of Foix, tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The king was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

While returning to Paris, King Louis VIII became ill with dysentery, and died on November 8, 1226 in the chateau at Montpensier, Auvergne.

The Saint Denis Basilica houses the tomb of Louis VIII. His son, Louis IX (1226–70), succeeded him on the throne.

--------------------

Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

At the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile on 23 May 1200, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England.

In 1216 the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis invaded and was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage to him.

On June 14, Louis captured Winchester and soon conquered over half of the English kingdom.[1] After a year and a half of war, however, most of the rebellious barons defected and so Louis had to give up his claim to be the King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

--------------------

Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

Contents [hide]

1 As Prince Louis

2 As King Louis VIII

3 Ancestry

4 Marriage and Issue

5 References


[edit] As Prince Louis

On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England (as represented in William Shakespeare's historical play King John).

In 1216, the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis and an army landed in England; he was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage. On 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom.[1]

After a year and a half of war, King John's death, and his replacement by a regency on behalf of the boy king Henry III (John's son), many of the rebellious barons deserted Louis. When his army was beaten at Lincoln, and his naval forces (led by Eustace the Monk) were defeated off the coast of Sandwich, he was forced to make peace under English terms.

The principal provisions of the Treaty of Lambeth were an amnesty for English rebels, land possession to return to the status quo ante, the Channel Islands to be returned to the English crown, Louis to undertake not to attack England again, and to attempt to give Normandy back to the English crown, and 10,000 marks to be given to Louis. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

[edit] As King Louis VIII

Louis VIII succeeded his father on 14 July 1223; his coronation took place on 6 August of the same year in the cathedral at Reims. As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them in 1229. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc.


Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223; a miniature from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s, (Bibliothèque nationale)On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II Augustus. Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice, according to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication, a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal gray area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.

French Monarchy

Direct Capetians


Louis VIII

  Louis IX 
  Robert I, Count of Artois 
  Alphonse, Count of Poitou and Toulouse 
  Saint Isabel of France 
  Charles I of Anjou and Sicily 

Twenty-six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201–53), the powerful Count of Champagne, did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery.

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count of Toulouse, Raymond VII, and declared a crusade against the southern barons. Louis happily renewed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great, count of Foix, tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The king was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

While returning to Paris, King Louis VIII became ill with dysentery, and died on 8 November 1226 in the chateau at Montpensier, Auvergne.

The Saint Denis Basilica houses the tomb of Louis VIII. His son, Louis IX (1226–70), succeeded him on the throne.

[edit] Ancestry

[show]v • d • eAncestors of Louis VIII of France

                                 

 16. Philip I of France 
 
         

 8. Louis VI of France   
 
               

 17. Bertha of Holland 
 
         

 4. Louis VII of France   
 
                     

 18. Humbert II of Savoy 
 
         

 9. Adelaide of Savoy   
 
               

 19. Gisela of Burgundy 
 
         

 2. Philip II of France   
 
                           

 20. Stephen II, Count of Blois 
 
         

 10. Theobald II, Count of Champagne   
 
               

 21. Adela of Normandy 
 
         

 5. Adèle of Champagne   
 
                     

 22. Engelbert, Duke of Carinthia 
 
         

 11. Matilda of Carinthia   
 
               

 23. Uta of Passau 
 
         

 1. Louis VIII of France   
 
                                 

 24. Baldwin III, Count of Hainaut 
 
         

 12. Baldwin IV, Count of Hainaut   
 
               

 25. Yolande of Wassenberg 
 
         

 6. Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut   
 
                     

 26. Godfrey I of Namur 
 
         

 13. Alice of Namur   
 
               

 27. Ermesinde of Luxembourg 
 
         

 3. Isabelle of Hainaut   
 
                           

 28. Theodoric II, Duke of Lorraine 
 
         

 14. Thierry, Count of Flanders   
 
               

 29. Gertrude of Flanders 
 
         

 7. Margaret I, Countess of Flanders   
 
                     

 30. Fulk V of Anjou 
 
         

 15. Sibylla of Anjou   
 
               

 31. Ermengarde of Maine 
 
         


[edit] Marriage and Issue

On 23 May 1200, at the age of twelve, Louis married Blanche of Castile (4 March 1188 – 26 November 1252).

Blanche (1205–1206).

Agnes (b. and d. 1207).

Philippe (9 September 1209 – July 1218), married (or only betrothed) in 1217 to Agnes of Donzy.

Alphonse (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213).

John (b. and d. Lorrez-le-Bocage, 23 January 1213), twin of Alphonse.

Louis IX (Poissy, 25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270, Tunis), King of France as successor to his father.

Robert (25 September 1216 – 9 February 1250, killed in Battle of Al Mansurah, Egypt)

Philippe (2 January 1218–1220).

John Tristan (21 July 1219–1232), Count of Anjou and Maine.

Alphonse (Poissy, 11 November 1220 – 21 August 1271, Corneto), Count of Poitou and Auvergne, and by marriage, of Toulouse.

Philippe Dagobert (20 February 1222–1232).

Isabel (14 April 1225 – 23 February 1269).

Charles Etienne (21 March 1226 – 7 January 1285), Count of Anjou and Maine, by marriage Count of Provence and Folcalquier, and King of Sicily.

[edit] References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Louis VIII of France 

^ Alan Harding (1993), England in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), p. 10. According to L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal Louis became "master of the country".

Louis VIII of France

House of Capet

Born: 5 September 1187 Died: 8 November 1226

Preceded by

Philip II King of France

14 July 1223 – 8 November 1226 Succeeded by

Louis IX of France

Preceded by

Isabelle of Hainaut Count of Artois

15 March 1190 – 8 November 1226

--------------------

BIOGRAPHY: b. Sept. 5, 1187, Paris

d. Nov. 8, 1226, Montpensier, Auvergne, Fr.

byname LOUIS THE LION, OR THE LION-HEART, French LOUIS LE LION, OR LOUIS COEUR-DE-LION, Capetian king of France from 1223 who spent most of his short reign establishing royal power in Poitou and Languedoc.

On May 23, 1200, Louis married Blanche of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who effectively acted as regent after Louis's death. In 1212 Louis seized Saint-Omer and Aire to prevent a powerful Flanders from being on the flank of his county of Artois. In 1216, after the barons rebelling against King John of England had offered the English throne to Louis in return for his aid, Louis went to England to aid the rebels. Initially he was successful, but eventually he was defeated at sea and suffered defections. In 1217, when peace was concluded at Kingston, Louis was secretly paid 10,000 marks. In 1224, now king, he seized Poitou and, in 1226, he launched a successful crusade against the Albigensian heretics, capturing the major fortress of Avignon before returning toward Paris because of illness.

Louis was the first Capetian to grant appanages on a large scale and to have a reversion clause that made alienation of royal property more difficult. Louis also developed other particular rights for the kingship, such as the concept that fealty was sworn not only to the individual king but also to the kingship. His eldest son, Louis IX (afterward St. Louis), peacefully succeeded him while his other sons received appanages.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

--------------------

BIOGRAPHY: b. Sept. 5, 1187, Paris

d. Nov. 8, 1226, Montpensier, Auvergne, Fr.

byname LOUIS THE LION, OR THE LION-HEART, French LOUIS LE LION, OR LOUIS COEUR-DE-LION, Capetian king of France from 1223 who spent most of his short reign establishing royal power in Poitou and Languedoc.

On May 23, 1200, Louis married Blanche of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile, who effectively acted as regent after Louis's death. In 1212 Louis seized Saint-Omer and Aire to prevent a powerful Flanders from being on the flank of his county of Artois. In 1216, after the barons rebelling against King John of England had offered the English throne to Louis in return for his aid, Louis went to England to aid the rebels. Initially he was successful, but eventually he was defeated at sea and suffered defections. In 1217, when peace was concluded at Kingston, Louis was secretly paid 10,000 marks. In 1224, now king, he seized Poitou and, in 1226, he launched a successful crusade against the Albigensian heretics, capturing the major fortress of Avignon before returning toward Paris because of illness.

Louis was the first Capetian to grant appanages on a large scale and to have a reversion clause that made alienation of royal property more difficult. Louis also developed other particular rights for the kingship, such as the concept that fealty was sworn not only to the individual king but also to the kingship. His eldest son, Louis IX (afterward St. Louis), peacefully succeeded him while his other sons received appanages.

Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

--------------------

Wikipedia:

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_VIII._%28Frankreich%29

Ludwig VIII. (Frankreich)

aus Wikipedia, der freien Enzyklopädie

Wechseln zu: Navigation, Suche

Krönung Ludwigs VIII. und seiner Frau Blanka

Ludwig VIII. (* 5. September 1187 in Paris; † 8. November 1226 in Montpensier), genannt der Löwe (le Lion), war von 1223 bis zu seinem Tod ein König von Frankreich aus der Dynastie der Kapetinger.

Ludwigs Beiname geht auf einen anonymen Minnesänger aus Reims zurück, der ihn wie folgt charakterisierte: Dieser Ludwig war mutig, kühn und kampfeslustig, er besaß das Herz eines Löwen. Aber so wie er lebte, fehlte es ihm nicht an Leid und Mühe.

Zwei Jahre nach seinem Tod wurde Ludwig zudem von Nicolas de Bray als magnus Alexander besungen.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

[Anzeigen]

   * 1 Kronprinz
         o 1.1 Herkunft und Jugend
         o 1.2 Kampf gegen Johann Ohneland
         o 1.3 Invasion in England und Kreuzzug
   * 2 Herrschaft
         o 2.1 Herrschaftsantritt und Feldzug in das Poitou
         o 2.2 Kreuzzug gegen die Albigenser
         o 2.3 Tod
   * 3 Bewertung
         o 3.1 Die karolingische Erneuerung
   * 4 Familiäres
         o 4.1 Vorfahren
         o 4.2 Ehe und Nachkommen
   * 5 Literatur
   * 6 Anmerkungen
   * 7 Weblinks

Kronprinz [Bearbeiten]

Herkunft und Jugend [Bearbeiten]

Geburt des Prinzen Ludwig VIII.

(Grandes Chroniques de France, 14. oder 15. Jahrhundert)

Ludwig war der älteste Sohn König Philipps II. aus dessen erster Ehe mit Isabella von Hennegau († 1190) und war damit von Geburt an der designierte Nachfolger seines Vaters auf den französischen Thron. Der Prinz litt Zeit seines Lebens an einer schwachen körperlichen Gesundheit, die ihm 1191 während einer Ruhrerkrankung beinahe zum Verhängnis wurde. Gemeinsam mit dem Plantagenet-Prinzen Arthur von der Bretagne erhielt Ludwig am Hofe seines Vaters durch Bischof Stephan von Tournai eine umfassende geistige Ausbildung. Gemäß den Bestimmungen des Vertrages von Le Goulet zwischen Philipp II. und Johann Ohneland wurde Ludwig 1200 mit der kastilischen Prinzessin Blanka verheiratet, die eine Nichte Johanns war.

Kampf gegen Johann Ohneland [Bearbeiten]

Ludwig nahm seit dem Jahr 1204 an den Feldzügen seines Vaters gegen Johann Ohneland teil, welcher per Parlamentsurteil all seiner Territorien in Frankreich für verlustig erklärt worden war. Am 17. Mai 1209 erhielt Ludwig in Compiègne die Schwertleite. 1212 führte er erstmals selbständig einen Feldzug in das Artois, wo er von seiner Mutter geerbte Ansprüche gegen den flandrischen Grafen Ferrand verteidigen musste. Als Vertreter seines Vaters besiegelte Ludwig im November 1212 in Vaucouleurs mit Friedrich von Hohenstaufen das französisch-staufische Bündnis, welches gegen Johann Ohneland und dessen Neffen Kaiser Otto IV. gerichtet war. Auf einem Hoftag König Philipps II. zu Soissons am 8. April 1213 wurde der Beschluss gefasst, Prinz Ludwig auf den englischen Königsthron zu setzen, um dort den gebannten Johann Ohneland zu ersetzen. Das Vorhaben kam jedoch nicht zur Ausführung, nachdem sich Johann dem Heiligen Stuhl unterworfen hatte. Stattdessen zog Ludwig mit dem aufgestellten Invasionsheer unter Führung seines Vaters erneut gegen Flandern.

Im Jahr 1214 griff Johann Ohneland vom Poitou aus das ihm 1204 verlorengegangene Anjou an, während gleichzeitig Kaiser Otto IV. ein Heer vom Norden aus über Flandern gegen Frankreich führte. Prinz Ludwig zog Johann mit einem Heer von Chinon aus entgegen und siegte am 2. Juli bei Roche-aux-Moines über diesen. Johann musste auf seiner überstürzten Flucht sein gesamtes schweres Belagerungsgerät zurücklassen, womit ihm jede Möglichkeit auf ein erfolgreiches Fortführen seines Feldzuges genommen wurde. Wenige Tage später siegte Ludwigs Vater in der Schlacht bei Bouvines über den Kaiser.

Invasion in England und Kreuzzug [Bearbeiten]

Ludwig VIII. in London, 1216. Darstellung aus La Toison d'or des Guillaume Fillastre, 15. oder 16. Jahrhundert.

Nach diesem Sieg wurde der Plan zur Invasion Englands neu aufgegriffen. Dessen Realisierung erschien günstig, nachdem Johanns Herrschaft von den aufständischen englischen Baronen trotz der Anerkennung der Magna Charta 1215 in Frage gestellt wurde. Die Barone sandten an Prinz Ludwig eine förmliche Einladung den englischen Thron zu besteigen. Dieser, nun weitaus selbstständiger handelnd, versuchte den Papst Innozenz III., der noch Johann unterstützte, für sich zu gewinnen, indem er den Papst von der Gewaltherrschaft Johanns zu überzeugen versuchte und die Ansprüche seiner Frau als Enkelin Heinrichs II. von England hervorhob. Im Dezember 1215 landete Ludwigs Vorhut auf der britischen Insel und zog in London ein, am 26. Mai 1216 folge Ludwig persönlich nach, wo er in der Saint Paul's Cathedral die Huldigung der Barone wie auch von König Alexander II. von Schottland entgegen nahm, ohne dabei aber gekrönt zu werden. Im weiteren Verlauf des Jahres gelang es ihm das gesamte östliche England zu erobern, bis am 26. Oktober 1216 König Johann verstarb. Dessen treuster Anhänger William Marshal ließ unverzüglich Johanns unmündigen Sohn Heinrich III. krönen, der den Schutz Papst Honorius III. erhielt. Ludwig musste Anfang 1217 nach Frankreich zurückkehren um neue Truppen zu werben, nachdem ihm sein Vater die Unterstützung entzogen hatte. Im Mai 1217 erlitt seine Partei bei Lincoln eine Niederlage gegen William Marshal. Ludwigs Flotte wurde im August 1217 vor Sandwich versenkt. Nach diesen Niederlagen musste Ludwig am 11. September 1217 den Frieden von Lambeth eingehen und seine Truppen von der Insel abziehen.

Nach dem gescheiterten Unternehmen in England stellte sich Ludwig wieder in den Dienst seines Vaters. Dieser sandte Ludwig 1218 an der Spitze eines Kreuzfahrerheers in das Languedoc, das seit neun Jahren Schauplatz des Albigenserkreuzzuges war. Ludwig hatte bereits im Frühjahr 1215 kurzzeitig an diesem teilgenommen, nun sollte er nach dem Tod des Anführers des Kreuzzuges Simon de Montfort 1218 die Positionen dessen unfähigen Sohnes Amaury de Montfort und damit die Einflussnahme der französischen Krone in dieser Region retten. Doch eingedenk seines schlechten Verhältnisses zu Papst Honorius III., der auf diesen Feldzug diplomatisch drängte, brach Ludwig den Feldzug nach einem Massaker an der Bevölkerung von Marmande im Juni 1219 und einer halbherzig und ohne Erfolg geführten Belagerung von Toulouse wieder ab. In dieser Folge gelang es den Gegnern des Kreuzzuges unter Führung des Grafen Raimund VI. von Toulouse bis 1224 die Kreuzfahrer aus dem Languedoc zu vertreiben.

Herrschaft [Bearbeiten]

Herrschaftsantritt und Feldzug in das Poitou [Bearbeiten]

Bereits im März 1223 hatten Papst Honorius III., Kaiser Friedrich II. und Johann von Brienne bei einer Zusammenkunft in Ferentino einen konkreten Plan für einen groß angelegten Kreuzzug ins heilige Land vereinbart. Dazu erhielten sowohl der französische als auch der englische Hof vom Papst die Aufforderung zur Beendigung ihres Konflikts und zur Erhebung einer Kreuzzugssteuer. Für das Unternehmen werbend erschien Johann von Brienne eigens in Frankreich, wo er aber zu seiner Enttäuschung auf eine geringe Kreuzzugsbegeisterung in der Ritterschaft des Landes als auch am königlichen Hof stieß. Weder der bereits erkrankte Philipp II. noch der ihm im Juli 1223 nachfolgende Ludwig VIII. erklärten sich zu einer persönlichen Beteiligung an einer bewaffneten Pilgerfahrt in den Orient bereit. Ludwig war lediglich eine finanzielle Unterstützung abzuringen.

Am 6. August 1223 wurde Ludwig in der Kathedrale von Reims von Erzbischof Guillaume de Joinville zum neuen König von Frankreich gesalbt und gekrönt. Zum ersten Mal in der Geschichte der Kapetinger-Dynastie setzte sich einzig das Geburtsrecht durch, da diesem Herrschaftswechsel erstmals keine beratende Versammlung voraus ging. Auch war Ludwig VIII. der erste Kapetingerkönig, der nicht zu Lebzeiten seines Vaters zum König geweiht worden war. Auf dieses Mittel zur Nachfolgesicherung waren Ludwigs Vorgänger angewiesen gewesen, seine Nachfolger konnten fortan darauf verzichten. Diese nunmehr unbestrittene Anerkennung der Dynastie war das Ergebnis der erfolgreichen Politik seines am 14. Juli 1223 in Mantes gestorbenen Vaters Philipp II. August.

Unmittelbar nach dem Tod Philipps II. hatte Ludwig mit Kaiser Friedrich II. den französisch-staufischen Pakt von 1212 erneuert, der besonders auf die weitere Isolierung Englands abzielte. Allerdings gelang es Ludwig nicht, den in Deutschland regierenden Kaisersohn, König Heinrich (VII.), bei einem gemeinsamen Treffen in Toul im November 1224 zu einem Beitritt in dieses Bündnis zu bewegen. Ebenso wurde das Eheangebot mit einer französischen Prinzessin seitens Heinrichs (VII.) zurückgewiesen. Diese Ablehnung ging aller Wahrscheinlichkeit nach auf den einflussreichen Erzbischof Engelbert I. von Köln zurück, der mit England wirtschaftliche Interessen in seinem niederrheinischen Einflussgebiet verband.

Nach zwei Umritten in den der Krondomäne neu gewonnenen Gebieten nördlich der Loire, wo er sich der stabilen Autorität der Krone versichern konnte, nahm Ludwig den zu Ostern 1224 auslaufenden Frieden mit England zum Anlass für ein weiteres militärisches Vorgehen gegen die Plantagenets. Ziel war dabei die Unterwerfung der letzten von diesen gehaltenen Gebieten in Frankreich südlich der Loire. Zunächst erlangte er die Kontrolle über das Poitou, danach unterwarf sich ihm Hugo X. von Lusignan, der mit der Witwe Johanns Ohneland verheiratet war, der Ludwig für La Marche und Angoulême huldigte. Anschließend stieß Ludwig in die Saintonge vor, die er nach der Einnahme von La Rochelle am 13. August 1224 unter seine Kontrolle brachte. Der Vizegraf von Limoges unterwarf sich ihm freiwillig. Dann wandte sich Ludwig der Gascogne zu, in die er Hugo von Lusignan mit einem Heer entsandte, doch diesem gelang es nicht Bordeaux einzunehmen. Der englische Prinz Richard von Cornwall führte von dort aus im Frühjahr 1225 einen Gegenschlag, der die Gascogne wieder unter die englische Herrschaft brachte.

Kreuzzug gegen die Albigenser [Bearbeiten]

Tod Ludwigs VIII.

rechts daneben: die Krönung Ludwigs IX.

im Hintergrund: die Belagerung von Avignon

(Jean Fouquet)

Als Reaktion auf dieses Ausgreifen Ludwigs bildete sich gegen ihn eine Allianz des Papstes mit England, der auch Peter Mauclerc und der wankelmütige Hugo von Lusignan beitraten, weiterhin gelang es Papst Honorius III. den Grafen Raimund VII. von Toulouse in dieses Bündnis zu integrieren. Doch bevor dieses aktiv werden konnte, übernahm Ludwig die Initiative und berief im November 1225 ein Konzil in Bourges ein. Dort gelang es ihm mit der Hilfe des ihm gewogenen päpstlichen Legaten Romano Frangipani die Politik des Papstes zu sabotieren, indem er den Grafen von Toulouse exkommunizieren und einen erneuten Kreuzzug in das Languedoc proklamieren ließ. Das Konzil übertrug die militärische Leitung des Feldzuges an Ludwig und die geistige an Bischöfe der Krondomäne, die Finanzierung sollte ganz dem Kirchenvermögen zu Last gelegt werden. Auch sollten alle eroberten Gebiete an die Krone fallen, als rechtliche Grundlage hierfür diente vor allem die zu Bourges vorgenommene Übertragung der Rechte Amaurys de Montfort an den König.

Im Mai 1226 zog Ludwig mit seinem Heer entlang am linken Ufer der Rhône, auf Reichsterritorium, in den Süden. Das kaiserliche Avignon versperrte ihm jedoch den Weg und erst eine langwierige Belagerung konnte den Widerstand dieser Stadt am 9. September des Jahres brechen. Die Wirkung dieses Erfolges war sehr groß und alle nachfolgenden Kriegsziele wie Nîmes, Beaucaire, Narbonne, Carcassonne, Montpellier und Pamiers ergaben sich kampflos. Auf eine Belagerung des starken Toulouse verzichtete man aufgrund des von Krankheiten geschwächten Heeres. Das unterworfene Gebiet wurde einer strengen nordfranzösischen Ordnung, basierend auf den 1212 von Simon de Montfort erlassenen Statuten von Pamiers, unterstellt und vom König ernannten Seneschalle zur Verwaltung anvertraut. Das französische Königtum gewann damit einen dauerhaften Zugang zum Mittelmeer und eine Ausgangsbasis für die endgültige Unterwerfung des Südens.

Tod [Bearbeiten]

Im Oktober zog Ludwig über Albi wieder in den Norden zurück, von wo ihm seine Frau entgegen reiste. Doch noch vor dem Zusammentreffen starb Ludwig VIII. am 8. November in Montpensier an den Folgen einer Ruhrerkrankung, die er sich bei Avignon zugezogen hatte. Auf dem Sterbebett ließ er die Großen seines Königreiches auf seinen noch unmündigen ältesten Sohn einschwören. Allerdings hatte er in seinem Testament, das er vor dem Antritt des Feldzuges verfasst hatte, keine Vorsorge für eine eventuelle Vormundschaft und Regentschaft für seinen Sohn getroffen, was seiner Witwe in den kommenden Jahren erhebliche Schwierigkeiten in ihrer Regierung bereitete.

Ludwig wurde in der Abtei von Saint-Denis neben seinem Vater bestattet.

Bewertung [Bearbeiten]

Aufgrund seiner mit nur drei Jahren besonders kurzen Regierungszeit stand Ludwig VIII. in der geschichtlichen Erinnerung lange im Schatten seines ruhmreichen Vaters und der Heiligkeit seines Sohnes. Allgemein gilt sein Wirken als eine Weiterführung der Politik des Vaters, die Autorität des Königtums gegenüber dem Lehnsadel, insbesondere der Plantagenets, auszubauen und zu festigen. Ludwigs 1225 injizierter Kreuzzug gab den Anstoß zur Unterwerfung des Südens, den seine Witwe im Vertrag von Meaux-Paris 1229 vollendete. Auch seine Eroberungen gegen die Plantagenets im Poitou wurden von seinem Sohn behauptet und im Vertrag von Paris 1259 besiegelt.

In seinem Testament hatte Ludwig die Verfügungen zur Ausstattung seiner jüngeren Söhne mit Lehen vorgenommen, die sein ältester Sohn später auch umsetzte. Ludwig gilt damit als Begründer des Brauches, jüngere Prinzen der königlichen Familie mit Apanagen auszustatten, wofür er von späteren Historikern kritisiert wurde, die darin eine stete Gefahr für die Machtposition des Königtums erkannten. Dabei beriefen sie sich besonders auf die von Ehrgeiz geprägte Politik der jüngeren Brüder König Karls V. als Beispiel. Allerdings erkannten andere Historiker in der Vergabe von Apanagen auch ein effektvolles Mittel zu Verhinderung von innerdynastischen Kämpfen, wie sie die Dynastie der Plantagenets im späten 12. Jahrhundert heimgesucht hatten.

Die karolingische Erneuerung [Bearbeiten]

Ludwig VIII. der Löwe nimmt in der ideologischen Verherrlichung der kapetingischen Dynastie eine besondere Rolle ein, die auf einer legendenhaften Prophezeiung des heiligen Walarich zurückgeht. Der soll dem Gründer der Dynastie Hugo Capet einst vorausgesagt haben, dass sein Haus für sieben Generationen herrschen werde, worauf im Anschluss der Stamm Karls des Großen auf den Thron der Franken zurückkehren werde (Reditus regni Francorum ad stirpem Karoli Magni). Philipp II. August war der siebte Kapetingerkönig und bereits er hatte eine Aszendenz zu den Karolingern über seine Mutter Adela von Champagne beansprucht[1]. Im Taufnamen seines unehelichen Sohnes Karlotus, aber auch in der von ihm begründeten Institution der zwölf Pairs, schlug sich dies nieder.

Aber erst in der Genealogie Ludwigs VIII. wurde der Prophezeiung ein erfolgreicher Beweis durch den Abt der Benediktinerabtei von Marchiennes erbracht[2]. Der sah diese Voraussage in dem Umstand bestätigt, dass Ludwig der Sohn der Isabella von Hennegau war, deren Familie angeblich in direkter Linie von dem großen Kaiser abstammte. Der Abt hatte die Herrschaft Hugo Capets und seiner Nachkommen als Usurpation hervorgehoben, sie aber durch göttliches Eingreifen erklärt und durch die Rückkehr der legitimen Dynastie durch Ludwig VIII. als vollständig neutralisiert betrachtet. Der den Kapetingern anhaftende Makel, nur durch einen Bruch des Geblütsrechts auf den Thron der Franken gelangt zu sein, sollte damit eine Rechtfertigung ihrer Legitimität gegeben werden, die seit den Tagen Ludwigs VIII. und seines Vaters nie wieder angezweifelt wurde. Auch bei Ludwig schlug sich die neue karolingische Identität der Dynastie in ihrem Namenskode nieder, indem sein jüngster postum geborener Sohn den Namen Karls des Großen erhielt, den auch spätere Generationen der Kapetinger benutzten.

Bereits der Kanoniker Aegidius von Paris (um 1160 bis um 1214) hatte dem jungen Kronprinzen Ludwig VIII. den Herrscherspiegel Karolinus gewidmet, in dem er die Taten Karls des Großen während dessen Spanienfeldzug beschrieb. Dem Prinzen sollte diese Darstellung als Erinnerung an die einstige Vormachtstellung der Franken in Europa dienen und dazu ermuntern, diese nach dem Vorbilde Karls zu erneuern.

Familiäres [Bearbeiten]

Vorfahren [Bearbeiten]



Ludwig VI. der Dicke

(1081–1137)


Adelheid von Maurienne

(1092–1154)


Theobald II. von Champagne

(1093–1151)


Mathilde von Kärnten

(?–?)


Balduin IV. von Hennegau

(1108–1171)


Alix von Namur

(1115–1169)


Dietrich von Flandern

(1099–1168)


Sibylle von Anjou

(1112–1165)


















































Ludwig VII. der Jüngere

(1120–1180)






Adele von Champagne

(1140–1206)






Balduin V. von Hennegau

(1150–1195)






Margarete I. von Flandern

(1145–1294)


























































Philipp II. August

(1165–1223)














Isabelle von Hennegau

(1170–1190)







































































Ludwig VIII. der Löwe

(1187–1226)

















Ehe und Nachkommen [Bearbeiten]

Ludwig heiratete am 23. Mai 1200 in Port-Mort (heute Département Eure) die kastilische Prinzessin Blanka († 27. November 1252), eine Tochter König Alfons VIII. von Kastilien und der Aenor von England.

Beider Kinder waren:

   * Blanche (* 1205; † wohl 1206, als Säugling)
   * Agnes (* 1209; † als Kleinkind)
   * Philipp (* 9. September 1209; † 1218 vor Juli)
   * Alfons und Johann (Zwillinge; * 26. Januar 1213; † starben jung)
   * NN (Tochter) (* wohl 1213, † als Kleinkind)
   * Ludwig IX. der Heilige (Saint Louis) (* 25. April 1214; † 25. August 1270), Nachfolger als König von Frankreich
   * Robert I. der Gute (* September 1216, wohl am 17.; † gefallen am 8. Februar 1250 in Al-Mansura), Graf von Artois, Stammvater des Hauses Artois
   * Johann Tristan (* September 1219; † 1232), Graf von Anjou und Maine
   * Alfons von Poitiers (* 11. November 1220; † 21. August 1271), Graf von Poitou seit 1241 und Toulouse seit 1249
   * Philipp Dagobert (Philippe Dagobert), (* 20/21. Februar 1222; † 1232 als Kind)
   * Isabella die Heilige (* 3. März/14. April 1224; † 23. Februar 1269) ; Gründerin der Klarissenabtei von Longchamp
   * Karl Stephan (Charles Etienne) (* März 1227, wohl am 21.; † 7. Januar 1285), Graf von Anjou und Maine seit 1246, König von Sizilien-Neapel seit 1266, Stammvater des älteren Hauses Anjou

Literatur [Bearbeiten]

   * Gérard Sivéry: Louis VIII, le Lion (Fayard, 1995)
   * Joachim Ehlers, Heribert Müller, Bernd Schneidmüller: Die französischen Könige des Mittelalters (Verlag C. H. Beck München, 1996)
   * Wolfgang Stürmer: Friedrich II. (Primusverlag, Darmstadt, Sonderausgabe 2009)

Anmerkungen [Bearbeiten]

  1. ↑ Gesta Francorum usque ad annum (1214)
  2. ↑ Andreas von Marchiennes: L'Historia succincta de gestis et successione regnum francorum (1196)

Weblinks [Bearbeiten]

Commons Commons: Louis VIII of France – Album mit Bildern und/oder Videos und Audiodateien

   * genealogie-mittelalter.de

Vorgänger Amt Nachfolger

Philipp II. August König von Frankreich

Blason pays fr FranceAncien.svg

1223–1226 Ludwig IX. der Heilige

Normdaten: PND: 118780727 – weitere Informationen | LCCN: n 83225874 | VIAF: 29542569

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Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois, inheriting the county from his mother, from 1190–1237, when he gave the title as an appanage to his young son, Robert.

On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England (as represented in William Shakespeare's historical play King John). Wikipedia

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Source: The book, 'Eleanor of Aquitaine'.

(plus many others)

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Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

At the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile on 23 May 1200, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England.

In 1216 the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis invaded and was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage to him.

On June 14, Louis captured Winchester and soon conquered over half of the English kingdom.[1] After a year and a half of war, however, most of the rebellious barons defected and so Louis had to give up his claim to be the King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

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King Louis VIII, "the Lion," reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

At the age of 12, in 1200, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, who was only 11.

Louis was also King of England for a very short time: In 1216 the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis invaded and was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the Prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage to him. On 14 June, Louis captured Winchester and soon conquered over half of the English kingdom. However, after a year and a half of war, and after King John's death, most of the rebellious barons defected, so Louis had to give up his claim to be the King of England by signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate King of England.

Louis VIII succeeded his father on 14 July 1223; his coronation took place on 6 August of the same year in the cathedral at Reims. As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins (the ruling Plantagenet dynasty in England) and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them in 1224. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc.

On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews. But Count Theobald IV did not accept this, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation.

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count Raymond VII of Toulouse, and declared a crusade against the southern barons (the bloody Albigensian Crusade). Louis happily welcomed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great, count of Foix, tried to keep the peace, but the King rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The King was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_VIII_of_France for more information.

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Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois from 1190, inheriting the county from his mother.

Contents [hide]

1 As Prince Louis

2 As King Louis VIII

3 Ancestry

4 Marriage and Issue

5 References


[edit] As Prince Louis

On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England (as represented in William Shakespeare's historical play King John).

In 1216, the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216) and offered the throne to Prince Louis. Louis and an army landed in England; he was proclaimed King in London in May 1216, although he was not crowned. There was little resistance when the prince entered London. At St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was accepted as ruler with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage. On 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom.[1]

After a year and a half of war, King John's death, and his replacement by a regency on behalf of the boy king Henry III (John's son), many of the rebellious barons deserted Louis. When his army was beaten at Lincoln, and his naval forces (led by Eustace the Monk) were defeated off the coast of Sandwich, he was forced to make peace under English terms.

The principal provisions of the Treaty of Lambeth were an amnesty for English rebels, land possession to return to the status quo ante, the Channel Islands to be returned to the English crown, Louis to undertake not to attack England again, and to attempt to give Normandy back to the English crown, and 10,000 marks to be given to Louis. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_VIII_of_France

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King of France, House of Capet, Count of Artous -------------------- Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. He was a member of the House of Capet. Louis VIII was born in Paris, France, the son of Philip II Augustus and Isabelle of Hainaut. He was also Count of Artois, inheriting the county from his mother, from 1190–1237, when he gave the title as an appanage to his young son, Robert.

Prince Louis

Marriage

On 23 May 1200, at the age of 12, Louis was married to Blanche of Castile, following prolonged negotiations between Philip Augustus and Blanche's uncle John of England (as represented in William Shakespeare's historical play King John). [edit] Pretender to the English Throne

In 1216, the English barons rebelled in the First Barons' War against the unpopular King John of England (1199–1216). The barons offered the throne to Prince Louis, who landed unopposed on the Isle of Thanet in England at the head of an army on 21 May 1216. There was little resistance when the prince entered London and at St Paul's Cathedral, Louis was proclaimed King with great pomp and celebration in the presence of all of London. Even though he was not crowned, many nobles, as well as King Alexander II of Scotland (1214–49), gathered to give homage.

On 14 June 1216, Louis captured Winchester and soon controlled over half of the English kingdom.[1] But just when it seemed that England was his, King John's death in October 1216 caused many of the rebellious barons to desert Louis in favour of John's nine-year-old son, Henry III.

With William Marshall acting as regent, a call for the English "to defend our land" against the French led to a reversal of fortunes on the battlefield. After his army was beaten at Lincoln on 20 May 1217, and his naval forces (led by Eustace the Monk) were defeated off the coast of Sandwich on 24 August 1217, he was forced to make peace on English terms.

The principal provisions of the Treaty of Lambeth were an amnesty for English rebels, Louis to undertake not to attack England again, and 10,000 marks to be given to Louis. The effect of the treaty was that Louis agreed he had never been the legitimate King of England.

As King Louis VIII

Louis VIII succeeded his father on 14 July 1223; his coronation took place on 6 August of the same year in the cathedral at Reims. As King, he continued to seek revenge on the Angevins and seized Poitou and Saintonge from them. There followed the seizure of Avignon and Languedoc.

On 1 November 1223, he issued an ordinance that prohibited his officials from recording debts owed to Jews, thus reversing the policies set by his father Philip II Augustus. Usury (lending money with interest) was illegal for Christians to practice. According to Church law it was seen as a vice in which people profited from others' misfortune (like gambling), and was punishable by excommunication, a severe punishment. However since Jews were not Christian, they could not be excommunicated, and thus fell in to a legal grey area which secular rulers would sometimes exploit by allowing (or requesting) Jews to provide usury services, often for personal gain to the secular ruler, and to the discontent of the Church. Louis VIII's prohibition was one attempt at resolving this legal problem which was a constant source of friction in Church and State courts.

Twenty-six barons accepted, but Theobald IV (1201–53), the powerful Count of Champagne, did not, since he had an agreement with the Jews that guaranteed him extra income through taxation. Theobald IV would become a major opposition force to Capetian dominance, and his hostility was manifest during the reign of Louis VIII. For example, during the siege of Avignon, he performed only the minimum service of 40 days, and left home amid charges of treachery.

In 1225, the council of Bourges excommunicated the Count of Toulouse, Raymond VII, and declared a crusade against the southern barons. Louis happily renewed the conflict in order to enforce his royal rights. Roger Bernard the Great, Count of Foix, tried to keep the peace, but the king rejected his embassy and the counts of Foix and Toulouse took up arms against him. The king was largely successful, but he did not complete the work before his death.

While returning to Paris, King Louis VIII became ill with dysentery, and died on 8 November 1226 in the chateau at Montpensier, Auvergne.

The Saint Denis Basilica houses the tomb of Louis VIII. His son, Louis IX (1226–70), succeeded him on the throne.

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Louis VIII le Lion, roi de France's Timeline

1187
September 3, 1187
Paris, Paris, Île-de-France, France
September 5, 1187
1191
1191
Age 3
1200
May 23, 1200
Age 12
Pont, Eure, Haute Normandile, France
May 23, 1200
Age 12
1205
1205
Age 17
Paris, Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1207
1207
Age 19
1209
September 9, 1209
Age 22
Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1213
January 23, 1213
Age 25
Seine-et-Marne, Île-de-France, France
1214
April 25, 1214
Age 26
Poissy, Yvelines, Île-de-France, France