Louis XII, roi de France

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Louis XII *le Père du peuple* de Valois, Roi de France

Nicknames: "Louis XII King of France", "the "Father of the People" (French: Le Père du Peuple)", "King Louis XII Of France"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Château de Blois, Blois, Touraine, Loir-et-Cher, France
Death: Died in Paris, Île-de-France, France
Place of Burial: Cathédrale royale de Saint-Denis, Saint-Denis, Paris, Ile-de-France, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Charles I de Valois, duc d'Orléans and Maria von Kleve
Husband of Jeanne "Sainte" Valois de France, Duchesse de Berry, Rheine de France; Anne de Bretagne, reine de France and Mary Rose Tudor, Queen consort of France
Father of Claude de Valois-Orléans, reine de France; Renée de Valois-Orléans, duchesse de Chartres; Fils de Valois-Orléans, (mort jeune) and Fils de Valois-Orléans, (mort jeune)
Brother of Marie d'Orléans and Anne d'Orleans
Half brother of Jeanne d'Orléans

Occupation: Louis XII of France, King of France and Naples, Duke of Brittany, Count of Provence, King of France, King
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Louis XII *le Père du peuple* de Valois, Roi de France

Louis XII de France

Links:

The peerage: [http://www.thepeerage.com/p10525.htm#i105242]

Geneall: [http://www.geneall.net/F/per_page.php?id=2230]

English: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII_of_France]

Francais: [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII_de_France]

Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515), called "the Father of the People" (French: Le Père du Peuple) was king of France and the sole monarch from the Valois-Orléans branch of the House of Valois. He reigned from 1498 to 1515 and pursued a very active foreign policy.

[edit] Early life

Effigy of Louis XII on a coin of 1514Louis was born on 27 June 1462, in the Château de Blois, Blois, Touraine (in the contemporary Loir-et-Cher département). The son of Charles, duc d'Orléans and Marie of Cleves, he succeeded his father as Duke of Orléans in the year 1465.

In the 1480s Louis was involved in the so-called Mad War against royal authority. Allied with Francis II, Duke of Brittany he confronted the royal army at the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier, but was comprehensively defeated and captured. Pardoned three years later, Louis joined his cousin King Charles VIII, in campaigns in Italy.

All four of Charles VIII's children died in infancy. The French interpretation of the Salic Law permitted claims to the French throne only by men, and further ruled out descendants of female lines. This made Louis, the great-grandson of King Charles V, the most senior claimant as heir of Charles VIII. Louis thus succeeded to the throne on the king's death.

[edit] Domestic and foreign policies


Bronze cannon of Louis XII, with porcupine emblem. Caliber: 172mm, length: 305cm, weight: 1870kg. Recovered in Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée.Although he came late (and unexpectedly) to power, Louis acted with vigour, reforming the French legal system, reducing taxes and improving government, much like his contemporary Henry VII did in England. He was also skilled in managing his nobility, including the powerful Bourbon faction, which greatly contributed to the stability of French government. In the Ordinance of Blois of 1499 and the Ordinance of Lyon of 1510, he extended the powers of royal judges and made efforts to curb corruption in the law. Highly complex French customary law was to be codified and ratified by royal proclamation.

In an attempt to take control of the Duchy of Milan, to which he had a claim in right of his paternal grandmother Valentina Visconti, Louis embarked on several campaigns in Italy. In the Italian War of 1499–1504, he successfully secured Milan itself in the year 1499 from his enemy, Ludovico Sforza, and it remained a French stronghold for twelve years. His greatest success came in his war with Venice, with the victory at the Battle of Agnadello in 1509. Things became much more difficult for him from 1510 onwards, especially after Julius II, the great warrior Pope, took control of the Vatican and formed the "Holy League" to oppose the ambitions of the French in Italy. The French were eventually driven from Milan by the Swiss in the year 1513.


Louis XII entering Genoa in 1507. Miniature by Jean BourdichonLouis also pursued the claim of his immediate predecessor to the Kingdom of Naples with Ferdinand II, the King of Aragon from the House of Trastámara. They agreed to partition the Neapolitan realm in the Treaty of Granada (1500), but were eventually at war over the terms of partition, and by the year 1504 France had lost its share of Naples.

Louis's failure to hold on to Naples prompted a commentary by Niccolò Machiavelli in his famous opus The Prince.

Kind Louis was brought into Italy by the ambition of the Venetians, who expected by his coming to get control of half the state of Lombardy. I don't mean to blame the king for his part in the scheme; he wanted a foothold in Italy, and not only had no friends in the province, but found all doors barred against him because of King Charles's behavior. Hence he had to take what friendships he could get; and if he had made no further mistakes in his other arrangements, he might have carried things off very successfully. By taking Lombardy, the king quickly regained the reputation lost by Charles. Genoa yielded, and the Florentines turned friendly, the Marquis of Mantua, the Duke of Ferrara, the Bentivogli (of Bologna), the countess Forlì, the lords of Faenza, Pesaro, Rimini, Camerino, Piombino, and the people of Lucca, Pisa, and Siena all sought him out with professions of friendship. At this point the Venetians began to see the folly of what they had done, since in order to gain for themselves a couple of districts in Lombardy, they had now made the king master of a third of Italy.

Consider how easy it would have been for the king to maintain his position in Italy if he had observed the rules [of not worrying about weaker powers, decreasing the strength of a major power, not introducing a very power foreigner in the midst of his new subjects and taking up residence among his new subjects and/or setting up colonies], and become the protector and defender of his new friends. They were many, they were weak, some of them were afraid of the Venetians, others of the Church, hence they were bound to stick by him; and with their help, he could easily have protected himself against the remaining great powers. But no sooner was he established in Milan than he took exactly the wrong tack, helping Pope Alexander to occupy the Romagna. And he never realized that by this decision he was weakening himself, driving away his friends and those who had flocked to him, while strengthening the Church by adding vast temporal power to the spiritual power which gives it so much authority. Having made this first mistake, he was forced into others. To limit the ambition of Alexander and keep him from becoming master of Tuscany, he was forced to come to Italy himself [in 1502]. Not satisfied with having made the Church powerful and deprived himself of his friends, he went after the kingdom of Naples and divided it with the king of Spain (Ferdinand II). And where before he alone had been the arbiter of Italy, he brought in a rival to whom everyone in the kingdom who was ambitious on his own account or dissatisfied with Louis could have recourse. He could have left in Naples a caretaker king of his own, but he threw him out, and substituted a man capable of driving out Louis himself.

If France could have taken Naples with her own power, she should have done so; if she could not, she should not have split the kingdom with the Spaniards. The division of Lombardy that she made with the Venetians was excusable, since it gave Louis a foothold in Italy; the division of Naples with Spain was an error, since there was no such necessity for it. [When Louis made the final mistake of] depriving the Venetians of their power (who never would have let anyone else into Lombardy unless they were in control), he thus lost Lombardy.

—Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince [1] Chapter III

Louis proved to be a popular king. At the end of his reign the crown deficit was no greater than it had been when he succeeded Charles VIII in 1498, despite several expensive military campaigns in Italy. His fiscal reforms of 1504 and 1508 tightened and improved procedures for the collection of taxes. He had duly earned the title of Father of the People ("Le Père du Peuple"), conferred upon him by the Estates in 1506.

[edit] Marriages


Queen Joan of France


A sketch of Mary during her brief period as Queen of FranceIn 1476, Louis was required to marry the pious Joan of France (1464–1505), the daughter of his second cousin, Louis XI, the middle-aged "Spider King" of France. After Louis XII's predecessor Charles VIII died childless, Louis' marriage was annulled in order to allow him to marry Charles’ widow, the former Queen-Consort, Anne of Brittany (1477–1514), who was the daughter and heiress of Francis II of Brittany, in a strategy meant to integrate the duchy of Brittany into the French monarchy.

The annulment, described as "one of the seamiest lawsuits of the age", was not simple, however. Louis did not, as might be expected, argue the marriage to be void due to consanguinity (the general allowance for the dissolution of a marriage at that time). Though he could produce witnesses to claim that the two were closely related due to various linking marriages, there was no documentary proof, merely the opinions of courtiers. Likewise, Louis could not argue that he had been below the legal age of consent (fourteen) to marry: no one was certain when he had been born, with Louis claiming to have been twelve at the time, and others ranging in their estimates between eleven and thirteen. As there was no real proof, however, he was forced to make other arguments.

Accordingly, Louis (much to the horror of his Queen) claimed that she was physically malformed, providing a rich variety of detail precisely how, and that he had therefore been unable to consummate the marriage. Joan, unsurprisingly, fought this uncertain charge fiercely, producing witnesses to Louis' boast of having "mounted my wife three or four times during the night." Louis also claimed that his sexual performance had been inhibited by witchcraft; Joan responded by asking how he was able to know what it was like to try to make love to her.


Flamboyant Gothic equestrian Louis above the main door of the Château de BloisHad the Papacy been a neutral party, Joan would likely have won, for Louis's case was exceedingly weak. Unfortunately for the Queen, Pope Alexander VI (the former Roderic Borja) was committed for political reasons to grant the divorce, and accordingly he ruled against Joan, granting the annulment. Outraged, she reluctantly stepped aside, saying that she would pray for her former husband, and Louis married the equally reluctant former Queen, Anne.

After the death of Anne, Louis then married Mary Tudor (1496–1533), the sister of Henry VIII, the King of England in Abbeville, France, on 9 October 1514, in an attempt to conceive an heir to his throne and perhaps to further establish a future claim for his descendants upon the English throne as well. He was ultimately unsuccessful. Despite two previous marriages, the king had no living sons and sought to produce an heir; but Louis died on 1 January 1515, less than three months after he married Mary, reputedly worn out by his exertions in the bedchamber. Their union produced no children.

[edit] Death

Louis died on 1 January 1515, and was interred in Saint Denis Basilica. Due to the tradition of Salic Law, which did not allow women to inherit the throne of France, he was succeeded by his first cousin's son, Francis I (who was also his son-in-law), who founded his own line of French kings.

 

[edit]

Issue


  1. Queen Anne of Brittany
  2. Claude of France 14 October 1499 20 July 1524 married Francis I of France on 18 May 1514; had issue
  3. Renée of France 25 October 1500 12 June 1574 married Ercole II d'Este in April 1528; had issue
  4. Unnamed son 21 January 1508 21 January 1508
  5. Unnamed son 21 January 1512 21 January 1512

[edit] References

Baumgartner, Frederic J., Louis XII, New York: St.Martin's Press, 1996. ISBN 0-312-12072-9

Hochner, Nicole, Louis XII: Les dérèglements de l’image royale, collection «Époques» Seyssel: Champ Vallon, 2006 http://www.champ-vallon.com/

[edit] Notes

1.^ The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. Translated and edited by Robert M. Adams. A Norton Critical Edition. New York: 1977. pp. 9-11.,

Louis XII of France

House of Valois, Orléans branch

Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

Born: 27 June 1462 Died: 1 January 1515

Regnal titles

Preceded by

Charles VIII King of France

7 April 1498 – 1 January 1515 Succeeded by

Francis I

Preceded by

Frederick IV King of Naples

August 1501–31 March 1504 Succeeded by

Ferdinand III

Preceded by

Anne Duke of Brittany

8 January 1499 – 9 January 1514

with Anne Succeeded by

Claude

Preceded by

Ludovico Sforza Duke of Milan

1499–1512 Succeeded by

Maximilian Sforza

French royalty

Preceded by

Charles, Dauphin of France Heir to the Throne

as Heir presumptive

30 August 1483 — 11 October 1492 Succeeded by

Charles Orlando, Dauphin of France

Preceded by

Charles Orlando, Dauphin of France Heir to the Throne

as Heir presumptive

6 December 1495 — 8 September 1496 Succeeded by

Charles, Dauphin of France

Preceded by

Charles, Dauphin of France Heir to the Throne

as Heir presumptive

2 October 1496 — July 1497 Succeeded by

Francis, Dauphin of France

Preceded by

Francis, Dauphin of France Heir to the Throne

as Heir presumptive

early 1498 — 7 April 1498 Succeeded by

Francis, Count of Angoulême

French nobility

Preceded by

Charles VIII of France Dauphin of Viennois, Count of Valentinois and of Diois

as 'Louis III of Viennois'

7 April 1498 – 1 January 1515 Succeeded by

Francis I of France

Count of Provence and Forcalquier

as 'Louis IV'

7 April 1498 – 1 January 1515

Preceded by

Charles I Duke of Orléans

as 'Louis II'

5 January 1465 – 7 April 1498 Merged into Royal Domain

(eventually Henry II)

Duke of Valois

as 'Louis II'

5 January 1465 – 7 April 1498 Merged into Royal Domain

(eventually Francis)

Count of Blois

as 'Louis V'

5 January 1465 – 7 April 1498 Merged into Royal Domain

(eventually Gaston)

[show]v • d • eList of French monarchs


Carolingians

(843–888, 898–922, 936–987) Pepin (751–768) • Carloman I (768–771) • Charlemagne (768–814) • Louis I (814–840) • Charles I (843–877) • Louis II (877–879) • Louis III (879–882) • Carloman II (879–884) • Charles II (885–888) • Charles III (898–922) • Louis IV (936–954) • Lothair (954–986) • Louis V (986–987)


Robertians

(888–898, 922–923) Odo of Paris (888–898) • Robert I (922–923)


Bosonids

(923–936) Rudolph (923–936)


House of Capet

(987–1328) Hugh (987–996) • Robert II (996–1031) • Henry I (1031–1060) • Philip I (1060–1108) • Louis VI (1108–1137) • Louis VII (1137–1180) • Philip II (1180–1223) • Louis VIII (1223–1226) • Louis IX (1226–1270) • Philip III (1270–1285) • Philip IV (1285–1314) • Louis X (1314–1316) • John I (1316) • Philip V (1316–1322) • Charles IV (1322–1328)


House of Valois

(1328–1498) Philip VI (1328–1350) • John II (1350–1364) • Charles V (1364–1380) • Charles VI (1380–1422) • Charles VII (1422–1461) • Louis XI (1461–1483) • Charles VIII (1483–1498)


House of Lancaster

(1422–1453) Henry VI of England (1422–1453) (disputed)


House of Valois-Orléans

(1498–1515) Louis XII (1498–1515)


House of Valois-Angoulême

(1515–1589) Francis I (1515–1547) • Henry II (1547–1559) • Francis II (1559–1560) • Charles IX (1560–1574) • Henry III (1574–1589)


House of Bourbon

(1589–1792) Henry IV (1589–1610) • Louis XIII (1610–1643) • Louis XIV (1643–1715) • Louis XV (1715–1774) • Louis XVI (1774–1792) • Louis XVII (claimant, 1792–1795)


House of Bonaparte

First Empire (1804–1814, 1815) Napoleon I (1804–1814, 1815) • Napoleon II (1815)


House of Bourbon

Bourbon Restoration (1814, 1815–1830) Louis XVIII (1814–1815, 1815–1824) • Charles X (1824–1830) • Louis XIX (1830) (disputed) • Henry V (1830) (disputed)


House of Orléans

July Monarchy (1830–1848) Louis Philippe I (1830–1848)


House of Bonaparte

Second Empire (1852–1870) Napoleon III (1852–1870)



Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII_of_France"

Categories: 1462 births | 1515 deaths | People from Blois | French monarchs | Monarchs of Naples | House of Valois-Orléans | Kings of France | Dauphins of Viennois | Burials at the Basilica of St Denis | Dauphins of France | Dukes of Milan | Dukes of Orléans | Dukes of Valois | Counts of Blois | Patrons of literature | Roman Catholic monarchs

--------------------

Louis XII of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis XII (June 27, 1462 – January 1, 1515), called "the Father of the People" (French: Le Père du Peuple) was the thirty-fifth king of France and the sole monarch from the Valois-Orléans branch of the House of Valois. He reigned from 1498 to 1515 and pursued a very active foreign policy.

Biography

[edit]Early life

Louis was born on June 27th of 1462, in the Château de Blois, Blois, Touraine (in the contemporary Loir-et-Cher département). The son of Charles, duc d'Orléans and Marie of Cleves, he succeeded his father as Duke of Orléans in the year 1465.

In the 1480s Louis was involved in the so-called Mad War against royal authority. Allied with Francis II, Duke of Brittany he confronted the royal army at the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier, but was comprehensively defeated and captured. Pardoned three years later, Louis joined his cousin King Charles VIII, in campaigns in Italy. He succeeded to the throne on the king's death.

Domestic and foreign policies

Although he came late (and unexpectedly) to power, Louis acted with vigour, reforming the French legal system, reducing taxes and improving government, much like his contemporary Henry VII did in England. He was also skilled in managing his nobility, including the powerful Bourbon faction, which greatly contributed to the stability of French government. In the Ordinance of Blois of 1499 and the Ordinance of Lyon of 1510, he extended the powers of royal judges and made efforts to curb corruption in the law. Highly complex French customary law was to be codified and ratified by royal proclamation.

In an attempt to take control of the Duchy of Milan, to which he had a claim in right of his grandmother Valentina Visconti, Louis embarked on several campaigns in Italy. He successfully secured Milan itself in the year 1499 from his enemy, Ludovico Sforza, and it remained a French stronghold for twelve years. His greatest success came in his war with Venice, with the victory at the Battle of Agnadello in 1509. Things became much more difficult for him from 1510 onwards, especially after Julius II, the great warrior Pope, took control of the Vatican and formed the "Holy League" to oppose the ambitions of the French in Italy. The French were eventually driven from Milan by the Swiss in the year 1513.

Louis also pursued the claim of his immediate predecessor to the Kingdom of Naples with Ferdinand II, the King of Aragon from the House of Trastámara. They agreed to partition the Neapolitan realm in the Treaty of Granada (1500), but were eventually at war over the terms of partition, and by the year 1504 France had lost its share of Naples.

Louis proved to be a popular king. At the end of his reign the crown deficit was no greater than it had been when he succeeded Charles VIII in 1498, despite several expensive military campaigns in Italy. His fiscal reforms of 1504 and 1508 tightened and improved procedures for the collection of taxes. He had duly earned the title of Father of the People ("Le Père du Peuple"), conferred upon him by the Estates in 1506.

Marriages

In 1476, Louis was required to marry the pious Joan of France (1464–1505), the daughter of his second cousin, Louis XI, the middle-aged "Spider King" of France. After Louis XII's predecessor Charles VIII died childless, Louis' marriage was annulled in order to allow him to marry Charles’ widow, the former Queen-Consort, Anne of Brittany (1477–1514), who was the daughter and heiress of Francis II of Brittany, in a strategy meant to integrate the duchy of Brittany into the French monarchy.

The annulment was not simple, however. Described as "one of the seamiest lawsuits of the age", Louis did not, as might be expected, argue the marriage to be void due to consanguinity (the general allowance for the dissolution of a marriage at that time). Though he could produce witnesses to claim that the two were closely related due to various linking marriages, there was no documentary proof, merely the opinions of courtiers. Likewise, Louis could not argue that he had been below the legal age of consent (fourteen) to marry: no one was certain when he had been born, with Louis claiming to have been twelve at the time, and others ranging in their estimates between eleven and thirteen. As there was no real proof, however, he was forced to make other arguments.

Accordingly, Louis (much to the horror of his Queen) claimed that she was physically malformed, providing a rich variety of detail as to how she was malformed, and that he had therefore been unable to consummate the marriage. Joan, unsurprisingly, fought this uncertain charge fiercely, producing witnesses to Louis boasting of having "mounted my wife three or four times during the night." Louis also claimed that his sexual performance had been inhibited by witchcraft; Joan responded by asking how he was able to know what it was like to try to make love to her.

Had the Papacy been a neutral party, Jeanne would likely have won, for Louis's case was exceedingly weak. Unfortunately for the Queen, Pope Alexander VI (the former Roderic Borja) was committed, for political reasons to grant the divorce, and accordingly he ruled against Jeanne, granting the annulment. Outraged, she reluctantly stepped aside, saying that she would pray for her former husband, and Louis married the equally reluctant former Queen, Anne.

After the death of Anne, Louis then married Mary (1496–1533), the sister of Henry VIII, the King of England in Abbeville, France, on October 9, 1514, in an attempt to conceive an heir to his throne and perhaps to further establish a future claim for his descendants upon the English throne as well. He was ultimately unsuccessful. Despite two previous marriages, the king had no living sons and sought to produce an heir; but Louis died on January 1, 1515, less than three months after he married Mary, reputedly worn out by his exertions in the bedchamber. Their union produced no children.

[edit]Children

The only marriage of Louis's which produced any children was his second, with Anne of Brittany. By her he had two surviving daughters:

Claude of France (1499–1524), later married her relative Francis, the count of Angoulême and future King of France.

Renée of France (1510–75), later married Ercole d'Este, Duke of Ferrara.

There were also two boys, who died shortly after birth:

The elder son, lived and died 21 January 1508

The younger son, lived and died 21 January 1512

[edit]Death

Louis died on January 1, 1515, and was interred in Saint Denis Basilica. Due to the tradition of Salic Law, which did not allow women to inherit the throne of France, he was succeeded by his son-in-law (married to Claude) and cousin Francis I Valois-Angoulême, who founded his own line of French kings.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_XII_of_France

Louis XII of France

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Louis XII

King of France and Naples; Duke of Brittany; Count of Provence

King of France

Reign 7 April 1498 – 1 January 1515

Coronation 27 May 1498, Reims

Predecessor Charles VIII

Successor Francis I

Spouse Joan of France

Anne, Duchess of Brittany

Mary of England

Issue

Claude, Queen of France

Renée, Duchess of Ferrara

Father Charles, Duke of Orléans

Mother Marie of Cleves

Born 27 June 1462(1462-06-27)

Château de Blois, France

Died 1 January 1515 (aged 52)

Paris

Burial Saint Denis Basilica, France

Louis XII (27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515), called "the Father of the People" (French: Le Père du Peuple), was king of France and the sole monarch from the Valois-Orléans branch of the House of Valois. He reigned from 1498 to 1515 and pursued a very active foreign policy.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Early life
   * 2 Domestic and foreign policies
   * 3 Marriages
   * 4 Death
   * 5 Family
         o 5.1 Ancestors
         o 5.2 Issue
   * 6 References
         o 6.1 Notes

[edit] Early life

Effigy of Louis XII on a coin of 1514

Louis was born on 27 June 1462, in the Château de Blois, Blois, Touraine (in the contemporary Loir-et-Cher département). The son of Charles, duc d'Orléans and Marie of Cleves, he succeeded his father as Duke of Orléans in the year 1465.

In the 1480s Louis was involved in the so-called Mad War against royal authority. Allied with Francis II, Duke of Brittany he confronted the royal army at the Battle of Saint-Aubin-du-Cormier, but was comprehensively defeated and captured. Pardoned three years later, Louis joined his cousin King Charles VIII, in campaigns in Italy.

All four of Charles VIII's children died in infancy. The French interpretation of the Salic Law permitted claims to the French throne only by male agnatic descendants of French kings. This made Louis, the great-grandson of King Charles V, the most senior claimant as heir of Charles VIII. Louis thus succeeded to the throne on the king's death.

[edit] Domestic and foreign policies

Bronze cannon of Louis XII, with porcupine emblem. Caliber: 172mm, length: 305cm, weight: 1870kg. Recovered in Algiers in 1830. Musée de l'Armée.

Although he came late (and unexpectedly) to power, Louis acted with vigour, reforming the French legal system, reducing taxes and improving government, much like his contemporary Henry VII did in England. He was also skilled in managing his nobility, including the powerful Bourbon faction, which greatly contributed to the stability of French government. In the Ordinance of Blois of 1499 and the Ordinance of Lyon of 1510, he extended the powers of royal judges and made efforts to curb corruption in the law. Highly complex French customary law was to be codified and ratified by royal proclamation.

In an attempt to take control of the Duchy of Milan, to which he had a claim in right of his paternal grandmother Valentina Visconti,[1] Louis embarked on several campaigns in Italy. In the Italian War of 1499–1504, he successfully secured Milan itself in the year 1499 from his enemy, Ludovico Sforza, and it remained a French stronghold for twelve years. His greatest success came in his war with Venice, with the victory at the Battle of Agnadello in 1509. Things became much more difficult for him from 1510 onwards, especially after Julius II, the great warrior Pope, took control of the Vatican and formed the "Holy League" to oppose the ambitions of the French in Italy. The French were eventually driven from Milan by the Swiss in the year 1513.

Louis XII entering Genoa in 1507. Miniature by Jean Bourdichon

Louis also pursued the claim of his immediate predecessor to the Kingdom of Naples with Ferdinand II, the King of Aragon from the House of Trastámara. They agreed to partition the Neapolitan realm in the Treaty of Granada (1500), but were eventually at war over the terms of partition, and by the year 1504 France had lost its share of Naples.

Louis's failure to hold on to Naples prompted a commentary by Niccolò Machiavelli in his famous opus The Prince.

Kind Louis was brought into Italy by the ambition of the Venetians, who expected by his coming to get control of half the state of Lombardy. I don't mean to blame the king for his part in the scheme; he wanted a foothold in Italy, and not only had no friends in the province, but found all doors barred against him because of King Charles's behavior. Hence he had to take what friendships he could get; and if he had made no further mistakes in his other arrangements, he might have carried things off very successfully. By taking Lombardy, the king quickly regained the reputation lost by Charles. Genoa yielded, and the Florentines turned friendly, the Marquis of Mantua, the Duke of Ferrara, the Bentivogli (of Bologna), the countess Forlì, the lords of Faenza, Pesaro, Rimini, Camerino, Piombino, and the people of Lucca, Pisa, and Siena all sought him out with professions of friendship. At this point the Venetians began to see the folly of what they had done, since in order to gain for themselves a couple of districts in Lombardy, they had now made the king master of a third of Italy.

Consider how easy it would have been for the king to maintain his position in Italy if he had observed the rules [of not worrying about weaker powers, decreasing the strength of a major power, not introducing a very power foreigner in the midst of his new subjects and taking up residence among his new subjects and/or setting up colonies], and become the protector and defender of his new friends. They were many, they were weak, some of them were afraid of the Venetians, others of the Church, hence they were bound to stick by him; and with their help, he could easily have protected himself against the remaining great powers. But no sooner was he established in Milan than he took exactly the wrong tack, helping Pope Alexander to occupy the Romagna. And he never realized that by this decision he was weakening himself, driving away his friends and those who had flocked to him, while strengthening the Church by adding vast temporal power to the spiritual power which gives it so much authority. Having made this first mistake, he was forced into others. To limit the ambition of Alexander and keep him from becoming master of Tuscany, he was forced to come to Italy himself [in 1502]. Not satisfied with having made the Church powerful and deprived himself of his friends, he went after the kingdom of Naples and divided it with the king of Spain (Ferdinand II). And where before he alone had been the arbiter of Italy, he brought in a rival to whom everyone in the kingdom who was ambitious on his own account or dissatisfied with Louis could have recourse. He could have left in Naples a caretaker king of his own, but he threw him out, and substituted a man capable of driving out Louis himself.

If France could have taken Naples with her own power, she should have done so; if she could not, she should not have split the kingdom with the Spaniards. The division of Lombardy that she made with the Venetians was excusable, since it gave Louis a foothold in Italy; the division of Naples with Spain was an error, since there was no such necessity for it. [When Louis made the final mistake of] depriving the Venetians of their power (who never would have let anyone else into Lombardy unless they were in control), he thus lost Lombardy.

Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince [2] Chapter III

Louis proved to be a popular king. At the end of his reign the crown deficit was no greater than it had been when he succeeded Charles VIII in 1498, despite several expensive military campaigns in Italy. His fiscal reforms of 1504 and 1508 tightened and improved procedures for the collection of taxes. He had duly earned the title of Father of the People ("Le Père du Peuple"), conferred upon him by the Estates in 1506.

[edit] Marriages

Queen Joan of France

A sketch of Mary during her brief period as Queen of France

In 1476, Louis was required to marry the pious Joan of France (1464–1505), the daughter of his second cousin, Louis XI, the middle-aged "Spider King" of France. After Louis XII's predecessor Charles VIII died childless, Louis' marriage was annulled in order to allow him to marry Charles’ widow, the former Queen-Consort, Anne of Brittany (1477–1514), who was the daughter and heiress of Francis II of Brittany, in a strategy meant to integrate the duchy of Brittany into the French monarchy.

The annulment, described as "one of the seamiest lawsuits of the age", was not simple, however. Louis did not, as might be expected, argue the marriage to be void due to consanguinity (the general allowance for the dissolution of a marriage at that time). Though he could produce witnesses to claim that the two were closely related due to various linking marriages, there was no documentary proof, merely the opinions of courtiers. Likewise, Louis could not argue that he had been below the legal age of consent (fourteen) to marry: no one was certain when he had been born, with Louis claiming to have been twelve at the time, and others ranging in their estimates between eleven and thirteen. As there was no real proof, however, he was forced to make other arguments.

Accordingly, Louis (much to the horror of his Queen) claimed that she was physically malformed, providing a rich variety of detail precisely how, and that he had therefore been unable to consummate the marriage. Joan, unsurprisingly, fought this uncertain charge fiercely, producing witnesses to Louis' boast of having "mounted my wife three or four times during the night." Louis also claimed that his sexual performance had been inhibited by witchcraft; Joan responded by asking how he was able to know what it was like to try to make love to her.

Flamboyant Gothic equestrian Louis above the main door of the Château de Blois

Had the Papacy been a neutral party, Joan would likely have won, for Louis's case was exceedingly weak. Unfortunately for the Queen, Pope Alexander VI (the former Roderic Borja) was committed for political reasons to grant the divorce, and accordingly he ruled against Joan, granting the annulment. Outraged, she reluctantly stepped aside, saying that she would pray for her former husband, and Louis married the equally reluctant former Queen, Anne.

After the death of Anne, Louis then married Mary Tudor (1496–1533), the sister of Henry VIII, the King of England in Abbeville, France, on 9 October 1514, in an attempt to conceive an heir to his throne and perhaps to further establish a future claim for his descendants upon the English throne as well. He was ultimately unsuccessful. Despite two previous marriages, the king had no living sons and sought to produce an heir; but Louis died on 1 January 1515, less than three months after he married Mary, reputedly worn out by his exertions in the bedchamber. Their union produced no children.

[edit] Death

Louis died on 1 January 1515, and was interred in Saint Denis Basilica. Due to the tradition of Salic Law, which did not allow women to inherit the throne of France, he was succeeded by his first cousin's son, Francis I (who was also his son-in-law), who founded his own line of French kings.

Issue

Queen Anne of Brittany

By Anne of Brittany

Name Birth Death Notes

Claude of France 14 October 1499 20 July 1524 married Francis I of France on 18 May 1514; had issue

Renée of France 25 October 1500 12 June 1574 married Ercole II d'Este in April 1528; had issue

Unnamed son 21 January 1508 21 January 1508

Unnamed son 21 January 1512 21 January 1512

[edit] References

   * Baumgartner, Frederic J., Louis XII, New York: St.Martin's Press, 1996. ISBN 0-312-12072-9
   * Hochner, Nicole, Louis XII: Les dérèglements de l’image royale, collection «Époques» Seyssel: Champ Vallon, 2006 http://www.champ-vallon.com/

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Her marriage contract with Louis, duc d'Orléans, stipulated that in failure of male heirs, she would inherit the Visconti dominions.
  2. ^ The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli. Translated and edited by Robert M. Adams. A Norton Critical Edition. New York: 1977. pp. 9-11.,

This page was last modified on 21 July 2010 at 11:47. -------------------- Louis XII, Roi de France1,2 M, #105242, b. 27 June 1462, d. 1 January 1515

Louis XII, Roi de France|b. 27 Jun 1462\nd. 1 Jan 1515|p10525.htm#i105242|Charles d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans|b. 1394\nd. 4 Jan 1465|p10495.htm#i104948|Maria von Kleve|b. 19 Sep 1426\nd. 23 Aug 1487|p10319.htm#i103185|Louis de Valois, Duc d'Orléans|b. 13 Mar 1371\nd. 23 Feb 1407|p10315.htm#i103141|Valentine Visconti|b. 1366\nd. 4 Dec 1408|p11365.htm#i113643|Adolf I. Herzog von Kleve|b. 2 Aug 1373\nd. 23 Sep 1448|p10827.htm#i108270|Marie de Bourgogne|b. c 1393\nd. 1473|p11380.htm#i113793|

Last Edited=9 Oct 2009 Consanguinity Index=2.49%

Louis XII, King of France, 1498 3 Louis XII, Roi de France was born on 27 June 1462 at Blois, Berri, France. He was the son of Charles d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans and Maria von Kleve.2 He married, firstly, Jeanne de Valois, daughter of Louis XI, Roi de France and Charlotte di Savoia, on 8 September 1476. He and Jeanne de Valois were divorced in 1498.1 He married, secondly, Anne de Dreux, Duchesse de Bretagne, daughter of François II de Dreux, Duc de Bretagne and Marguerite de Foix, on 8 January 1499 at Chateau de Nantes. He married, thirdly, Mary Rose Tudor, daughter of Henry VII Tudor, King of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, on 9 October 1514 at Abbeville Cathedral, Abbeville, Picardie, France.4 He died on 1 January 1515 at age 52 at Paris, France. He was buried at Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France.

    Louis XII, Roi de France was a member of the House of Orléans.2 He succeeded to the title of Roi Louis XII de France in 1498.2

Children of Louis XII, Roi de France and Anne de Dreux, Duchesse de Bretagne 1.Claude de Valois, Duchesse de Bretagne+ b. 13 Oct 1499, d. 20 Jul 1524 2.Renée de Valois+1 b. 1510, d. 1575 Citations 1.[S16] Jirí Louda and Michael MacLagan, Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, 2nd edition (London, U.K.: Little, Brown and Company, 1999), table 67. Hereinafter cited as Lines of Succession. 2.[S38] John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 78. Hereinafter cited as Dynasties of the World. 3.[S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family." 4.[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 150. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family. -------------------- Louis XII, Roi de France1,2 M, #105242, b. 27 June 1462, d. 1 January 1515

Louis XII, Roi de France|b. 27 Jun 1462\nd. 1 Jan 1515|p10525.htm#i105242|Charles d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans|b. 1394\nd. 4 Jan 1465|p10495.htm#i104948|Maria von Kleve|b. 19 Sep 1426\nd. 23 Aug 1487|p10319.htm#i103185|Louis de Valois, Duc d'Orléans|b. 13 Mar 1371\nd. 23 Feb 1407|p10315.htm#i103141|Valentine Visconti|b. 1366\nd. 4 Dec 1408|p11365.htm#i113643|Adolf I. Herzog von Kleve|b. 2 Aug 1373\nd. 23 Sep 1448|p10827.htm#i108270|Marie de Bourgogne|b. c 1393\nd. 1473|p11380.htm#i113793|

Last Edited=9 Oct 2009 Consanguinity Index=2.49%

Louis XII, King of France, 1498 3 Louis XII, Roi de France was born on 27 June 1462 at Blois, Berri, France. He was the son of Charles d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans and Maria von Kleve.2 He married, firstly, Jeanne de Valois, daughter of Louis XI, Roi de France and Charlotte di Savoia, on 8 September 1476. He and Jeanne de Valois were divorced in 1498.1 He married, secondly, Anne de Dreux, Duchesse de Bretagne, daughter of François II de Dreux, Duc de Bretagne and Marguerite de Foix, on 8 January 1499 at Chateau de Nantes. He married, thirdly, Mary Rose Tudor, daughter of Henry VII Tudor, King of England and Elizabeth Plantagenet, on 9 October 1514 at Abbeville Cathedral, Abbeville, Picardie, France.4 He died on 1 January 1515 at age 52 at Paris, France. He was buried at Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France.

    Louis XII, Roi de France was a member of the House of Orléans.2 He succeeded to the title of Roi Louis XII de France in 1498.2

Children of Louis XII, Roi de France and Anne de Dreux, Duchesse de Bretagne 1.Claude de Valois, Duchesse de Bretagne+ b. 13 Oct 1499, d. 20 Jul 1524 2.Renée de Valois+1 b. 1510, d. 1575 Citations 1.[S16] Jirí Louda and Michael MacLagan, Lines of Succession: Heraldry of the Royal Families of Europe, 2nd edition (London, U.K.: Little, Brown and Company, 1999), table 67. Hereinafter cited as Lines of Succession. 2.[S38] John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989), page 78. Hereinafter cited as Dynasties of the World. 3.[S3409] Caroline Maubois, "re: Penancoet Family," e-mail message to Darryl Roger Lundy, 2 December 2008. Hereinafter cited as "re: Penancoet Family." 4.[S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 150. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family.

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Louis XII, roi de France's Timeline

1462
June 27, 1462
Château de Blois, Blois, Touraine, Loir-et-Cher, France
1465
1465
Age 2
Orleans,,, France
1476
September 8, 1476
Age 14
1499
January 8, 1499
Age 36
Nantes, Bretagne, France
October 13, 1499
Age 37
Romorantin-Lanthenay, Loir-et-Cher, Centre, France
1508
January 21, 1508
Age 45
France
1510
October 25, 1510
Age 48
Blois, Loir-et-Cher, Centre, France
1512
January 21, 1512
Age 49
France
1514
October 9, 1514
Age 52
Abbeville, Picardie, France
1515
January 1, 1515
Age 52
Paris, Île-de-France, France