Louis II "le bègue", roi des Francs

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Louis

Also Known As: "Luiz", "Ludvig II", "the Stammerer", "Louis le Bègue", "Lodewijk II", "Louis II "The Stammerer" \\of France", "The Stammerer //", "de Stamelaar", "The /Stammerer/", "de stotteraar", "The German", "le Bègue", "il Balbo", "The Stammerer", "Louis the Stammerer", "Louis II"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Oise, Ile-de-France, Compiegne, France
Death: Died in Compiègne, Oise, Picardy, France
Place of Burial: Abbé Compiègne, Saint-Corneille, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Charles II "the Bald", Western Emperor and Ermentrude d'Orléans, reine des Francs
Husband of Ansgard von Burgund; Luitgarde Billung; Ansgard, Queen of Aquitaine and Adélaïs de Paris
Father of Ludwig III.König von Westfranken; Louis III, Roi de France; Adebelahide de France, Princess; Gizela; Carloman II, Roi de France and 4 others
Brother of Rothilde of the Franks; Charles "the Child", King of Aquitaine; Judith, Queen of Wessex, Countess of Flanders; Lotar; Carloman Carolingiens, Prince of France and 11 others
Half brother of Judith; Judith Of France, queen of West Franks, queen of England De Flanders; Gisela,; Charles; Rothilde of the Franks and 4 others

Occupation: King of France, Head of State, Rey de Francia Occidental, Roi de Francks, Rei da França Ocidental, King, Roi de France (877-879), KING OF FRANCE, EMPEROR, 'STAMMERER', King of the West Franks from October 6, 877 to April 10, 879, King of Western Francia
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Louis II "le bègue", roi des Francs

Louis II "le Begue" King of Western Francia

son of Charles "the Bald" and Ermentrude of Orleans

  • first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy

two sons, both of whom became kings of France:

Louis (born in 863) Carloman (born in 866)

two daughters:

Hildegarde (born in 864) Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes.

  • Second wife, Adelaide of Paris (Adélaïde de Frioul)

one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become king of France.

----------------------------

Louis II[1] dit le Bègue né le 1er novembre 846, mort le 11 avril 879 à Compiègne. Roi des Francs (877-879), fils de Charles II dit le Chauve et Ermentrude d'Orléans.

http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_II_de_France

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Stammerer

Il est d'abord couronné roi d'Aquitaine en 867, puis roi des Francs en 877, mais sans la Provence, cédée par son père à Boson de Provence.

Le 10 février 856 à Louviers[2], son père lui arrange des fiançailles avec une fille d'Erispoë, duc de Bretagne qui lui concède alors le duché du Mans[3]. Déplaisant énormément aux vassaux bretons, cet arrangement est peut-être une des raisons du mécontentement et du complot qui entraînent la mort du duc breton l'année suivante.

Marié en premières noces à Ansgarde de Bourgogne, ils ont deux fils : Louis III et Carloman II. Marié en secondes noces avec Adélaïde de Frioul, il est le père de Charles III, né après sa mort.

Comme l'indique son surnom, Louis II bégaie, ce qui l'empêche de s'exprimer en public et nuit à son autorité.

Bien que sacré une deuxième fois par le pape Jean VIII, lors du concile de Troyes en septembre 878[4], il demeure un roi sans pouvoir, dominé par la puissance de l'aristocratie. Le Ier novembre de cette même année à Fouron près de Liège, il a cependant la sagesse de conclure avec son cousin Louis de Saxe un accord[5] qui confirme le partage de la Lotharingie effectué par leur père en 870 au Traité de Meerssen.

--------------------------

Lodewijk II, van West-Francië, bijgenaamd ‘de Stamelaar’ (le Bègue), geb. 1.11.846; door zijn vader aangesteld tot koning in Maine 856 en, als gedesigneerd opvolger, tot (onder-)koning van Aquitanië 867; gaat zodra hij de dood van zijn vader heeft vernomen tal van kloosters, graafschappen en domeinen wegschenken om aanhang te winnen, wat de koninklijke macht natuurlijk verkleint en bijna tot een burgeroorlog leidt met de uit Italië terugkerenden; wordt na bemiddelend optreden van aartsbisschop Hincmar van Reims door deze gekroond, Compiègne 8.12.877; wordt ook door paus Johannes VIII gekroond (met uitzicht op een latere keizerskroning in Rome), Troyes 7.9.878; bevestigt op een samenkomst met zijn neef Lodewijk de Jonge van Oost-Francië het verdrag van Meersen te Voeren (Fouron) 1.11.878; bereidt (voordat een verdergaande samenwerking met de overige Karolingische vorsten wordt bereikt) een veldtocht voor tegen het opstandige zuiden van zijn rijk, doch (ziekelijk als hij is) overl. Compiègne Goede Vrijdag (10.4) en begr. ald. (klooster Notre-Dame) 11.4.879. Tr. 1) 862 Ansgardis, overl. 2.11.880, 881 of 882, dochter van graaf Harduin en zuster van Odo (Eudes) (graaf van Macon?); tr. (2) ca. 875 (tussen 872 en 877) Adelheid, geb. 855/60; overl. 18.10 kort

na 901; dr. van paltsgraaf Adalhard (omstreeks 885 waarschijnlijk graaf van Parijs) en NN.

Uit het eerste huwelijk:

a. Lodewijk, III, koning, geb. tussen 863 en 865, kinderloos overl. 5.8.882

b. Gisela, overl. tussen 11.4.879 en 12.12.884, tr. Rodbert, graaf van Troyes, abt van Saont-Loup, gesneuveld in de strijd tegen de Normandiërs, ten oosten van Parijs in febr. 886, zoon van Odo (Eudes), graaf van Chateaudun, daarna

van Troyes en van Wandilmodis.

c. Carloman, koning, geb. 867, kinderloos overl. als gevolg van een ongeval 6.12.884, begr. in de kerk van koninklijke abdij Saint-Denis.

d. Ermentrudis, geb. ca. 875, tr. NN, waaruit:

da. Cunegundis, geb. ca. 890/95, tr. Richwin van Verdun (ouders van Siegfried van Luxemburg), en tr. Wigeric van Aachen.

Uit het tweede huwelijk:

e. Karel (III)

--------------------

Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in France in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes. With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

--------------------

See Parents Charles II "The Bald" Emperor Of The HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE and Ermentrude (Irmtrud) Countess Of ORLEANS for further genealogy.

Marriage(s)

Spouse: Adbelahide Queen Of FRANCE

Marriage: 0875

Spouse: Ansgarde Princess Of BURGUNDY

Marriage: (div) 0862

, , , France

--------------------

Louis II 'the Stammerer', Roi de France (1)

M, #103215, b. 1 November 843, d. 10 April 879

Last Edited=20 Aug 2005

    Louis II 'the Stammerer', Roi de France was born on 1 November 843. (2) He was the son of Charles I, Roi de France and Ermentrude d'Orléans. (1) He married, firstly, Ansgarde de Bourgogne in 862. He married Adelaide Judith (?) in 875. (2) 

He died on 10 April 879 at age 35 at Compiegn, France. (2)

    Louis II 'the Stammerer', Roi de France gained the title of King Charles II of Neustria in 856. He gained the title of Roi Charles II d'Aquitaine in 867. He gained the title of King Charles II of the West Franks in 877. He gained the title of Roi Louis II de France in 877. (1)

Children of Louis II 'the Stammerer', Roi de France and Ansgarde de Bourgogne

-1. Gisela de France

-2. Louis III, Roi de France (1) b. c 863, d. 5 Aug 882

-3. Carloman, Roi de France1 b. 866, d. 12 Feb 884

Child of Louis II 'the Stammerer', Roi de France and Adelaide Judith (?)

-1. Charles III, Roi de France+1 b. 17 Sep 879, d. 7 Oct 929

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10322.htm#i103215

--------------------

Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 – April 10, 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the King of Aquitaine and later King of West Francia. He was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes.

Reign 877–879

Coronation 8 December 877 Rheims

Predecessor Charles II

Successor Louis III and Carloman II

Issue

Louis III of France

Carloman II of France

Hildegarde of France

Gisela of France

Ermentrude of France

Charles the Simple

Father Charles the Bald

Mother Ermentrude of Orléans

Born 1 November 846(846-11-01)

Died 10 April 879 (aged 32)

With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

--------------------

Louis ii le Bègue. Roi de Franc (Francie)

apodado el Tartamudo (846 - Compiègne, 879), rey de Francia Occidental desde el año 877 hasta su muerte.

Hijo del rey Carlos el Calvo y de la reina Ermentrudis, mantuvo diversas disputas con su padre desde sus dominios en Aquitania y Maine y, aunque era el segundo en la línea sucesoria, a la muerte de su padre fue nombrado rey. Rechazó la corona imperial que le ofreciera el papa Juan VIII.

Icono de esbozo

--------------------

Lodewijk II, van West-Francië, bijgenaamd ‘de Stamelaar’ (le Bègue), geb. 1.11.846; door zijn vader aangesteld tot koning in Maine 856 en, als gedesigneerd opvolger, tot (onder-)koning van Aquitanië 867; gaat zodra hij de dood van zijn vader heeft vernomen tal van kloosters, graafschappen en domeinen wegschenken om aanhang te winnen, wat de koninklijke macht natuurlijk verkleint en bijna tot een burgeroorlog leidt met de uit Italië terugkerenden; wordt na bemiddelend optreden van aartsbisschop Hincmar van Reims door deze gekroond, Compiègne 8.12.877; wordt ook door paus Johannes VIII gekroond (met uitzicht op een latere keizerskroning in Rome), Troyes 7.9.878; bevestigt op een samenkomst met zijn neef Lodewijk de Jonge van Oost-Francië het verdrag van Meersen te Voeren (Fouron) 1.11.878; bereidt (voordat een verdergaande samenwerking met de overige Karolingische vorsten wordt bereikt) een veldtocht voor tegen het opstandige zuiden van zijn rijk, doch (ziekelijk als hij is) overl. Compiègne Goede Vrijdag (10.4) en begr. ald. (klooster Notre-Dame) 11.4.879. Tr. 1) 862 Ansgardis, overl. 2.11.880, 881 of 882, dochter van graaf Harduin en zuster van Odo (Eudes) (graaf van Macon?); tr. (2) ca. 875 (tussen 872 en 877) Adelheid, geb. 855/60; overl. 18.10 kort

na 901; dr. van paltsgraaf Adalhard (omstreeks 885 waarschijnlijk graaf van Parijs) en NN.

Uit het eerste huwelijk:

a. Lodewijk, III, koning, geb. tussen 863 en 865, kinderloos overl. 5.8.882

b. Gisela, overl. tussen 11.4.879 en 12.12.884, tr. Rodbert, graaf van Troyes, abt van Saont-Loup, gesneuveld in de strijd tegen de Normandiërs, ten oosten van Parijs in febr. 886, zoon van Odo (Eudes), graaf van Chateaudun, daarna

van Troyes en van Wandilmodis.

c. Carloman, koning, geb. 867, kinderloos overl. als gevolg van een ongeval 6.12.884, begr. in de kerk van koninklijke abdij Saint-Denis.

d. Ermentrudis, geb. ca. 875, tr. NN, waaruit:

da. Cunegundis, geb. ca. 890/95, tr. Richwin van Verdun (ouders van Siegfried van Luxemburg), en tr. Wigeric van Aachen.

Uit het tweede huwelijk:

e. Karel, volgt VC

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_GermanLouis the German

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Louis the German

King of Eastern Francia

Seal with Louis' inscription and effigy.

Reign King of Bavaria: 817-843;

King of Eastern Francia: 843–876

Born 806

Died 28 August 876

Predecessor Louis the Pious

Successor Carloman of Bavaria, Louis the Younger, Charles the Fat

Consort Emma of Altdorf

Offspring Carloman of Bavaria, Louis the Younger, Charles the Fat

Royal House Carolingian

Father Louis the Pious

Mother Ermengarde of Hesbaye

Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 – August 28, 876), was a grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

Louis II was made the King of Bavaria from 817 following the Emperor Charlemagne's practice of bestowing a local kingdom on a family member who then served as one of his lieutenants and the local governor. When his father, Louis I (called the pious), partitioned the empire toward the end of his reign in 843, he was made King of East Francia, a region that spanned the Elbe drainage basin from Jutland southeasterly through the Thuringerwald into modern Bavaria from the Treaty of Verdun in 843 until his death.

Contents [hide]

1 Divisio imperii and filial rebellion

2 Bruderkrieg, 840–843

3 Conflict with Charles the Bald

4 Divisio regni and his sons

5 Marriage and children

6 Ancestry

7 References

[edit]Divisio imperii and filial rebellion

His early years were partly spent at the court of his grandfather, Charlemagne, whose special affection he is said to have won. When the emperor Louis divided his dominions between his sons in 817, Louis received Bavaria and the neighbouring lands but did not undertake the governing of such until 825, when he became involved in wars with the Wends and Sorbs on his eastern frontier. In 827, he married Emma of Altdorf, sister of his stepmother Judith of Bavaria, and daughter of Welf, whose possessions ranged from Alsace to Bavaria. Louis soon began to interfere in the quarrels arising from Judith's efforts to secure a kingdom for her own son Charles (later known as Charles the Bald) and the consequent struggles of his brothers with their father.

His involvement in the first civil war of his father's reign was limited, but in the second, his elder brothers, Lothair, then King of Italy, and Pepin, King of Aquitaine, induced him to invade Alamannia — which their father had given to their half-brother Charles — by promising to give him the land in the new partition they would make. In 832, he led an army of Slavs into Alamannia and completely subjugated it. Louis the Pious disinherited him, but to no effect; the emperor was captured by his own rebellious sons and deposed. Upon his swift reinstatement, however, the Emperor Louis made peace with his son Louis and restored Bavaria (never actually lost) to him (836).

In the third civil war (began 839) of his father's ruinous final decade, Louis was the instigator. A strip of his land having been given to the young Charles, Louis invaded Alamannia again. His father was not so sluggish in responding to him this time, and soon the younger Louis was forced into the far southeastern corner of his realm, the March of Pannonia. Peace had been made by force of arms.

[edit]Bruderkrieg, 840–843

When the elder Louis died in 840 and Lothair claimed the whole Empire, Louis allied with the half-brother, Charles the Bald, and defeated Lothair and their nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine, son of Pepin, at the Battle of Fontenay in June 841. In June 842, the three brothers met on an island in the Saône to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the Treaty of Verdun, concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands lying east of the Rhine (Eastern Francia), together with a district around Speyer, Worms, and Mainz, on the left bank of the river. His territories included Bavaria (where he made Regensburg the centre of his government), Thuringia, Franconia, and Saxony. He may truly be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile. Having in 842 crushed the Stellinga rising in Saxony, in 844 he compelled the Obotrites to own his authority and put their prince, Gozzmovil, to death. Thachulf, Duke of Thuringia, then undertook campaigns against the Bohemians, Moravians, and other tribes, but was not very successful in freeing his shores from the ravages of the Vikings.

[edit]Conflict with Charles the Bald

In 852, he had sent his son Louis the Younger to Aquitaine, where the nobles had grown resentful of Charles the Bald's rule. The younger Louis did not set out until 854, but he returned the following year. In 853 and the following years, Louis made more than one attempt to secure the throne of Western Francia, which, according to the Annals of Fulda (Annales Fuldenses), the people of that country offered him in their disgust with the cruel misrule of Charles the Bald. Encouraged by his nephews Pepin II and Charles, King of Provence, Louis invaded in 858; Charles the Bald could not even raise an army to resist the invasion and fled to Burgundy; in that year, Louis issued a charter dated "the first year of the reign in West Francia." Treachery and desertion in his army, and the loyalty to Charles of the Aquitanian bishops brought about the failure of the enterprise, which Louis renounced by a treaty signed at Coblenz on June 7, 860.

In 855, the emperor Lothair died, and Louis and Charles for a time seem to have cooperated in plans to divide Lothair's possessions among themselves — the only impediments to this being Lothair's sons: Lothair II (who received Lotharingia), Louis II (who held the imperial title and the Iron Crown), and the aforementioned Charles. In 868, at Metz they agreed definitely to a partition of Lotharingia; but when Lothair II died in 869, Louis the German was lying seriously ill, and his armies were engaged with the Moravians. Charles the Bald accordingly seized the whole kingdom; but Louis the German, having recovered, compelled him by a threat of war to agree to the Treaty of Meerssen, which divided it between the claimants.

[edit]Divisio regni and his sons

The later years of Louis the German were troubled by risings on the part of his sons, the eldest of whom, Carloman, revolted in 861 and again two years later; an example that was followed by the second son Louis, who in a further rising was joined by his brother Charles. In 864, Louis was forced to grant Carloman the kingdom of Bavaria, which he himself had once held under his father. The next year (865), he divided the remainder of his lands: Saxony he gave to Louis the Younger (with Franconia and Thuringia) and Swabia (with Raetia) to Charles, called the Fat. A report that the emperor Louis II was dead led to peace between father and sons and attempts by Louis the German to gain the imperial crown for Carloman. These efforts were thwarted by Louis II, who was not in fact dead, and Louis' old adversary, Charles the Bald.

Louis was preparing for war when he died on August 28, 876 at Frankfurt. He was buried at the abbey of Lorsch, leaving three sons and three daughters. His sons, unusually for the times, respected the division made a decade earlier and each contented himself with his own kingdom. Louis is considered by many to be the most competent of the grandsons of Charlemagne. He obtained for his kingdom a certain degree of security in face of the attacks of Norsemen, Magyars, Slavs, and others. He lived in close alliance with the Church, to which he was very generous, and entered eagerly into schemes for the conversion of his heathen neighbours.

[edit]Marriage and children

He was married to Hemma (died 31 January 876). They had seven children:

Hildegard (828-856)

Carloman (829-880)

Irmgard of Chiemsee also known as Ermengard (died 866)

Louis, having established two of his other daughters as abbesses of convents, appointed Irmgard (also known as Ermengard) to govern first the monastery of Buchau and then the royal abbey of Chiemsee in Bavaria. She is commemorated as a saint on 16 July.[1]

Gisela

Louis the Younger (830-882)

Bertha (died 877)

Charles the Fat (839-888)

[edit]Ancestry

--------------------

Louis II the Younger[1] (825 – 12 August 875) was the King of Italy from 844 and then Emperor from 855 until his death.[2]

He was the eldest son of the Emperor Lothair I and Ermengarde of Tours. He was designated King of Italy in 839 and took up his residence in that country and was crowned king at Rome by Pope Sergius II on 15 June 844. He at once claimed the rights of an emperor in the city, which claim was decisively rejected; but in 850 he was crowned joint emperor at Rome by Pope Leo IV, and soon afterwards, in 851, married Engelberga and undertook the independent government of Italy. He marched into the south of Italy in the year of his imperial coronation and compelled the rival dukes of Benevento, Radelchis I and Siconulf, to make peace. His mediation split the Lombard duchy and gave Radelchis his share with Benevento as his capital and gave Salerno as a principality independent to Siconulf. Radelchis, now pacified, had no need of his Saracen mercenaries and happily betrayed them to the emperor. Louis fell on them and they were massacred. He then quashed some accusations against Pope Leo and held a Diet at Pavia. He confirmed the usurping regent Peter as prince of Salerno in December 853, displacing the dynasty he had installed there three years earlier. On the death of his father in September 855, he became sole emperor.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_II,_Holy_Roman_Emperor

----------------------------

Ludvig II (s. noin 825- k.875) oli Pyhän Roomalaisen keisarikunnan keisari vuodesta 855 kuolemaansa asti. Hän oli Lotharingian kuninkaan Lothar I:n poika, ja tämä puolestaan oli yksi frankkien kuninkaan Ludvig Hurskaan kolmesta pojasta.

Ludvig sai Italian valtaansa 839, mutta muutti maahan ja kruunattiin vasta 844. Hän pyysi tulla siunatuksi keisariksi, mutta pyyntö hylättiin aluksi. Keskiajalla kuningas sai keisarin tittelin vasta paavin kruunauksella Roomassa. Vuonna 850 paavi Pyhä Leo IV suostui siunaamaan Lydvigin keisariksi. Hän haali valtaa Italian ruhtinailta avioliiton, sortaretkien ja liittolaissopimusten kautta. Vuonna 855, isänsä kuoltua, hän julistautui koko Italian yksinvaltiaaksi.

Ludvig ei ollut tyytyväinen isänsä eikä isoisänsä perinnön jakoon, ja juonitteli ja soti velijään ja setiään vastaan. Koska hän eli pitempään kuin veljensä, hän peri lopulta näidenkin osuudet.

Kuollessaan hän jätti Italian kuninkuuden serkulleen Baijerin Kaarlelle (830–880).

http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keisari_Ludvig_II

--------------------

Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 – August 28, 876), was a grandson of Charlemagne and the third son of the succeeding Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious and his first wife, Ermengarde of Hesbaye.

Louis II was made the King of Bavaria from 817 following the Emperor Charlemagne's practice of bestowing a local kingdom on a family member who then served as one of his lieutenants and the local governor. When his father, Louis I (called the pious), partitioned the empire toward the end of his reign in 843, he was made King of East Francia, a region that spanned the Elbe drainage basin from Jutland southeasterly through the Thuringerwald into modern Bavaria from the Treaty of Verdun in 843 until his death.

His early years were partly spent at the court of his grandfather, Charlemagne, whose special affection he is said to have won. When the emperor Louis divided his dominions between his sons in 817, Louis received Bavaria and the neighbouring lands but did not undertake the governing of such until 825, when he became involved in wars with the Wends and Sorbs on his eastern frontier. In 827, he married Emma of Altdorf, sister of his stepmother Judith of Bavaria, and daughter of Welf, whose possessions ranged from Alsace to Bavaria. Louis soon began to interfere in the quarrels arising from Judith's efforts to secure a kingdom for her own son Charles (later known as Charles the Bald) and the consequent struggles of his brothers with their father.

His involvement in the first civil war of his father's reign was limited, but in the second, his elder brothers, Lothair, then King of Italy, and Pepin, King of Aquitaine, induced him to invade Alamannia — which their father had given to their half-brother Charles — by promising to give him the land in the new partition they would make. In 832, he led an army of Slavs into Alamannia and completely subjugated it. Louis the Pious disinherited him, but to no effect; the emperor was captured by his own rebellious sons and deposed. Upon his swift reinstatement, however, the Emperor Louis made peace with his son Louis and restored Bavaria (never actually lost) to him (836).

In the third civil war (began 839) of his father's ruinous final decade, Louis was the instigator. A strip of his land having been given to the young Charles, Louis invaded Alamannia again. His father was not so sluggish in responding to him this time, and soon the younger Louis was forced into the far southeastern corner of his realm, the March of Pannonia. Peace had been made by force of arms.

[edit] Bruderkrieg, 840–843

When the elder Louis died in 840 and Lothair claimed the whole Empire, Louis allied with the half-brother, Charles the Bald, and defeated Lothair and their nephew Pepin II of Aquitaine, son of Pepin, at the Battle of Fontenay in June 841. In June 842, the three brothers met on an island in the Saône to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the Treaty of Verdun, concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands lying east of the Rhine (Eastern Francia), together with a district around Speyer, Worms, and Mainz, on the left bank of the river. His territories included Bavaria (where he made Regensburg the centre of his government), Thuringia, Franconia, and Saxony. He may truly be called the founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to maintain the unity of the Empire proved futile. Having in 842 crushed the Stellinga rising in Saxony, in 844 he compelled the Obotrites to own his authority and put their prince, Gozzmovil, to death. Thachulf, Duke of Thuringia, then undertook campaigns against the Bohemians, Moravians, and other tribes, but was not very successful in freeing his shores from the ravages of the Vikings.

[edit] Conflict with Charles the Bald

In 852, he had sent his son Louis the Younger to Aquitaine, where the nobles had grown resentful of Charles the Bald's rule. The younger Louis did not set out until 854, but he returned the following year. In 853 and the following years, Louis made more than one attempt to secure the throne of Western Francia, which, according to the Annals of Fulda (Annales Fuldenses), the people of that country offered him in their disgust with the cruel misrule of Charles the Bald. Encouraged by his nephews Pepin II and Charles, King of Provence, Louis invaded in 858; Charles the Bald could not even raise an army to resist the invasion and fled to Burgundy; in that year, Louis issued a charter dated "the first year of the reign in West Francia." Treachery and desertion in his army, and the loyalty to Charles of the Aquitanian bishops brought about the failure of the enterprise, which Louis renounced by a treaty signed at Coblenz on June 7, 860.

In 855, the emperor Lothair died, and Louis and Charles for a time seem to have cooperated in plans to divide Lothair's possessions among themselves — the only impediments to this being Lothair's sons: Lothair II (who received Lotharingia), Louis II (who held the imperial title and the Iron Crown), and the aforementioned Charles. In 868, at Metz they agreed definitely to a partition of Lotharingia; but when Lothair II died in 869, Louis the German was lying seriously ill, and his armies were engaged with the Moravians. Charles the Bald accordingly seized the whole kingdom; but Louis the German, having recovered, compelled him by a threat of war to agree to the Treaty of Meerssen, which divided it between the claimants.

[edit] Divisio regni and his sons

The later years of Louis the German were troubled by risings on the part of his sons, the eldest of whom, Carloman, revolted in 861 and again two years later; an example that was followed by the second son Louis, who in a further rising was joined by his brother Charles. In 864, Louis was forced to grant Carloman the kingdom of Bavaria, which he himself had once held under his father. The next year (865), he divided the remainder of his lands: Saxony he gave to Louis the Younger (with Franconia and Thuringia) and Swabia (with Raetia) to Charles, called the Fat. A report that the emperor Louis II was dead led to peace between father and sons and attempts by Louis the German to gain the imperial crown for Carloman. These efforts were thwarted by Louis II, who was not in fact dead, and Louis' old adversary, Charles the Bald.

Louis was preparing for war when he died on August 28, 876 at Frankfurt. He was buried at the abbey of Lorsch, leaving three sons and three daughters. His sons, unusually for the times, respected the division made a decade earlier and each contented himself with his own kingdom. Louis is considered by many to be the most competent of the grandsons of Charlemagne. He obtained for his kingdom a certain degree of security in face of the attacks of Norsemen, Magyars, Slavs, and others. He lived in close alliance with the Church, to which he was very generous, and entered eagerly into schemes for the conversion of his heathen neighbours.

[edit] Marriage and children

He was married to Hemma (died 31 January 876). They had seven children:

Hildegard (828-856)

Carloman (829-880)

Irmgard of Chiemsee also known as Ermengard (died 866)

Louis, having established two of his other daughters as abbesses of convents, appointed Irmgard (also known as Ermengard) to govern first the monastery of Buchau and then the royal abbey of Chiemsee in Bavaria. She is commemorated as a saint on 16 July.[1]

Gisela

Louis the Younger (830-882)

Bertha (died 877)

Charles the Fat (839-888

--------------------

Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor (1)

M, #103206, b. circa 822, d. 875

Last Edited=6 Nov 2004

    Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor was born circa 822. He was the son of Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor and Irmengard, Comtesse de Tours. (1) He died in 875.
    Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor also went by the nick-name of Louis 'le Jeune'. He was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 850. (1) He succeeded to the title of Emperor Louis II of the Holy Roman Empire in 855. (1)

Child of Louis II, Holy Roman Emperor and Engeberge (?)

-1. Irmengard d'Aquitaine+

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10321.htm#i103206

--------------------

Louis II 'the German', King of the East Franks

M, #103202, b. circa 805, d. 876

Last Edited=31 Oct 2004

    Louis II 'the German', King of the East Franks was born circa 805. He was the son of Louis I, Roi de France and Irmengard of Hesbain. He died in 876.
    Louis II 'the German', King of the East Franks gained the title of King Louis II of the East Franks.

Children of Louis II 'the German', King of the East Franks and Emma von Bayern

-1. Louis 'the Young', King of the East Franks d. 882

-2. Carloman König von Bayern+ b. c 828, d. 880

-3. Charles II, Roi de France b. 13 Jun 839, d. 13 Jan 888 (1)

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10321.htm#i103202

--------------------

Louis was preparing for war when he died on August 28, 876 at Frankfurt. He was buried at the abbey of Lorsch, leaving three sons and three daughters.

--------------------

Notes:

King of Bavaria 825.

Louis II was made the King of Bavaria from 817

When his father, Louis I (called the pious), partitioned the empire toward the end of his reign in 843, he was made King of East Francia, a region that spanned the Elbe drainage basin from Jutland southeasterly through the Thuringerwald into modern Bavaria) from the Treaty of Verdun in 843 until his death.

--------------------

Wikipedia - Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in France in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes. With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

[edit]

--------------------

Louis the Stammerer (1 November 846 – 10 April 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the King of Aquitaine and later King of West Francia. He was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor. In the French monarchial system, he is considered Louis II.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes.

With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

[edit] Ancestry

[hide]v • d • eAncestors of Louis the Stammerer

                                 

 16. Pepin the Short 
 
         

 8. Charlemagne   
 
               

 17. Bertrada of Laon 
 
         

 4. Louis the Pious   
 
                     

 18. Gerold of Vintzgau 
 
         

 9. Hildegard   
 
               

 19. Emma of Alamannia 
 
         

 2. Charles the Bald   
 
                           

 20. Rothard of Metz 
 
         

 10. Welf   
 
               

 21. Hermenlindis 
 
         

 5. Judith of Bavaria   
 
                     

 22. Isanbart 
 
         

 11. Hedwig, Duchess of Bavaria   
 
               





 1. Louis the Stammerer   
 
                                 

 24. Gerold of Vintzgau (= 18) 
 
         

 12. Adrian, Count of Orléans   
 
               

 25. Emma of Alamannia (= 19) 
 
         

 6. Odo I, Count of Orléans   
 
                     

 26. Lambert von Hornbach 
 
         

 13. Waldrada of Orléans   
 
               





 3. Ermentrude of Orléans   
 
                           

 28. Beggo, Count of Toulouse 
 
         

 14. Leuthard, Count of Fézensac   
 
               

 29. Alpais 
 
         

 7. Engeltrude of Paris   
 
                     

 30. Baldwin of Aquitaine 
 
         

 15. Grimhild of Aquitaine   
 
               






[edit] References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Louis II of France 

Louis the Stammerer

Carolingian Dynasty

Born: 1 November 846 Died: 10 April 879

Preceded by

Charles III King of Aquitaine as Louis II

866-877 Vacant

Title next held by

Ranulf II of Aquitaine

Preceded by

Charles II King of Western Francia

877–879 Succeeded by

Louis III and Carloman

[show]v • d • eCarolingian Kings of the Franks


Carolingians: Pépin (751–768) · Carloman I (768–771) · Charles I (768–814) · Louis I (814–840) · Interregnum (840–843) · Charles II (843–877) · Louis II (877–879) · Louis III (879–882) · Carloman II (879–884) · Charles the Fat (884–888) Robertian: Eudes (887–898) Carolingian: Charles III (898–922) Robertian: Robert I (922–923) Bosonid: Raoul (923–936) Carolingians: Louis IV (936–954) · Lothaire (954–986) · Louis V (986–987) Capetian (Robertian): Hughes (986–987)


This French history-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. 

v • d • e

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Stammerer"

Categories: French history stubs | 846 births | 879 deaths | Carolingian dynasty | French monarchs | Kings of Burgundy | Roman Catholic monarchs | 9th-century rulers in Europe

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Ludvig var gift tre gånger och fick fyra barn. Med sina första hustru Ansgard av Burgund fick han sönerna Ludvig III och Karloman II, som båda blev frankiska kungar. Med sin andra hustru Adelaide Judith av Paris fick han prinsessan Ermentrude och med sin tredje hustru Liutgard av Sachsen fick han sonen Karl III, som även han blev kung.

Ludvig sas var fysiskt bräcklig och överlevde bara sin far med två år. Hans politiska fotavtryck var mycket ringa. Vid hans död delades hans rike mellan Karloman och Ludvig III

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Casou-se três vezes e teve quatro filhos. Com a sua primeira mulher, Ansgarde de Borgonha, teve dois filhos, Luís III e Carlomano, ambos Reis de França. Com a segunda mulher, Adelaide Judith de Paris, teve uma filha, Ermentrude, princesa dos Francos Ocidentais. Com a terceira mulher, Luitgarde da Saxónia, teve um filho, Carlos III, rei da França e rei dos Francos Ocidentais.

Luís o Gago seria físicamente débil e morreu apenas dois anos depois do seu pai. Quase não teve impacto na política. Com a sua morte, os seus reinos foram divididos entre dois dos seus filhos, Carlomano e Luís III.

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Holy Roman Emperor 881 to 887

French Monarch 12-Dec-884 to 887

   

Risk Factors: Epilepsy

--------------------

Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in France in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes. With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

--------------------

Louis II "the Stammerer" Holy Roman Emperor was born on 1 September 846.1,2,3 He was the son of Charles II "the Bald" King of France and Ermentrude of Orléans.1,2,3 Between 868 and 870 Louis married Adelaide of Paris, daughter of Bègue II Count of Paris.1,2 Louis II "the Stammerer" Holy Roman Emperor was crowned King of West Franks and France in 877.1,2 He was crowned Emperor of the West in 878.1,2 He died on Monday, 10 April 879 in Compeigne at age 32 years, 7 months and 9 days.1,2 

Charts

Ancestry of Edward III

Children of Louis II "the Stammerer" Holy Roman Emperor and Adelaide of Paris

Ermentrude Princess of West Franks+ (a 870 - )2

Charles III "the Simple" King of France+ (17 Sep 879 - 7 Oct 929)1,2

Citations

Weis, Frederick Lewis. Ancestral Roots of Sixty Colonists Who Came to New England Between 1623 and 1650. Fifth Edition. Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1982.

Stuart, Roderick W. Royalty for Commoners, The Complete Known Lineage of John of Gaunt, Son of Edward III, King of England, and Queen Philippa. Fourth Edition. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company, 2002.

Sewell Genealogy Site. Online http://www3.sympatico.ca/robert.sewell/sitemapweb.html

http://www.genealogy.theroyfamily.com/p30251.htm

Louis the Stammerer

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Jump to: navigation, search

Louis II the Stammerer

King of Western Francia


Louis the Stammerer at his coronation Bibliothèque nationale de France.

Reign 877–879

Titles King of Aquitaine (867-877)

Born November 1, 846(846-11-01)

Died April 10, 879 (aged 32)

Compiègne, France 

Buried Saint Denis Basilica, France

Predecessor Charles II

Successor Louis III and Carloman II

Consort Ansgarde

Adelaide of Paris

Issue Louis III

Carloman II

Gisèle

Hildegarde

Ermentrude

Charles III

Royal House Carolingian

Father Charles II

Mother Ermentrude of Orléans

Carolingian Dynasty

(West Frankish Branch)


Louis the Pious

Children

  Lothair I, Holy Roman Emperor 
  Pepin I of Aquitaine 
  Louis the German 
  Charles the Bald 

Charles the Bald

Children

  Judith 
  Louis the Stammerer 
  Charles the Child 
  Carloman 

Louis II of France

Children

  Louis III 
  Carloman II 
  Charles the Simple 

Louis III

Carloman II

Charles III

Children

  Louis IV 

Louis IV

Children

  Lothair 
  Charles, Duke of Lower
  Lorraine 

Lothair

Children

  Louis V 
  Arnulf 

Louis V


Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in France in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes. With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

[edit] References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

--------------------

Louis the Stammerer (1 November 846 – 10 April 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the King of Aquitaine and later King of West Francia. He was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor. In the French monarchial system, he is considered Louis II.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes.

With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

--------------------

From http://www.rpi.edu/~holmes/Hobbies/Genealogy/ps05/ps05_118.htm

Louis, the son of King Charles II the Bald, was made king of Aquitaine under his father's tutelage in 867. Charles became emperor in 875 and two years later left Louis as regent while he defended Italy for Pope John VIII. Louis was elected king of the West Franks in December 877. At a council at Troyes in 878, the Pope attempted to force Louis to take up the role of defender of the papacy, but Louis refused. Louis and his cousin Louis the Younger, ruler of the East Frankish kingdom, agreed to maintain the division of Lotharingia that their respective fathers had negotiated in the Treaty of Mersen in 870. Louis had hoped to redistribute offices of state but was frustrated by the Frankish magnates, who had accepted him as king on the condition that he respect their possessions and rights.

Louis II was crowned by Hincmar, Archbishop of Reims, 12-08-877, and consecrated again in 09-878 by Pope John VIII. His reign was "ineffectual." By his first wife, Ansgarde, a Burgundian princess, he had his successors, sons Louis III and Carloman. Carloman was second successor to die, Dec. 12, 884, succeded by Charles the Simple, his half-brother (a child of five).

References: [Weis1],[RFC],[WallopFH],[Moncreiffe]

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_II_the_Stammerer

--------------------

Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in France in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes. With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis.

--------------------

Louis the Stammerer (November 1, 846 — April 10, 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in France in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes. With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis. -------------------- Louis, the son of King Charles II the Bald, was made king of Aquitaine under his father's tutelage in 867. Charles became emperor in 875 and two years later left Louis as regent while he defended Italy for Pope John VIII. Louis was elected king of the West Franks in December 877. At a council at Troyes in 878, the Pope attempted to force Louis to take up the role of defender of the papacy, but Louis refused. Louis and his cousin Louis the Younger, ruler of the East Frankish kingdom, agreed to maintain the division of Lotharingia that their respective fathers had negotiated in the Treaty of Mersen in 870. Louis had hoped to redistribute offices of state but was frustrated by the Frankish magnates, who had accepted him as king on the condition that he respect their possessions and rights.

Louis II was crowned by Hincmar, Archbishop of Reims, 12-08-877, and consecrated again in 09-878 by Pope John

VIII. His reign was "ineffectual." By his first wife, Ansgarde, a Burgundian princess, he had his successors, sons Louis

III and Carloman. Carloman was second successor to die, Dec. 12, 884, succeded by Charles the Simple, his half-brother

(a child of five). -------------------- http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludvig_den_fromme

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Stammerer -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Stammerer

Louis the Stammerer (1 November 846 – 10 April 879; French: Louis le Bègue), was the King of Aquitaine and later King of West Francia. He was the eldest son of Charles the Bald and Ermentrude of Orléans. He succeeded his younger brother in Aquitaine in 866 and his father in West Francia in 877, though he was never crowned Emperor. In the French monarchial system, he is considered Louis II.

Twice married, he and his first wife, Ansgarde of Burgundy, had two sons: Louis (born in 863) and Carloman (born in 866), both of whom became kings of France, and two daughters: Hildegarde (born in 864) and Gisela (865–884), who married Robert, Count of Troyes.

With his second wife, Adelaide of Paris, he had one daughter, Ermentrude (875–914) — who was the mother of Cunigunde, wife of the Count Palatine Wigerich of Bidgau; they were the ancestors of the House of Luxemburg —, and a posthumous son, Charles the Simple, who would become, long after his elder brothers' deaths, king of France.

He was crowned on 8 December 877 by Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, and was crowned a second time in September 878 by Pope John VIII at Troyes while the pope was attending a council there. The pope may even have offered the imperial crown, but it was declined. Louis the Stammerer was said to be physically weak and outlived his father by only two years. He had relatively little impact on politics. He was described "a simple and sweet man, a lover of peace, justice, and religion". In 878, he gave the counties of Barcelona, Gerona, and Besalú to Wilfred the Hairy. His final act was to march against the Vikings who were then the scourge of Europe. He fell ill and died on 10 April or 9 April 879 not long after beginning his final campaign. On his death, his realms were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Louis. -------------------- Louis II, King de France (the Stammerer)

(Andre Roux: Scrolls, 191.) (Stuart, Royalty for Commoners, Page 130, Line 171-38.) (Paul, Nouveau Larousse Universel.) (Rosamond, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians, Page 258.) (Andre Castelot, Histoire de La France, Tome 1, Page 387).

AKA: Louis II, King d'Aquitaine. Also Known As: Louis "Le Begue".

Born: in Nov 846 in Compiegne, Oise, Ile-de-France, France , son of Charles II, King de France and Ermentrude d'Orlean s . Married in 862: Ansgarde de Bourgogne , daughter of Har douin, Count de Bourgogne; She was given in marriage to Lou is by her brother, Odon, often confused with Odon, Count o f Troyes, an older man and one of Louis' detractors (Rosamo nd, Frankish kingdom under Carolingians, Page 185). Not e - between 867 and 879: Louis II was the King of Aquitain e from 867 to 879 and became King of France in 877, crowne d at Compiegne by Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims on 8 Octobe r. If the children and grandchildren of Charlemagne had a n easy time ascending to the throne by virtue of their pare ntage, the same is not true for Louis. Louis had to be elec ted by the Greats - the nobles whose power had been growin g steadily - and they conceded only after having received c ountships and additional powers. Moreover, Louis had to acc ept the tutelage of his maternal uncle, Hughes, Marquis o f Neustria who also received the countship of Tours. He die d 16 months later while making preparations to reprimand Be rnard, Duke of Septimanie. Upon his death, nobles, lookin g to enhance their own power saw the kingdom partitioned be tween Louis III and Carloman, who were both crowned and ano inted at Ferrieres in September 879 by Ansegis, Archbisho p of Sens. Louis III's portion comprised Francia and Neust ria, and Carloman ruled Burgundy, Aquitaine and Gothia.

Married between 868 and 869: Adelaide=Adelheid de Paris, daughter of Adalhard, Count de Paris.

Died: on 11 Apr 879 in France at age 32 Louis II died sooner than expected after having divided his kingdom between his two sons, Louis III and Carloman. To the older son went Francia and Neustria; and to the younger went Bourgogne, Aquitaine and the Marche of Spain. This creation of two kingdoms is highly disputed because the two sons are not viewed by some as legitimate because Charles le Chauve had not officially recognized Louis' marriage to Ansgarde. Louis was not favored, and on 15 October 879, Provence and Bourgogne recognized Richilde's (Charles le Chauve's widow) brother, Bozon. Moreover, Louis, son of Louis le Germanique, also lays claim to the throne of France. Thus, to make matters rather complicated there exists three kings of France at this time.

From Encyclopedia Britannica Online, article titled "Louis II:"

"byname LOUIS THE STAMMERER, French LOUIS LE BâaEGUE, king of Francia Occidentalis (the West Frankish kingdom) from 877 until his death.

"Louis, the son of King Charles II the Bald, was made king of Aquitaine under his father's tutelage in 867. Charles became emperor in 875 and two years later left Louis as regent while he defended Italy for Pope John VIII. Louis was elected king of the West Franks in December 877. At a council at Troyes in 878, the Pope attempted to force Louis to take up the role of defender of the papacy, but Louis refused. Louis and

his cousin Louis the Younger, ruler of the East Frankish kingdom, agreed to maintain the division of Lotharingia that their respective fathers had negotiated in the Treaty of Mersen in 870. Louis had hoped to redistribute offices of state but was frustrated by the Frankish magnates, who had accepted him as king on the condition that he respect their possessions and rights."

-----------------------------

Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, published in Dublin in 1789, provides a detailed account of the early history of the de Courcys, from their origins in Europe up until the time that Sir John de Courcy transferred their principal interests to Ireland in 1177. Lodge traces the de Courcys' origins back to Charlemagne, arguing that Balderic, the father of the first "de Courcy", Robert, was the son of Wigerius (or Wigman), who in turn was the great grandson of Louis IV.

The Irish genealogist Edward MacLysaght provides circumstantial evidence for this descent, but he is cautious. In his pedigree of the de Courcys, produced in the 1940s when he was Chief Herald of Ireland, MacLysaght writes:

"The parentage of Balderic has not been established. It has been contended (vide Lodge) that he was the son of Wigman, who, it is stated, was a son of Charles of Lorraine, grandson of King Louis IV.

"It appears from a report supplied by M Meurgey de Tupigny, of the Societe Francoise d'Heraldique et Sigillographie, that 'some genealogists have written' that Charles had a son named Wingman or Wigman. The question apparently does not permit of a decisive answer. For the affiliation of Balderic to Wigman a circumstantial case can be made as follows:

a) Balderic married a grand-daughter of Gilbert, Count of Brion, which may indicate that he was of gentle birth.

b) Balderic had a son named Wigerius or Wigman

"It is clear that in the present state of our information, it is not possible to record a definitive parentage for Balderic."

If Lodge is right that Balderic is descended from Louis IV, then the following line of descent from the Franco-Roman senator Ferreolus and his father and grandfather, both also Ferreolus, can be claimed:

1. Ferreolus (born c 390), husband of Syagria

2. Tonantius Ferreolus (prefect), 410 - 475, son of Syagria

3. Tonantius Ferreolus (senator), 440 - 517, son of prefect Ferreolus

4. Ferreolus, Senator of Narbonne, b. about 470, son of senator Ferreolus

5. Ansbertus, 520 - 590, son of Ferreolus

6. Arnoald, 560 - 611, son of Ansbertus

7. Saint Arnulf of Metz, 582 - 640, son of Arnoald

8. Ansegisel, 606 - 670, 2nd son of St Arnulf

9. Pepin of Herstal, 635 - 714, 1st son of Ansegisel – Duke of the Franks

10. Charles Martel, 686 - 741, 3rd son of Pepin of Herstal – Duke of the Franks

11. Pepin the Short, 714 - 768, 2nd son of Charles Martel – Duke of the Franks

12. Charlemagne, 744 - 814, 1st son of Pepin the Short – King of France, Emperor

13. Louis the Pious, 778 - 840, 4th son of Charlemagne – King of France

14. Charles the Bald, 823 - 877, 4th son of Louis the Pious – King of France

15.LOUIS II, "THE STUTTERER", 844-879,

   1ST SON OF CHARLES THE BALD - KING OF FRANCE

16. Charles III, the Simple, 879-929, 3rd son of Louis II – King of France

17. Louis IV, Transmarinus, 920-954, 1st son of Charles III – King of France

18. Charles, 945- , 2nd son of Louis IV – Duke of Loraine

19. Charles, 2nd son of Charles Duke of Loraine

20. Wigerius, son of Charles

21. Balderic, 1st son of Wigerius

Lodge's origins of the de Courcys

Lodge's Peerage of Ireland provides the following account of the early history of the de Courcys up until the advent of Sir John de Courcy:

"The noble family of COURCY, COURCI, CURCY, CURSEI, COURCEI, etc is allied to most of the Princes of Europe, deriving its descent in the male line from the house of Loraine, of the race of the Emperor Charlemagne, who died in the year 814, and in the female line from Rollo, William-Longuespee, and Richard, the three first Dukes of Normandy.

"Charlemagne, or Charles 1, surnamed the Great (son of Pipin the short, Duke of Brabant, who became king of France in 751, and died in 768) was born on 2 April, or according to some 28 January 742, and succeeded his father as King of France in 768; was made King of Italy in 774, and of Germany in 785, being then 58 years old. He obliged the Saxons and all other Heathens, whom he conquered to receive the Christian faith, and so made the grand revolution of Europe. He conquered Witekind the Great, the last King and first Duke of the Saxons; he subdued the Sclavonians and Hungarians; fortified Gallia Narbonensis, or South-France, against the invasions of the Saracens; made peace with Irene, Empress of Constantinople; and subdued most of the Italian and Spanish nations, became the greatest conqueror that had appeared for many ages. He entered into alliance with distant Kings, and particularly with Achaius King of Scotland; and marching triumphantly into Italy, assisted Pope Leo III against his rebels, who solemnly crowned him at Rome, Emperor of the West, on Christmas-Day in the year 800. But after a glorious reign over France of 46 years, over Italy of 40 years, over Germany of 29 years, and as Western Emperor 14 years, he was seized with a fever 1 January 814, and died on the 24th having issue by his first wife Hildegardis, whom he married in 768, and who died in 783, three sons and eight daughters, whereof

"Lewis, the third son, called Pius, succeeded him in Germany, France and Italy; who giving each of his sons the title and dignity of a King, they deposed him in 833; but the Peers of the empire relenting, he was restored the next year, when he pardoned his sons, and divided the empire among them, whereby it was much weakened, France having never since been a part of it. He married to his first wife Erminfardis, daughter of Ingram, Count of Hasbania in Saxony, and by her, who died in 818, had issue Latharius I, made by his father, King of Italy; Pipin, King of Aquitaine, who died before him, Ludovicus-Germanicus, King of Bavaria, and two daughters, Gisela, wife of Eberhard, Count of Burgundy; and Adelheid, wife to Robert, also Count of Burgundy. In 819 he took to his second wife Judith, the fair, daughter of Welphus, Count of Altorf in Suavia, and dying in the year 840, had issue by her, who deceased in 843, one son Charles, and one daughter Alpais, wife to Beggo, Count of Paris, by whom she was great-great-grand-mohter of Conrad I, made Emperor for his valour in 912, who died childless in 918: But in his time the great Duke of Saxony, Bavaria, Suabia, and Lorain, attempting to be independent, Conrad not able to prevent it, and fearing a revolt, advised the German Princes, on his death-bed, to prevent it, by electing Henry Auceps, Duke of Saxony, son of Duke Otto, to be Emperor of Germany, and thus began the Saxon Empire.

"Charles, the only son by the second wife, born in 823, was surnamed the Bald; was King of France in 840, Emperor in 875, and died 6 October 878. He married first in 842 Ermintrudis, daughter of Odo, Count of Orleans, and daughter of Bovinus, Count of Aldemir Walde in France, by whom he had an only surviving daughter, Judith, first married to Ethelwolf, King of England; secondly in 857, to her stepson, King Ethelbald; and thirdly in 862, to Baldwin I, Count of Flanders. By the first wife his issue were four sons, Lewis II, his successor; Lotharius, who died young; Charles, murdered in 866; and Carolamanus, who had his eyes put out in 871.

"Lewis II, called the Stutterer, King of France, born in 844, was chosen Emperor in 878, and died 10 April 879, aet 35, having by his first wife Ansgardis, two sons, Lewis III, and Carolomanus, both Kings of France, who died without issue; and by his second wife Adelhida, he had one son Charles III, and a daughter Gisela, wife to Rollo, first Duke of Normandy.

"Charles III, called the Simple, was born the year his father died; succeeded to the kingdom of France in 893, and died 7 October 929; having married first in 907 Frederunna, who died without issue in 918; and secondly, in that year Edgina, daughter of Edward, the elder, King of England, by whom he had Lewis IV, named Transmarinus, or De Outre-Mer, born in 920, King of France in 936, and died 15 October 954. In 939 he married Gerberga, daughter of Henry I, styled the Fowler, Emperor of Germany, who took Loraine from Charles the Simple in 921, widow of Gislebert, Duke of Loraine, and by her, who died in 984, had two sons, Lotharius, King of France, born in 940; and Charles, Duke of Loraine, born in 945, which Dutchy was confirmed to him in 987 by Emperor Otho II, his cousin-german, he having got Lower-Loraine from the Emperor Otto I in 963, whereby he lost his succession to France; for, King Lotharius, his elder brother, dying in 986, and leaving by Lotharius, King of Italy, a son Lewis V, called the Slothful, who died the year after without issue, by his wife Blanca, daughter of William, Duke of Aquitaine, and was the last King of France of the Carolinian race. Charles, his nephew, should in right, have succeeded him, but was excluded by Hugh Capet, chosen by the French, upon a dislike of Duke Charles’s living out of the kingdom, and espousing the German interests on all occasions, preferable to those of France.

"By his first wife Bona, daughter of Ricuinus, Duke in the Moselle, who was murdered in 945, he had Otho I, Duke of Loraine; and by his second Agnes of Vermandois, Troyes and Meaux (by his wife Edgina, daughter of Edward the elder, King of England, and widow of Charles the Simple, King of France, before-mentioned) he had two sons, Lewis, of Loraine, Count or Landgrave of Thuringia, now called Hesse, who continued the Line in Germany; and Charles (by some called Hugh) who was father of Wigerius, or Wigman, whose two sons Balderic and Wigerius went from Germany into Normandy, to serve Duke Richard II in his wars.

"Balderic, the elder son, styled by the Norman writers Teutonicus, the Germany, is honourably mentioned in their histories, as a stout and warlike commander. He married the niece of Gilbert, Earl of Brion in Normandy [1], and daughter of Richard de Clare [2], Earl of Clare, by whom he had seven daughters and six sons.

1) Nicholas, surnamed de Bacqueville, who by the niece of Gunnora, Dutchess of Normandy, had two sons, William Martell, Earl Warren in Normandy (who left that surname to his posterity) created Earl of Surry by the Conqueror; and Walter de St Martin, the father of Roger, surnamed de Mortimer, who attended the conqueror, subdued Edrich, Earl of Shrewsbury, did thereupon enjoy Wigmore-Castle, and was ancestor to the Mortimers, ancient Barons of England, and to the Earls of March and Ulster.

2) Fulke D’Alnou

3) Robert de Courcei, Ancestor to the Lord Kingsale.

4) Richard de Nova-Villa (Nevil) father of Gilbert, who attended the Norman Duke to England, in quality of his Admiral, and gave rise to the noble spreading family of Nevil.

5) Balderic de Beaugency; and

6) Wigerious, or Wigman of Apulia [3]

"Robert de Courcy (the third son, in the year 1026, was Lord Courcy in Normandy, in which he was succeeded by his son Richard, who accompanied William, Duke of Normandy, in his expedition, and was present at the decisive battle of Hastings, fought on Saturday 14 October 1066, and after the victorious Duke was settled on the throne, had his services recompensed with a great number of Lordships, among which was that of Stoke in the country of Somerset, called from its Lord, Stoke-Courcy, which he held per integram Baronium, with the Lordships of Newnham, Seckenden, and Foxcote in Oxfordshire. – Robert de Montgomery, Count of Belesme, Alenson, and Seez in Normandy, and the third Early of Arundel and Shrewsbury in England, being of a very cruel disposition, and a professed enemy to the families of Courcy and Grantmesnil, besieged the castle of Courcy in January 1091, but was forced to raise the siege at the end of three weeks, by this Richard, and Hugh de Grantmesnil, who resolutely defended the pace, being men, who, though quite grey with age, yielded to none either in extraction or courage, according to Ordericus Vitalis, the historian of those times.

"He is thrice mentioned by Sir William Dugdale [4], and departing this life in the year 1098 was succeeded by his son Robert, Lord of Courcy in Normandy, and Baron of Stoke-Courcy, Sewer, or Steward of the household to King Henry I, and to his daughter Maud the Empress; by the former of whom in 1133, 33 of his reign, he was made one of the great Barons at Westminster, and that year is witness with Stephen, Earl of Moreton (after King Stephen) and others of the nobility, to a confirmation charter of that King to the Prior and convent of St Bartholomew, London, and was the founder of the nunnery of Cannington in Somersetshire [5]. – He married Rohesia, one of the six daughters of the said Hugh de Grantmesnil, Lord of Hinckley in the county of Leicester, and Lord High Steward of England (who died 22 February 1098, by his wife Adelhyde, daughter of the Count de Beaumont in France, who died 11 July 1091, at Rheims, and was buried in her husband’s monastery of St Ebruf at Utica) and had issue five sons, of whom William, the eldest, was Baron of Stoke-Courcy, and Dapifer (Sewer) to King Henry I, he is mentioned by Dugdale in his Monasticon, as witness to several pious donations [6]; but dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother.

"Robert, Baron of Stoke-Courcy, who in the time of King Stephen was a principal commander at the battle of Northampton against the Scots; and married Avicia, one of the two daughters and coheirs to William de Meschines [7] Earl of Cambridge; by her had William, his successor, Lord of Stoke-Courcy, and Dapifer to King Henry II, who was one of the witnesses to that King’s charter of the lands privileges, he gave to the church of St Peter, Westminster [8]; and also one of those English noblemen, who testified the league of pacification between that King and William, King of Scots. – In 1166 (12 Henry II) upon the aid, levied for marrying the King’s eldest daughter Maud, to Henry (the Lion) Duke of Saxony, he certified the Knight’s fees of his barony, which his father and grandfather had held, to be 24 and three parts, de deteri Feoffamento, with four more and a fifth part, de novo; and those of the barony of William de Meschines, his mother’s father, to be seventeen; for the first of which he paid, two years after, 16l 10s, and for those de novo 2l 16s – 18 of Henry II he was Lord of Islip in the county of Oxford; founded the priory of Stoke-Courcy; and having married Julian, daughter of Richard D’Aquila [9], a Baron of England in the reign of Henry I, died in 1171, leaving two sons, Sir John de Courcy, Earl of Ulster; Jordan, who in 1197 was killed in Ulster by an Irish retainer, or servant; in revenge of whose death his brother slew many of the Irish; and a daughter, married to Sir Almericus Tristram, ancestor of the Earl of Howth."

[Please see the "Sir John de Courcy" section for the continuation of Lodge's history of the de Courcys and the "Barony of Kingsale" section for the continuation of the story after the death of Sir John.]

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_the_Stammerer -------------------- Koning, Roi, koning van West-Francië

-----------------------

From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Medlands page on Carolingian Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#_Toc240955196

Chapter 2. KINGS of the WEST FRANKS 751-840 (CAROLINGIANS)

CHARLES II 843-877


CHARLES, son of Emperor LOUIS I "le Pieux" & his second wife Judith [Welf] (Frankfurt-am-Main 13 Jun 823-Avrieux or Brides-les-Bains, Savoie 6 Oct 877, bur Nantua Abbey, transferred to église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

  • The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the birth of "Karolus filius Ludowici" in Frankfurt "Idus Iun 824"[223]. Thegan's Vita Hludowici Imperatoris names Charles as son of his father by his second wife[224].
  • His father invested Charles as dux in Alemania, Rhetia, Alsace and part of Burgundy at Worms Aug 829, reducing the territory of his oldest brother Lothaire to Italy. This triggered the revolt of his older half-brothers in Mar 830, when they captured their father at Compiègne and forced him to revert to the constitutional arrangements decided in 817.
  • His father installed Charles as King of Aquitaine in Sep 832, having deprived Charles's half-brother Pepin. His father restored Aquitaine to Pepin 15 Mar 834 at Quierzy-sur-Oise. His father accorded Charles the land between Frisia and the Seine at the Assembly of Aix-la-Chapelle in 837, Maine and the land between the Seine and the Loire (as well as a royal crown) in 838, and Francia between the Meuse and the Seine, western and southern Burgundy, Provence, Neustria, the march of Bretagne, Aquitaine, Gascogne and Septimanie at the Assembly of Worms 28 May 839.
  • On the death of his father, he became King of the Franks of the West. His brother Emperor Lothaire sought to deprive him of his lands. Charles allied himself with his half-brother Ludwig and together they defeated Lothaire at Fontenoy-en-Puisaye 25 Jun 841.
  • Under the division of imperial territories agreed under the Treaty of Verdun 11 Aug 843, he became CHARLES II “le Chauve” King of the West Franks.
  • King of Aquitaine in 848, when he deposed his nephew Pepin II.
  • When King Charles II was faced with widespread rebellion, his brother Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks invaded his kingdom in Aug 858 but was defeated 15 Jan 859 in the Laonnais and forced to withdraw.
  • In 865, Charles agreed with King Ludwig II "der Deutsche" the future division of the territories of Lothaire II King of Lotharingia, but on the latter's death in 869 Charles invaded Lotharingia and proclaimed himself CHARLES King of Lotharingia before Ludwig could assert his rights. A settlement was reached at Meerssen in Aug 870 under which Charles received the Meuse valley, Lyonnais, Viennois and Vivarais, declaring himself king of Lotharingia in 869. He was crowned Emperor CHARLES II at Rome 25 Dec 875 by Pope John VIII, and elected king of Italy at Pavia in 876[225].
  • The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the death of "Karolus imperator Prid Non Oct 877"[226]. The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Non Oct" of "Karolus Calvus rex Francorum"[227].

m firstly (Quierzy, Aisne 13 Dec 842, separated 867) ERMENTRUDIS, daughter of EUDES Comte [d’Orléans] & his wife Engeltrudis (27 Sep [830]-Saint-Denis 6 Oct 869, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

  • The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 842 of "Ermendrud neptem Adalardi comitis" and "Karolus" at "Carisiacum palatium"[228]. Nithard names "Hirmentrude, daughter of Odo and Ingiltrud" as wife of Charles[229].
  • She was crowned in Aug 866 at Saint-Médard de Soissons.
  • After she was separated from her husband, she retired to a monastery.
  • The Annales Bertiniani record the death "869 II Non Oct in monasterio Sancti Dyonisii" of "Hyrmentrudem uxorem suam [=Karoli]" and her burial at Saint-Denis[230]. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "Non Oct" of "Irmentrudis regina uxor Caroli"[231]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "Non Oct" of "Hirmentrudis regina"[232].

m secondly (12 Oct 869, confirmed Aix-la-Chapelle 22 Jan 870) RICHILDIS, daughter of comte BUVIN & his wife --- d'Arles (-[30 Jan] [910 or after]).

  • The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage "869 VII Id Oct" of "sororem…Bosonis…Richildem" and King Charles II[233].
  • She was crowned empress at Tortona in Lombardy by Pope John VIII in 877. “Richildis quondam regina” donated property, among which “in pago Gerbercinse in Langeii villa”, to Gorze Abbey by charter dated 910[234].
  • The necrology of Reims Saint-Rémi records the death "III Kal Feb" of "RICHILDIS"[235].

Emperor Charles II & his first wife had nine children:

1. JUDITH ([844]-after 870).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina", specifying that she married "Balduinus comes"[236].
  • The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in Jul 856 of "Iudith filiam Karli regis" and "Edilvulf rex occidentalium Anglorum" after the latter returned from Rome and their marriage "Kal Oct in Vermaria palatio", during which "Ingmaro Durocortori Remorum episcopo" set a queen's diadem on her head[237].
  • Her first husband placed her "by his own side on the regal throne", contrary to normal practice in the kingdom of Wessex[238]. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage of "Iudit reginam" and "Adalboldus filius eius [=Edilvulf regis]" in 858 after the death of her first husband[239].
  • Asser records that when King Æthelwulf was dead, his son Æthelbald married Judith daughter of Charles king of the Franks "contrary to God's prohibition and the dignity of a Christian, contrary also to the custom of all the pagans…and drew down much infamy upon himself"[240].
  • The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year[241]. Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita…Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi Anglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium"[242].
  • m firstly (Verberie-sur-Oise, near Senlis 1 Oct 856) as his [second/third] wife, ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex, son of ECGBERT King of Wessex & his wife Redburga --- ([795/800]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester).
  • m secondly (858) ÆTHELBALD King of Wessex, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [second] wife Osburga --- (-20 Dec 860, bur Sherborne).
  • m thirdly (Auxerre 13 Dec 862) BAUDOUIN I Count of Flanders, son of ODACRE [Audacer/Odoscer] Graf van Harlebeek & his wife --- ([837/840]-Arras 879, bur Abbaye de Saint-Bertin near Saint-Omer).

2. LOUIS (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 10 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[243].
  • He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks.

3. CHARLES ([847/48]-near Buzançais, Indre 29 Sep 866, bur Bourges, église de Saint-Sulpice).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[244].
  • Elected King of Aquitaine in Oct 855 at Limoges, and crowned. His residence was at Bourges.
  • He married against the wishes of his father, and was deprived of his titles in 863.
  • He was restored as king of Aquitaine in 865.
  • The Annales Bertiniani record the death "866 III Kal Oct in villa secus Bosentiacas" of "Karoli filius Karolus et Aquitanorum rex" two years after suffering severe brain injuries, and his burial "in ecclesia sancti Sulpitii apud Biturigum"[245]. The Chronico Floriacensi records that "duo filii illius [Karolo Ludovici filio]…Hlotharius Abbas et Karolus Rex Aquitanorum" died in 866[246].
  • m (862, annulled 863) as her second husband, ---, widow of HUMBERT Comte [de Bourges], daughter of ---. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Karolus rex Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius" and "relictam Humberti comitis", on the advice of "Stephani" against the will of his father[247].

4. CARLOMAN (-[877/78]).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[248]. "Carlomannum" is named son of King Charles by Folcuin, who specifies that his father installed him as abbot "Laubiensi"[249]. The Annales Bertiniani record that "Karlus rex Karlommanum filium suum" was tonsured in 854[250].
  • Abbé de Saint-Médard at Soissons 860.
  • He conspired against his father, was imprisoned at Senlis and deprived of his abbeys in 870. He escaped to Belgium.
  • He was rejected by the church by judgment of the bishops meeting at Senlis in 873. His father had him blinded and imprisoned at the monastery of Corbie in 873.
  • He fled to Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks. He was sent to Luxembourg where he became Abbot of Echternach in 874[251].

5. LOTHAIRE (-14 Dec 865).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[252].
  • He was lame from birth.
  • The Annales Bertiniani record that "Karlus rex filium Lotharium claudum" became a monk "in monasterio Sancti Iohannis" in 861[253]. He became a monk at the abbey of Moutier Saint-Jean in 861.
  • Abbé de Saint-Germain at Auxerre[254].
  • The Chronico Floriacensi records that "duo filii illius [Karolo Ludovici filio]…Hlotharius Abbas et Karolus Rex Aquitanorum" died in 866[255]. One necrology of Saint-Germain d´Auxerre records the death "XIX Kal Jan" of "domni Lotharii abbatis"[256].

6. HILDEGARDIS.

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[257].

7. ERMENTRUDIS (-after 11 Jul 877).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[258]. The Historia Monasterii Hasnonensis names "Ermentrudis imperatrix et regina cum filia Ermendtrude"[259].
  • Abbess of Hasnon near Douai 11 Jul 877.

8. GISELA.

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[260].

9. [ROTRUDIS ([850]-).

  • Settipani names Rotrudis as the daughter of King Charles II but appears to base this on her being named as such in the Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis[261], but this does not appear to be the case. Flodoard names "Rotrudi" when recording her election as abbess of "monasterii Sanctæ Crucis et Sanctæ Radegundis" but does not give her parentage[262].
  • Abbess of Sainte-Radégonde at Poitiers 868-870.]

Emperor Charles II & his second wife had five children:

10. ROTHILDIS ([871]-22 Mar 929).

  • Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks confirmed donations of property "in comitatu quoque Cœnomannico" made by "Hugo comes et mater sua Rothildis", at the request of "genitrix nostra Adeleidis et…comes Hugo consanguineus, necnon et…comes Ecfridus" by charter dated 1 Nov 900[263]. The charter dated 929 subscribed by "Hugonis comitis filii Rotgerii comitis" suggests that Rothildis must have been the wife of Roger[264]. Flodoard names "Rothildis, amitæ suæ [regis Karoli], socrus autem Hugonis" when recording that the king deprived her of "abbatiam…Golam" [Chelles] in favour of his favourite Haganon, the context dictating that "Hugonis" was "Hugo filius Rotberti"[265].
  • As the paternal aunt of King Charles III, chronology determines that she must have been the daughter of her father's second marriage, although no source has so far been identified which states this to be the case.
  • She acquired the monasteries of Chelles, and Notre-Dame and Saint-Jean at Laon.
  • She retreated to Chelles in 922 but was deprived of the monastery by her nephew Charles III "le Simple" King of the West Franks in favour of his favourite Haganon, an event which led to the rebellion of Robert Marquis en Neustrie who was the father of Rothilde's son-in-law (Hugues, later "le Grand" Duc des Francs)[266].
  • Her death is dated to late 928/early 929 as Flodoard names "Rothildis…nuper defunctæ" when recording that "Heribertus et Hugo comites" (specifying that "Hugo" was "gener ipsius Rothildis") attacked "Bosonem Rodulfi regis frater" in 929 over the property of Rothilde[267]. This is also the only source so far identified from which her marriage is deduced. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "XI Kal Apr" of "Rothildis abbatisse et monache filia regis magni Karoli"[268]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "XI Kal Mar" of "Rotildis abbatissa"[269]. These entries could refer alternatively to Rothildis, daughter of Emperor Charlemagne, but it is more likely that the former entry would have referred to her father as "imperator" if that was the case.
  • m ([890]) ROTGER [Roger] Comte, nephew of [HUGUES Comte de Bourges], son of --- (-before I Nov 900). Comte du Maine 897.

11. DROGO ([872/73]-[873/74], bur Abbaye de Saint-Amand, Flanders).

  • The Chronico Floriacensi records the birth and death of "de Caroli Carolus…rex…Pippinus…simulque Drogo"[270]. Twin with Pepin.

12. PEPIN ([872/73]-[873/74], bur Abbaye de Saint-Amand, Flanders).

  • The Chronico Floriacensi records the birth and death of "de Caroli Carolus…rex…Pippinus…simulque Drogo"[271]. Twin with Drogo.

13. son (23 Mar 875-soon after).

  • The Annales Bertiniani record that in 875 "Richildis uxor eius [=Karoli]" gave birth to a child "noctu ante quartam feriam paschæ" which died immediately after being baptised[272].

14. CHARLES (10 Oct 876-877 before 7 Apr, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

  • The Annales Bertiniani record the death in early 877 of "filius eius [=Karoli]…Karolus" and his burial at Saint-Denis[273].

LOUIS II 877-879, LOUIS III 879-882, CARLOMAN 882-884

---


LOUIS, son of CHARLES II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks & his first wife Ermentrude [d'Orléans] (1 Nov 846-Compiègne 11 Apr 879, bur Compiègne, église collégiale Saint-Corneille).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum Karolum Karlomannum et Hlotharium" as the four sons of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina"[274].
  • His father awarded him the duchy of Mans and part of Neustria and arranged his betrothal in Feb 856, from which time he seems to have received the title king.
  • He was expelled from Brittany after the rebellion which followed the murder of King Erispoé, and sought refuge with his father.
  • He was suspected of having helped his sister Judith elope with Comte Baudouin and was obliged to flee in 861.
  • He revolted against his father in 862, the revolt being instigated by the Rorgonid family[275]. He was pardoned by his father, given the county of Meaux in 862, and entrusted with the governorship of the whole of Neustria with the title king in 865. The latter appointment was removed from him in the following year[276].
  • His father invested him as Comte d'Autun in 866.
  • He was installed as King of Aquitaine in Mar 867, following the death of his brother Charles[277].
  • He succeeded his father in 877 as LOUIS II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks, and LUDWIG III King of West Lotharingia, crowned at Compiègne 8 Dec 877 and at Troyes 7 Sep 878 by Pope John VIII.
  • The Gesta Francorum records the death "879 III Id Apr…apud Compendium…palatium" of "Hludowicus Karoli regis filius" and his burial in the same place[278]. The Annales Fuldenses record the death "879 III Id Apr apud Compendium" of "Hludowicus, Karoli regis filius" and his burial in the same place[279]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Denis records the death "III Id Apr" of "Ludovicus rex"[280].

---

Betrothed (Feb 856, contract broken end 857) to ---[de Bretagne], daughter of ERISPOE King of Brittany & his wife ---. The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal of "Respogio Brittone…filiam eius" and "Karlus rex…filio suo Ludoico" in early 856[281].

m firstly (Mar 862, repudiated [876/77]) ANSGARDIS, daughter of comte HARDUIN & his wife --- (-2 Nov [880/82]).

  • The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage in 862 of "Hludowicus frater Karoli [regis Aquitannorum, Karoli regis filius]" and "filiam Harduini…sororem…Odonis", against the will of his father[282]. Regino names "Ansgard" wife of "Hludowicus rex filius Caroli" without giving her origin, specifying that they married without the consent of his father who obliged his son to repudiate his wife[283].
  • The necrology of Reims Cathedral records the death "IV Non Nov" of "Ansgardis regina"[284].

m secondly ([875][285]) ADELAIS, daughter of ADALHARD Comte Palatin [Angoulême] & his wife --- ([855/60]-18 Nov [901], bur Compiègne, église abbatiale Saint-Corneille).

  • Regino names "Adalheidis" second wife of "Hludowicus rex filius Caroli", married after he repudiated his first wife[286]. Her paternity is indicated by Wulfhard (who would have been the brother of Adelais) being named sororius of King Louis II[287].
  • Her marriage was not recognised by the church which did not accept her husband's separation from his first wife. The Pope refused to crown her with her husband at Troyes 878, considering that she was not his legitimate wife[288].
  • Her children were considered illegitimate by the church.

King Louis II & his first wife had five children:

1. LOUIS ([863/65]-Saint Denis 5 Aug 882, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum et Karlomannum et Hildegardim" as the children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Ansgardi vocata regina"[289].
  • He succeeded his father in 879 as LOUIS III King of the West Franks. This was challenged by Ludwig III King of the East Franks, who withdrew after receiving compensation[290]. He was crowned with his brother Carloman in Sep 879 at the Abbaye de Ferrières-en-Gâtinais.
  • Ludwig III recognised his cousins' sovereignty by the Treaty of Ribemont in Feb 880. Louis III and Carloman agreed a division of their territories at Amiens in Mar 880, Louis receiving the northern part of the kingdom, Francia and Neustria.
  • He fell from his horse at Tours, dying soon afterwards[291]. The Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris records the death "Non Aug" of "Ludovicus rex Francie"[292]. The necrology of the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés records the death "Non Aug" of "Ludovici regis"[293].

2. GISELA (-[11 Apr 879/12 Dec 884]).

  • King Carloman donated property at the request of comte Rodbert for the soul of "Gislæ sororis nostræ eiusque uxoris in comitatu Trecassino" by charter dated to [11 Apr 879/12 Dec 884], the original of which is lost[294]. Gisela was the daughter of King Louis's first marriage according to Rösch[295]. Jackman[296] maintains that she must have been the daughter of his second marriage to avoid her being the first cousin of her husband, although this would mean that she was a child bride. However, he is presumably assuming co-identity between Eudes, brother of Ansgardis, and Eudes Comte de Troyes, father of Comte Robert, which does not appear to be correct.
  • m ROBERT Comte Palatin de Troyes, son of EUDES Comte de Châteaudun, later Comte de Troyes & his wife Wandilmodis --- (-killed in battle Troyes Feb 886).

3. CARLOMAN ([866/68]-killed accidentally Bézu-la-Forêt, near Andelys, Eure 6 Dec 884, bur église de l'abbaye royale de Saint-Denis).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum et Karlomannum et Hildegardim" as the children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Ansgardi vocata regina"[297].
  • He was crowned with his brother Louis III in Sep 879 at the Abbaye de Ferrières-en-Gâtinais. Louis III and Carloman agreed a division of their territories at Amiens in Mar 880, Carloman receiving the southern part of the kingdom, Aquitaine and Burgundy[298]. “Carlomannus…Rex” restored property “villam Taniacum” to the church of Autun, at the request of “Richardi Comiti Augustodensis”, by charter dated 1 Dec 880, the text ending with “Theodoricus Comes ambasciavit”[299].
  • He succeeded his brother in 882 as CARLOMAN King of the West Franks.
  • On his death, Emperor Charles III "le Gros" was proclaimed King of the West Franks. The Annales Vedastini record that "rex…in Basiu silva" was injured in the leg by "quidam a suis, Bertoldus" while hunting in 884, and died in the same place seven days later "Id Dec" aged about 18, and was buried "in monasterium sancti Dionysii"[300]. The Annales S. Benigni Divisionensis record the death "Non Dec 884" of "Karlomannus rex"[301]. The necrology of Argenteuil Priory records the death "VIII Id Dec" of "Karlomannus rex"[302].
  • Betrothed (11 Sep 878) to [ENGELBERGA], daughter of BOSO Comte de Vienne [later King] & his wife Ermengardis of Italy. The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in 878 of "filiam Bosonis" and "Karlomanno filio suo [=Hlodowici rex]"[303]. It is assumed that this daughter was Engelberga, who was an infant at the time, but no proof has been found which confirms that this is the case. "Bosonis" could refer either to the future King Boson or to Count Boson, husband of the adulterous Engiltrudis. While Boson of Provence had refused to swear allegiance to Louis II "le Bègue" King of the West Franks ("Hlodowici rex") on the latter's accession, it is not known whether he was still in rebellion the following year. Assuming that some reconciliation had taken place, a marriage alliance between the two parties would have been a likely possibility. The other Count Boson was presumably of less political importance and, in addition, his problems with his adulterous wife may have rendered his daughters unmarriageable at the time.

4. HILDEGARD (-after 896).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Hludovicum et Karlomannum et Hildegardim" as the children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Ansgardi vocata regina"[304].

King Louis II & his second wife had two children:

5. ERMENTRUD ([875/78][305]-).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum quoque postumum et Irmintrudim" as children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Adelheidi regina"[306]. According to Settipani, Ermentrudis was the daughter of King Louis by his first marriage[307], although he cites no primary source on which this is based. It is certainly correct that the chronology is tight for Ermentrud to have been the daughter of her father's second marriage, assuming that the affiliation of her supposed daughter Kunegund is correct as shown here.
  • m ---. Nothing is known about the husband of Ermentrud. Ermentrud & her husband had one child, Kunigund (b. 895/905) mother of Siegfried, Count of Luxembourg.

6. CHARLES (posthumously 17 Sep 879-Péronne 7 Oct 929, bur Péronne St Fursy).

  • The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Karolum quoque postumum et Irmintrudim" as children of "Hlodovicus rex…ex Adelheidi regina"[311].
  • He was crowned 28 Jan 893 at Reims as CHARLES III "le Simple" King of the West Franks, as anti-king to Eudes, sole king from 1 Jan 898.

References:

  • [223] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 824, MGH SS V, p. 39.
  • [224] Thegani Vita Hludowici Imperatoris 35, MGH SS II, p. 597.
  • [225] Settipani (1993), pp. 302-6.
  • [226] Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 877, MGH SS V, p. 39.
  • [227] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272.
  • [228] Annales Bertiniani II 842.
  • [229] Nithard IV.6, p. 173.
  • [230] Annales Bertiniani III 869.
  • [231] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Obituaire de Notre-Dame de Paris, p. 230.
  • [232] Obituaires de Sens Tome I.1, Abbaye de Saint-Denis, p. 328.
  • [233] Annales Bertiniani III 869.
  • [234] D´Herbomez, A. (ed.) (1898) Cartulaire de l´abbaye de Gorze, Mettensia II (Paris), 87, p. 157.
  • [235] 'Obits mémorables tirés de nécrologes luxembourgeois, rémois et messins', Revue Mabillon VI (1910-1911), p. 272 (upper-case in original).
  • [236] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303.
  • [237] Annales Bertiniani II 856.
  • [238] Giles, J. A. (trans.) (2000) Asser, Annals of the Reign of Alfred the Great (Cambridge, Ontario, In parentheses Publications) Part I.
  • [239] Annales Bertiniani II 858.
  • [240] Asser, p. 8.
  • [241] Annales Bertiniani auct Hincmari Remensis 862 and 863, MGH SS I, pp. 456 and 462.
  • [242] Flodoardus Remensis Historia Remensis Ecclesiæ III.12, MGH SS XXXVI, p. 218.
  • [243] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303.
  • [244] Genealogiæ Comitum Flandriæ, Witgeri Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis MGH SS IX, p. 303.
  • [245] Annales Bertiniani III 866.
  • [246] Chronico Floriacensi apud Chesnium Tomo 3, p. 355, cited in RHGF 7,
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Louis II "le bègue", roi des Francs's Timeline

835
835
Frankfurt ,Am, Main, Hessen-Nassau, Deutschland(HRR)
846
November 1, 846
Oise, Ile-de-France, Compiegne, France
851
October 5, 851
Age 4
856
856
Age 9
France
862
March 862
Age 15
862
Age 15
France
864
864
Age 17
865
865
Age 18
866
866
Age 19
866
Age 19
King of Aquitaine