Gov. Alexander Spotswood

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Alexander Spotswood, Colonial Lieutenant Governor of Virginia

Also Known As: "Major General Alexander Spotswood"
Birthplace: Tangier, Tanger-Tétouan, Morocco
Death: Died in Annapolis, Anne Arundel, MD, USA
Place of Burial: York, Virginia
Immediate Family:

Son of Dr. Robert Spottiswoode and Catharine Mercer Elliott Spottiswoode Mercer
Husband of Elizabeth Spotswood and E. Butler "Anne" Spotswood (Brayne)
Father of Col. John Spotswood; Anna Catherine Moore (Spotswood); Dorothea Dandridge (Spotswood); Robert Spotswood, Capt. and Mary Jones
Brother of Robert Spottiswoode
Half brother of Major General Roger Elliott

Occupation: Gov of Virginia, Postmaster General of the American Colonies and Governor of Virginia, Royal Govenor of Virginia, Royal Governor of Virginia, Williamsburg, Lt. Gov. Cmdr. in Chief of the VA Colony 1710-1723
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Gov. Alexander Spotswood

Find A Grave Memorial# 17413275 Genealogy

Alexander Spotswood was born in the Tangier Garrison, Morocco, Africa about 1676 to Catharine Maxwell (c. 1638 - December 1709) and her second husband, Dr Robert Spottiswoode (17 September 1637 - 1680), the Chirurgeon (surgeon) to the Garrison.

Through his father, Alexander was a grandson of Judge Robert Spottiswoode (1596–1646), a great-grandson of Archbishop John Spottiswoode (1565–1639), and a descendant of King Robert II of Scotland through the 2nd Earls of Crawford). Alexander's older half-brother (by his mother's first marriage to George Elliott) was Roger Elliott (c. 1655 - 15 May 1714), who became one of the first Governors of Gibraltar. Following the death of Robert Spotswood, his mother married thirdly, Reverend Dr. George Mercer, the Garrison's Schoolmaster.

Military life

On 20 May 1693, Alexander became an Ensign in the Earl of Bath's Regiment of Foot. He was commissioned in 1698, and promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel in 1703. He was appointed Quartermaster-General of the Duke of Marlborough's army the same year, and was wounded at the Battle of Blenheim the following year.

Colonial Life

In 1710, Alexander was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Virginia, under the nominal governorship of George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney. He was the first to occupy the new Governors Mansion, which many citizens thought overly extravagant (its 20th-century reconstruction is now one of the principal landmarks in Colonial Williamsburg). A Tobacco Act requiring the inspection of all tobacco intended for export or for use as legal tender was passed in 1713. The next year, he founded the First Germanna Colony, and regulated trade with native Americans at another of his pet projects, Fort Christanna. In 1715, he bought 3229 acres (13 km²) at Germanna.

In 1716, he led the Knights of the Golden Horseshoe Expedition up the Rappahannock River valley and across the Blue Ridge Mountains at Swift Run Gap into the Shenandoah Valley to expedite settlement. In 1716, Governor Spotswood made the 1st complete discovery of a passage over the Blue Kidge mountains. Upon his return, he presented each of the gentlemen, who accompanied him, with a golden horse shoe. Some of these were set with precious stones, representing the heads of horse-shoe nails. The horse-shoe had inscribed, on one side of it, the motto : jSw juvat transcendere monies. A novel entitled : The Kniglit of the Golden Horse-Shoe, by Dr. Wm. A. Caruthers, of Virginia, derives its name and its subject from this exploit of the governor. The following year saw the foundation of the Second Germanna Colony and the Repeal of regulation of trade with native Americans. A Third Germanna Colony followed in 1719, and Germanna was made the seat of Spotsylvania County the following year.

Between 1716 and 1720, Spotswood built the Tubal Works. It had a cold blast-charcoal blast furnace which produced pig iron, and probably a finery forge. (It is the site of the 19th-century Scotts Ironworks). It operated for about 40 years and was possibly the first successful ironworks in the colonies (although Tinton Falls, NJ- late 17th century is another candidate). Pig iron from Tubal is in the collections of the Fredericksburg (Virginia) Area Museum and the NPS (Spotsylvania Courthouse). Tubal Works iron was exported to England by 1723.[2] In May of the same year, Gov. Drysdale reported to the Lords of Trade that Spotswood was selling "backs and frames for Chumnies, Potts, doggs, frying, stewing, and backing panns" at auction in Williamsburg.

Around 1732 at Massaponax, Spotswood built what may have been the first purpose-built foundry in the British North American Colonies. This was a double-air furnace (usually used to make cannon) and was used to recast pig iron produced at Tubal into final shapes (kettles, andirons, firebacks, etc. and possibly cannon). Neither of Spotswood's iron operations were at Germanna. Spotswood was not, as is commonly believed, involved in the Fredericksville Furnace.[3]

In the fall of 1718, Spotswood engaged in a clandestine expedition by privately hiring two sloops, Jane and Ranger, and a number of Royal Navy men to seek out the pirate Blackbeard (Edward Teach). On 18 November 1718, Lt. Robert Maynard sailed from Hampton, Virginia to Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. On 22 November 1718, Maynard and his men defeated Blackbeard and the pirates. On 24 November 1718, two days after Blackbeard's death, Spotswood issued a proclamation at the Assembly in Williamsburg offering reward for any who brought Teach and the other pirates to justice.

Spotswood worked to make a Treaty with the Iroquois through their meeting in Albany, New York during 1721. It was an attempt to end the raids between the Iroquois and Catawba that endangered settlers in the Shenandoah Valley. The Iroquois agreed to stay north of the Potomac and west of the Blue Ridge Mountains. The agreement was renewed the next year.

Spotswood completed the Governor's palace in 1722, when he was recalled from the lieutenant governorship and replaced by Hugh Drysdale. Throughout his career, Spotswood had maintained an adversarial relationship with the Virginia Council, especially its most prominent member, James Blair. As the Bishop of London's representative in the colony, the President of the College of William and Mary, and a councilman in Virginia's highest legislative body, Blair was arguably the most powerful man in the colony. He successfully orchestrated the recall of three royally appointed governors, including Alexander Spotswood. The latter entered private life with 80,000 acres (324 km²) in Spotsylvania and three iron furnaces.

Returning to London, Spotswood married Elizabeth Butler Brayne in 1724, but was back at the 'Enchanted Castle', Germanna, by 1729. He served as Deputy Postmaster General from 1730 to 1739, and died on 7 June 1740 at Annapolis, Maryland.


In 1724, Alexander married Elizabeth Butler Brayne (known as Butler Brayne) in London and had four children by her:

John M. Spotswood (1725 - 6 May 1756) married in 1745 Mary West Dandridge {a cousin of Martha Washington}, daughter of William Dandridge, Esq., of Elson Green, King William Co., Va, a Captain in the British Navy. Colonel John Spotswood is buried in the Memorial Garden adjoining the Germanna Foundation Visitor Center. His son Brig. Gen. Alexander Spotswood of the 2nd Virginia Regiment married to Elizabeth Washington - a daughter of Augustine Washington, Jr, President George Washington's older half-brother - a niece of George Washington.

Anne Catherine Spotswood (1728 - c. 1802) married Col. Bernard Moore, Esq., of Chelsea, King William Co., Va, a gentleman seventh in descent from Sir Thomas More, of Chelsea, England, the author of Utopia, and became an ancestor of Robert E. Lee [1] and Helen Keller.

Dorothea Spotswood (c.1729 - 23 Sep 1773) married in 1747 Mary Dandridge's brother, Col. Nathaniel West Dandridge, who was a first cousin of Martha Washington, a son of William Dandridge, Esq., of Elson Green, King William Co., Va, a Captain in the British Navy, a direct descendant of Governor John West, and an ancestor of Edith Wilson. Their daughter, Dorothea Spottswood Dandridge, married Patrick Henry, and they had 11 children. Their son, Nathaniel West Dandridge II married Sallie Watson, and their daughter Martha Hale Dandridge married her cousin William Winston Fontaine, grandson of Patrick Henry.

Robert Spotswood (c.1732 - 1758), who was a subaltern officer under Washington. In 1758, while with a scouting party, he was killed near Fort du Quesne.


The Ancestory Of Robert E. Lee Va letters of Isaac Hobhouse Va Mag Vol 66 July 1958, #3. Historical and Genealogical Notes, The William and Mary Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 2, October 1896, Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Will PRO - PROB 1/13; Official Letters (ed. by R. A. Brock, 2 vol., 1882–85); "CARRIED ON AT A VERY GREAT EXPENSE AND NEVER PRODUCED ANY PROFIT" THE ALBEMARLE IRON WORKS (1770–72) by James H. Brothers IV (2002) unpublished MA for the Anthropology Department of The College of William and Mary. Biographies by Walter Havighurst (1968) and L. Dodson (1932, repr. 1969).

The Enchanted Castle The Enchanted Castle

Alexander Spotswood's Enchanted Castle was not, in fact, a castle. This name was applied to his home by William Byrd II, who visited in 1732. The Germanna Foundation suggests that the Spotswoods themselves called it "Porto Bella." Nor was it a rugged wilderness outpost on the edge of civilization on the Virginia frontier. In reality, the Spotswood's home was an early Georgian manor located in what was then the county seat of Spottsylvania County and close by Spotswood's iron works at Tubal Furnace. It was Spotswood's family home supported by a large staff.

The Spotswood family home also served double purpose as a civic building for Spotsylvania County. The county clerk's office was located in the house, and it is suggested that the court itself met in Spotswood's parlor, although most think it was held in a single room building located on the grounds (Mansfield, 44).

In late September of 1732 William Byrd II visited Spotswood at his home in order to view the nearby mining endeavors. He kept a diary during this trip, giving us a snapshot of what life was like in the Spotswood household. It is Byrd who gave the house the name it is known by today, calling it "The enchanted Castle" although whether he meant this as a compliment or not is hard to tell, given his rather irreverant style of writing. Byrd's diary does not give us much information about the appearance of the house, it provides a snapshot of the daily life of its occupants and what was in their thoughts at the time. Amusing anecdotes related in this narrative include the dispair that Spotswood's unmarried sister-in-law felt at the prospects of being able to find a suitable husband on the frontier, dogs with faulty housetraining, and deer kept as family pets.

Why did Byrd refer to this building as the Enchanted Castle?

Life at the Enchanted Castle

The enchanted castle was the home of Alexander Spotswood, his wife, children, sister-in-law, and numerous servants. However, we know surprisingly little of any of these people.

Spottswood was married to Anne Butler Brayne, whose unmarried sister, Dorothea Brayne, lived with them at Germanna. Very little is actually known about these two women beyond their names, and even that is much is sometimes cause for confusion. As recorded in his diary, William Byrd enjoyed teasing Dorothea, whom he called "Miss Theky" for unknown reasons. This monnicker caused later confusion as to the identity of Mrs. Spottswood and her sister. One late 19th century historian went so far as to claim they were part of the German settlement.

"The relations between the governor and the German colonists were of the best kind. They called Virginia in his honor: 'Spottsylvania' -- and he was at home with them. He was so much charmed by this laborious and peaceable people that he married a young German lady by the nake of "Theke" and born in Hanover." (Schuricht,68) History of the German Element in Virginia, Vol. 1, 1898)

The error of this 19th century historian shows us how the concentration of history on great men can lead to all sorts of fanciful stories being told about their less well documented wives and families.

The Spotswoods had four children. The two oldest, John and Anna Katherine, were born in England, in 1725 and 1728. Another daughter, named Dorothy after her aunt, was born in Virginia in 1731. The youngest, Robert, was born in 1733, a year after Byrd's visit. That same year "Miss Theky" married a Mr. Elliott Benger and moved from Germanna.

There were many servants needed to keep the large house running smoothly. When William Byrd left Germanna to continue his travels, he gave a pistole to be distributed among the servants. A pistole was a $4 spanish coin worth a singificant ammount in this time.

The End of the Enchanted Castle

Alexander Spotswood died in 1740, a year after he had offered Germanna up for lease. His widow remained at Germanna until remarrying to John Thompson, a minister, who built the house Salubria for her. Shortly after this, although the exact date is not known, Spotswood's "Enchanted Castle" burned. Subsequent families who owned the land burned the ruins and salvaged building materials from the remains for their own construction.

The Memory of the Enchanted Castle

During the Civil War soldiers called the house situated on the site The Enchanted Castle. There is much to be uncovered in the absence of reality. For example, in The History of Orange County (1907), W.W. Scott assumes that the Civil War soldiers who talked about organizing a military hospital in the “Enchanted Castle,” were talking about the original structure built by Alexander Spotswood one hundred years earlier. The chances that this structure still stood in 1864 are miniscule, yet Scott does not question their beliefs. Why? Because it is in the myth, he made an assumption based on myth. Obviously they were mistaken but still shows how the myth becomes a part of history.

Sources: Herrmann Schuricht, History of The German Element in Virginia, Vol. 1. (Baltimore: Theo. Kroh & Sons, Printers, 1898)

James Roger Mansfield, A History of Early Spotsylvania. (Orange, Virginia: Green Publishers, Inc., 1977)


The history of Germanna is inextricably intertwined with the history of America. Colonial Virginia sprouted the spirit of freedom with the Germanna immigrants playing an important role. In the classic history text, The Stamp Act Crisis: Prologue to Revolution by Edmund S. Morgan and Helen M. Morgan, the book begins with an account of Governor Alexander Spotswood and the Germanna area. The excerpt below is but one sample of the role of Germanna in our history as a people:


    THE PLACE WAS something out of a fairy tale, a ghost town in the wilderness, empty houses lining the street on one side, savage plants creeping toward them to recover their domain, and on the other side—an enchanted castle, where a gentleman lived with his wife and her young sister. They might have been king, queen, and princess, and the two tame deer which wandered about the house were doubtless a lordand lady transformed by some magic into their present shape. There was a rich meadow, surrounded on three sides by a winding river, and shady lanes which led past a marble fountain, and a covered bower where the princess satand bewailed the suitor who did not come.
   This was Germanna, on the Rapidan River in Spotsylvania; the king was Colonel Alexander Spotswood, former Governor of Virginia, and the queen was the wife whom he had brought from London to live in this improbable paradise. The empty houses had once been the homes of the German settlers whom Spotswood had planted there but who had since deserted him. In September,173a, the place was visited by a traveller who, like the Spotswoods, would have looked more at home on Regent Street than on the frontier of Virginia. William Byrd had come to consult with the Colonel about iron-mining,but he had a gift for recording scenes and conversations, and in his journal he snatched the whole episode out of time and left it to us, complete with Spotswood's oracular pronouncements not only on iron-mining, but also on tar-burning, hemp, the Spaniards, the post office, and British politics. In this fantastic setting, so far from the civilized world, far it might seem from the world at all . . .

[Byrd then described how Spotswood on the banks of the Rapidan River in 1732 predicted great difficulty if England were to attempt to compel the American colonists to do things against their will.]

Spotswood's prophecy need not be ascribed to second sight, for he had been Governor of Virginia, and he knew from bitter experience how jealously a colonial assembly guarded its right to levy taxes. In 1715 the House of Burgesses had refused to grant the supplies necessary for defense against the Indians, because they thought that he had called some of their prerogatives in question. He had denounced them and finally dissolved them, but he had not beaten them. And he knew that any attempt by Parliament to beat them would have met with doubled resistance.

(Emphasis added, footnotes omitted)

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Gov. Alexander Spotswood's Timeline

December 12, 1676
Tangier, Tanger-Tétouan, Morocco
March 28, 1683
- February 29, 1760
Age 6
From Truppbach, Germany, to Spotsylvania County , and Germantown. Fauquier County, Virginia, USA

Hans Jacob Holtzclaw and Anna Margreth Otterbach

Hans Jacob Holtzclaw, was born in Truppbach, Germany, in 1683, the son of Hans Henrich Holtzclaw and his wife, Gertrut Solbach. He was christened at St. Nicolai Church in Siegen, Germany on Laetare Sunday, 1683. Jacob grew up in Truppbach with his ten brothers and sisters. His parents had moved there in about 1680, when his father, Hans, took the position of Schoolmaster. It is probable that Jacob attended the famous Latin School in Siegen.

Jacob's brother, Johann served as schoolmaster at Oberfischbach, a nearby village. In 1707, Johann, who was only thirty-eight years old, died. Immediately after the death of his brother, Hans seems to have been asked to take the position of Schoolmaster in Oberfischbach left vacant by his brother's death. He was then twenty-four years of age. No doubt the acceptance of this new position enabled him to marry the following summer. On the 5th Sunday after Trinity, August 7, 1708, Hans Jacob Holtzclaw, schoolmaster at Oberfischbach, married Anna Margreth, daughter of Hermann Otterbach of Truppbach and his wife, Elizabeth (Heimbach) Otterbach. Anna Margreth was born at Truppbach in 1686, being christened at St. Nicolai Reformed Church in Siegen on the 9th Sunday after Trinity, 1686. For five years after his marriage, Jacob Holtzclaw lived quietly at Oberfischbach, carrying on his work as schoolmaster. There, too, were born his eldest children, both sons. The eldest and our ancestor, Johann (John) was born in 1709. In the year 1710, Alexander Spotswood became the Governor of Virginia. Having discovered evidence of iron ore in the direction of the Blue Ridge Mountains, he began immediately suggesting in letters to Queen Anne and to the Council of Trade in England that they should open iron mines in Virginia. A friend of Governor Spotswood was the Baron Christopher de Graffenried. de Graffenried had already begun negotiating with a John Justus Albrecht to bring workers for the mine from the neighborhood of Siegen. Albrecht seems to have exceeded his authority in getting his workers. When de Graffenried went to England in the summer of 1713, he was dumbfounded to find Albrecht and 40 people already in London. They had used up practically all their money in getting to London, but Spotswood and de Graffenried were not ready for them and advised them to return home. This they absolutely refused to do, saying that if necessary, they would sell themselves for four years as indented servants in order to pay their passage, rather than go back. de Graffenried and Spotswood managed to get them some work to do in England during the autumn of 1713. They lumped together all the money that they possessed in order to help pay their passage, de Graffenried got two London merchants to advance the balance of the passage money, on condition that they would be repaid by Spotswood when the colony reached Williamsburg, and in the beginning of the year 1714 they set sail for Virginia. They landed in Virginia in April of 1714. Spotswood on July 12, 1714, wrote to the Lords Commissioners of Trade in London: "In order to guard the frontiers from the Indians, I have placed here a number of Protestant Germans, built them a fort and furnished them with two pieces of cannon and some ammunition." It was the policy of the Virginia Government to place foreigners on the frontier to protect the English against the Indians. The new colony was called Germanna, and was situated in Orange County, on a remarkable horseshoe shaped peninsula containing about 400 acres with the Rapidan River surrounding it on the north, west and east. Our ancestors set up the first iron furnace in America, manufactured the first pig-iron, and established the first German Reformed Church on the continent. The colony worked for the Governor for over two and a half years, and no doubt by that time they had fully repaid what they owed him. They were granted land further to the north and west, in Stafford County, Virginia, and founded the settlement of Germantown. The original grant was made to only three members of the colony, John Henry Hoffman, John Fishback and Jacob Holtzclaw because only these three men had been naturalized. (Hans Jacob Holtzclaw was naturalized July 11, 1722, and the copy of his naturalization has been preserved in the records of Spotsylvania County, Deed Book A, page 165.) The actual legal transfer from the three to the remainder was not made till August 1729. Jacob Holtzclaw on his death left over 3,000 acres to his children, giving over 200 acres to each one male and female, and some to his grandchildren. The center of the colony was the church (German Reformed) and after the death of the pastor, Henry Haeger in 1737, our ancestor, Jacob Holtzclaw, was employed as "Reader." For this he received annually from each family thirty pounds of tobacco. Jacob always acted as schoolmaster in both Germanna and Germantown. Harman Utterback (Hermann Otterbach), father of our ancestress, Anna Margaret (Otterbach) Holtzclaw, who with his children and second wife, Anna Catherine (Hitt) Holtzclaw, also came to Virginia at an early date and settled near the colony. These people who had immigrated to the New World were not ordinary people. Our ancestor, Jacob Holtzclaw, had never been anything but a schoolmaster, and Henry Haeger, was both a teacher and a minister. They all worked in setting up the iron furnace at Germanna. However, they were by no means mere laborers. Rev. James Kemper, in the Kemper Genealogy states that they were "mostly mechanics and master workmen in their several trades." They had been prosperous middle-class citizens in Germany. All our colonists could read and write, and were thus far ahead of a vast number of Virginians of their day. One of their first cares after building a church, was to set up a school. Rev. Kemper said of our ancestor that he was a "good scholar." Jacob Holtzclaw's wife, Anna Margaret, seems to have been still living in 1729 when the Germantown land was distributed to the various families legally. She seems to have died soon after that, and Jacob married again. His second wife was named Catherine, though there is no evidence of her maiden name. Jacob and Catherine had three known children. She probably predeceased him, as there is no mention of her in Jacob Holtzclaw's will. Jacob Holtzclaw died early in the year 1760, aged 77 years. His second wife, Catherine, had died between 1754 and 1759) the date of writing his will). His will, dated January 15, 1759, was probated in Fauquier County, Virginia, February 29, 1760. Hans Jacob Holtzclaw b: 1683 d: 1760. +Anna Margarethe Utterback b: June 1686 d: 1724-1729 John (Johann) Holzclaw b: Abt 1709 d: Abt 1750 .... +Catherine (Russell) Thomas b: Abt 1711 d: Aft 1763 Henry (Johann Heinrich) Holtzclaw b: November 14, 1711 d: 1778 .... +Nancy Hardin Katherine Holtzclaw b: 1715-1725 d: Abt 1810 .... +Jerimiah Darnall Ann Elizabeth Holtzclaw b: 1715-1725 d: Abt 1750 .... +John Frederick Fishbach Harmon Holtzclaw b: 1725-1729 d: 1762 .... +Elizabeth Alice Katherine Holtzclaw b: 1725-1729 .... +Henry Hitt b: Abt 1719 Elizabeth Holtzclaw b: 1725-1729 .... +Harman Miller *2nd Wife of Hans Jacob Holtzclaw: . +Catherine d: 1754-1759 Joseph (Jacob) Holtzclaw b: 1735-1740 d: Abt 1832 .... +Elizabeth Zimmerman *2nd Wife of Joseph (Jacob) Holtzclaw: .... +Mary Thomas Jacob Holtzclaw b: February 17, 1738 d: October 21, 1812 .... +Susanah Thomas Eve Holtzclaw b: 1735-1740 d: Aft 1812 .... +Allen Wiley

September 1713
- March 1714
Age 36
London, England

London, England
Gov. Spotswood began negotiating to bring families to Virginia to open iron mines in Orange Co., VA. These early settlers set up the 1st iron furnace in America, manufacturing the 1st pig-iron & established the 1st German Reformed Church on the continent.

Late March 1714: Spotswood first learns from Col. Nathaniel Blakiston, the agent for Virginia in London, that Germans are coming.

Gov. Spotswood sponsored twelve families from Nausau-Siegen, Germany to come to the Virginia Colonies in 1714 to work as indentured servants in his iron mines on his estate in Spotsylvania County.

Spotsylvania County, Virginia

- April 1714
Age 37
Germanna Colony in Virginia

Hans Jacob, his wife Anna Margaret Utterback, and their two sons, Hans, b. 1709, and Heinrich, b. 1711, are listed among the first group of settlers sponsored by Lt. Gov. Spotswood to live in Germanna Colony in Virginia in April 1714.

Crossed the Atlantic
In the summer or autumn of 1713, he abd his wife cand two sons started with a band of relatives and friends on their great adventure to the New World, landing in Virginia in the spring of 1714. They had been delayed some time in England so did not sail until the beginning of 1714. Govenor Spotswood of Virginia settled then in a colony called Germanna (the extreeme North East part of the present Orange County). After paying the Govenor for the passage over, they were granted land of their own and founded the settlement of Germantown in what is now Fauquier County, Virginia, in about 1718. There is reason to be proud of John Jacob, as he was a schorlarly and pious man, showed enterprise and initiative, accumulated a modest fortune and was one of the pioneers of Northern Virginia. He had 5 sibs abd 5 daughters. One son, Jacob moved to Kentucky in 1775

Passage from Germany
Passage from Germany to Germanna, Virginia
Jacob Holtzclaw was one of the fourteen German ironworkers, totally 42 people, from the town of Siegen and Muesen in the principality of Nassau-Siegen, Germany. Who upon an agreement with Baron de Graffenreid to open the mines in Virginia. However, their arrival was early and surprised the Baron, as he had not had an audience with Queen. The families so valued their freedom, they refused to return to their homeland and instead found trades in Europe to support their families until Queen Anne opened the mines. These were master mechanics, and were an intelligent, progressive set of people, which turned Germanna into the first sector of industrialization for Virginia.
Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood wrote to the Board of Trade in London in May 1714 stating the Germans were invited to Virginia by Baron de Graffenreid. Queen Anne opened the mines of Virginia, and the fourteen families sailed to Virginia to settle the colony of Fort Germanna. They named it in honor of both Queen Anne, and for their homeland, Germany.
However, there was some debate to who be required to pay their passage. Her Majesty, Queen Anne's letter to the Governor to furnish them land after their arrival. Germanna, First Colony of 1714. Lt. Governor Alexander Spotswood was forced to pay for their passageway to the colonies. The First Germanna Colony arrived in Virginia at Tappahannock in the spring of 1714, came up the Rappahannock River where they settled 20 miles west of Fredericksburg. anna.jpg&imgrefurl= gjR2SGgHlpRr9iJE=&h=30&w=110&sz=2&hl=en&start=19&itbs=1&tbnid=4DPxCJOTxj NFmM:&tbnh=23&tbnw=85&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dgermanna%2Bcolony%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG%26gbv%3D2% 26tbs%3Disch:1

December 26, 1725
Age 49
Fredericksburg, Spotsylvania, Virginia
Age 48
Fredericksburg, Spotsylvania, Virginia
March 11, 1729
Age 52
London, Middlesex, England
Age 55
King William, Virginia, United States
Age 56
Fredericksburg, Virginia
Age 60
Fredericksburg, Spotsylvania, Virginia, United States