Magnus IV & VII Eriksson Smek, Konung av Sverige och Norge (c.1316 - 1374) MP

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Nicknames: "Magnus IV (II) of Sweden", "Magnus VII of Norway", "King Magnus VII of /Norway/"
Death: Died in Bømlafjorden, Hordaland, Norway
Cause of death: Drowned
Occupation: Magnus Eriksson blev kung av både Sverige och Norge i Linköping, (ej vid Mora sten), endast tre år gammal, Konge: Sverige 1319 - 1364 (konge som 3-årig), Kung av Sverige och Norge 1319-1374, Kung i Sverige 1319-1364, Kung i Norge 1319-1343, Kung 1332-
Managed by: Torsten Cargnelli
Last Updated:

About Magnus IV & VII Eriksson Smek, Konung av Sverige och Norge

Magnus Eriksson

Regeringstid Sverige: 8 juli 1319-februari 1364 (förmyndarregering trol. till 1331), delat regentskap med Erik Magnusson 1357-21 juni 1359 och med Håkan Magnusson från februari 1362 Norge: maj 1319-1343 (förmyndarregering trol. till 1331) Skåne: 19 juni 1332-1360 (personalunion) Kröning 1336 Ätt Folkungaätten Föräldrar Erik Magnusson och Ingeborg Håkansdotter Gemål(er) Blanka av Namur (1335-1363)

Barn med Blanka av Namur:

  • Erik Magnusson (1339-1359), svensk kung

  • Håkan Magnusson (1340-1380), svensk och norsk kung

Företrädare Sverige: Birger Magnusson Norge: Håkon V Magnusson Skåne: Johan III av Holstein (pantherre) Efterträdare Sverige: Albrekt av Mecklenburg Norge: Håkon VI Magnusson Skåne: Valdemar Atterdag (Skåne återbördat till Danmark)

Född april eller maj 1316. Död 1 december 1374, Bömmelfjorden, Norge

Magnus Eriksson, född i april eller maj 1316, död 1 december 1374 (drunkning), kung av Sverige 1319–1364, kung av Norge 1319–1343 som Magnus VII och kung av Skåne 1332 - 1360.[1][2][3] Son till hertig Erik Magnusson av Södermanland och den norska prinsessan Ingeborg Håkansdotter, samt sonson till Magnus Ladulås. Gift 1335 med Blanka av Namur.

Förmyndartiden

 

Magnus Eriksson, sonson till Magnus Ladulås, son till hertig Erik Magnusson av Södermanland och Ingeborg, den norske kungen Håkon V Magnussons dotter, föddes i april eller maj 1316. Endast tre år gammal hyllades han, efter sin morfar Håkons död, (1319) till kung i Norge och valdes den 8 juli samma år, sedan ett unionsfördrag, Oslofördraget, blivit upprättat mellan de två rikena, till kung även i Sverige.

Till en början hade hans mor, hertiginnan Ingeborg, ett övervägande inflytande på regeringen i de båda rikena. Ingeborg hade varit närvarande när Oslofördraget slöts och i fördraget omnämns hon på ett sätt som kan tolkas som att vissa befogenheter skulle tillfalla henne. Efter Magnus tillträde som kung ingick hon i det svenska riksrådet. Hon hade fått Axvalls slott och län som underhåll och höll hov på Varbergs slott, där hennes son uppfostrades. Hon hade alltså en geografisk maktposition och på Varbergs slott omgav hon sig med Erik Magnussons tidigare medhjälpare, exempelvis den danske befälhavaren Knut Porse och släkten van Kyren från Holstein.

Mellan Ingeborg och de övriga i riksrådet uppkom snabbt misstänksamhet och motsättningar. Drotsen Mats Kettilmundsson tvingades att avgå och ersattes med Östergötlands lagman Knut Jonsson. Vid ett rådsmöte i Skara på sommaren 1322 lovade stormännen i riksrådet varandra att lämna gamla tvister från inbördeskriget bakom sig och att ingen skulle ge sig i lag med Ingeborg utan hela rådets samtycke.

För att undvika en dansk inblandning i den svenska politiken försökte riksrådet ha goda förbindelser med den danske kungen Erik Menved. Ingeborg och kretsen kring henne hade istället kontakt med Erik Menveds ovänner i Danmark och slöt förbund med Erik Menveds fiender i Tyskland. Sommaren 1321 ingicks ett fördrag mellan tronföljaren Magnus och Henrik II av Mecklenburg. Fördraget innebar giftermål mellan Magnus lillasyster Eufemia och hertig Albrekt av Mecklenburg samt löfte om ömsesidig hjälp i händelse av anfall från Danmark. I hemlighet kom man också överens om ett militärt anfall mot Skåne. Ett sådant förbereddes 1322 av Knut Porse men planerna rann ut i sanden.

Under åren 1323-1326 lyckades rikrådet inlösa Ingeborgs slott Axevall, Varberg och Hunehals samt tog ifrån henne platsen i riksrådet, vilket leddes av drotsen Knut Jonsson. Detta exempel följdes 1323 av norrmännen, som till riksföreståndare utsåg herr Erling Vidkunsson. Unionen emellan de båda rikena inskränktes därefter enligt unionsfördraget till ett försvarsförbund. Med Novgorod, till vilket land förhållandet länge varit spänt, ingicks freden i Nöteborg 1323.

Efter trontillträdet

 

Magnus blev myndig 1331 eller 1332 och han kröntes 1336 i Stockholm.

Skåne och Blekinge var pantlän under greve Johan av Holstein och hans administration där med hjälp av tyska fogdar hade framkallat ett starkt missnöje. En delegation från Skåne, ledda av biskopen i Lund Karl Eriksen, kom till Kalmar 1332 och förklarade att man hellre ville styras från Sverige. Greven inledde förhandlingar med svenskarna och man kom överens att den svenske kungen skulle inlösa panten för 34 000 mark silver. Strax efteråt reste Magnus till Skåne där han i juni 1332 hyllades på tinget i Lund.

Valdemar Atterdag ville efter de inre stridigheterna i Danmark återupprätta Danmarks tidigare inflytande och ville som en del i detta återfå överhögheten över Skåne. För Magnus del hotade förvärvet av Skåne att bli en större tugga än han kunde svälja. Summan på 34 000 mark var för tiden en oerhörd summa och för att få ihop beloppet tvingades kungen låna pengar av kyrkan samt ta lån av stormän i utbyte mot pantlän. 1326 hade kungen pantsatt Kalmar slott och Kalmar län, hela Östergötland, Gästrikland, Fjärdhundraland, Dalarna, Närke och Värmland. Genom att hovet inte längre kunde få inkomster från slottslänen grundlades en allvarlig finanskris som skulle hålla i sig i flera år framöver. Kungen tog också ut extra skatter, däribland tullar vid de skånska fiskelägena samt hårdare krav på gruvindustrin i Bergslagen. I början av 1350-talet utfärdades Magnus Erikssons stadslag som bland annat ville begränsa handeln till städerna för att på så vis kunna ta ut avgifter.

När den danske kungen Valdemar Atterdag sedermera vägrade erkänna kung Magnus äganderätt till Skåne och Magnus, som vänt sig till påven med begäran om bekräftelse på köpet men av denne endast fått undvikande svar, invecklades Magnus, närmast på grund av sin mors panträtt till vissa slott i Danmark, i krig med kung Valdemar. Fred dem emellan slöts först på hösten 1343 i Varberg, varvid Valdemar formellt avsade sig alla anspråk på Skåne och Halland.

Den finansiella krisen i riket, orsakat av lånen och panterna, gav upphov till en allt större klyfta mellan kungen och aristokratin. Kungen kritiserade förmyndarstyrelsen för att den skött ekonomin så illa att det inte fanns några pengar kvar vid hans trontillträde. Med hjälp av en bevarad pamflett vet man också aristokratins ståndpunkt: där väckte det misstänksamhet att kungen hade beslutat att kyrkan inte längre skulle vara ett frälse, det vill säga skulle i fortsättningen betala skatt. Rikets finanser försämrades också av att det skattebefriade frälset växte när det övertog jord som tidigare betalat skatt till kungen. Ytterligare ett skäl till missnöje var att Magnus 1343-1344 utsett sin äldste son Erik till tronföljare i Sverige och den yngste sonen Håkan till tronföljare i Norge. Detta var i strid med att båda länderna var valriken.

I slutet av 1340-talet var Magnus tvungen att förbättra relationerna med aristokratin i riksrådet. Genom en skrivelse från april 1346 som skickades runt hela landet bad kungen om ursäkt för de extra skatterna; sådana skulle i framtiden endast tas ut vid speciella tillfällen och då efter bifall från rikets ständer. En månad senare skänkte kungen och hans hustru Blanka en stor donation till Birgitta Birgersdotter för att få till stånd en klosterstiftelse i Vadstena.

Vid den ryska gränsen hade förhållandena länge varit osäkra och Magnus övergick därför 1348 med en här till Finland. Till en början hade han framgång. Men hans fördelar gick snart förlorade; och då digerdöden 1350 började rasa i Sverige upphörde kriget så småningom, utan känt fredsslut, av sig självt. Samtidigt var Magnus även betänkt på att förskaffa sig besittningar i Estland och Livland. Till följd av dessa planer och den avoghet Magnus under ryska kriget visat de handelsmän som trafikerade Novgorod kom han i fientligt förhållande till hansestäderna, mot vilka han inte heller förut någonsin visat sig särdeles vänligt stämd. Stillestånd ingicks visserligen med dem, men ständigt på kort tid. Vid dessa förhandlingar tjänstgjorde alltid Magnus Erikssons svåger, hertig Albrekt den store av Mecklenburg, som fredsmäklare.


Uppror mot Magnus Eriksson

 

Historisk karta över Magnus Erikssons och Erik Magnussons delning av riket 13571351 hade Magnus Eriksson måst upptaga ett lån av de penningar, som för påvestolens räkning hopsamlades i Sverige, och då han inte på utsatt tid kunde återbetala dessa, hotades såväl han som hans löftesmän (flera av rikets stora) med bannlysning. Det härav alstrade missnöjet ökades genom den gunst Magnus Eriksson visade hertig Bengt Algotsson, som utnämnts till hertig av Finland. 1352 beslutade kungen att kyrkan inte längre skulle vara ett frälse utan betala skatt, ett beslut som aldrig kom att verkställas. Missnöjet över kungens politik fick sitt utbrott i den resning som Magnus Erikssons äldste son, Erik, i förening med flera av rikets stormän 1356 företog. Genom denna tvingades hertig Bengt att fly ur landet och Magnus Eriksson måste (1357) till sin son avstå en stor del av riket. Oenigheten dem emellan bröt snart ut igen och Magnus Eriksson vände sig då till kung Valdemar i Danmark med begäran om hjälp samt ingick med honom ett fördrag 1359. Emellertid avled kung Erik helt plötsligt (juni 1359), och Magnus Eriksson blev därigenom åter ensam härskare över hela Sverige. Kung Valdemar ansåg sig vara bedragen av Magnus Eriksson samt började ett fälttåg mot Skåne och lyckades, troligen genom förräderi av hertig Albrekt av Mecklenburg, komma i besittning av Helsingborgs slott (1360). Inom kort intogs hela Skåne. År 1361 erövrades Öland med Borgholms slott och plundrades Visby. Magnus Eriksson hade emellertid utsänt flera av sina rådgivare till Tyskland för att sluta förbund med hansestäderna mot kung Valdemar. Ett sådant blev också ingånget, i Greifswald (september 1361), men på för Sverige ytterst hårda villkor, och de svenska sändebuden överskred därvid sina instruktioner. Då Magnus Eriksson därför inte ville ratificera fördraget uppkom oenighet mellan Magnus Eriksson och hans son, kung Håkan Magnusson, och denne lät till och med fängsla sin far (november 1361).

I februari 1362 blev Håkan Magnusson formellt vald till kung även över Sverige; men kort därpå ingicks en förlikning mellan honom och hans far, varefter de förde regeringen över Sverige gemensamt. Det mot Valdemar började kriget ledde inte till något resultat och redan hösten 1362 börjades fredsförhandlingar. På vintern förändrades ställningen helt och hållet genom att Håkan, troligen i förhoppning att därigenom återfå Skåne, gifte sig med Valdemars dotter, Margareta (april 1363). Därigenom bröts den av stormännen på hans vägnar ingångna förlovningen med Elisabet av Holstein. Samtidigt blev även flera av de svenska stormännen drivna i landsflykt. Dessa vände sig då till hertig Albrekt den store av Mecklenburg och erbjöd den svenska kronan åt hans son, Albrekt d. y. I november 1363 ankom denne med en här till Stockholm, hyllades av dess borgare och valdes i februari 1364 vid Mora stenar till kung. Magnus Eriksson och hans son kunde inte göra något verksamt motstånd, så att de redan i juli 1364 av det egentliga Sverige inte innehade mera än Västergötland, Värmland och Dalsland. På våren 1365 sökte de visserligen återtaga det förlorade, men blev slagna i mars 1365 i slaget vid Gataskogen, nära Enköping, där Magnus Eriksson blev tillfångatagen. Han satt därefter fången till 1371 då han vid den till hans förmån företagna resningen frigavs mot en dryg lösesumma. Han levde därefter hos sin son i Norge, och avled 1374 (genom drunkning) i Bömmelfjorden i Norge. Man vet inte var han ligger begraven - möjligen i Varnhems klosterkyrka.

Magnus Eriksson som person

 

Magnus Erikssons regeringstid är minnesvärd för den verksamhet som då utövades på lagstiftningens och rättskipningens områden. Magnus Eriksson utfärdade nämligen en mängd stadgar genom vilka han avlyste träldomen, sökte förebygga våldgästning och övervåld samt närmare bestämde utövandet av den kungliga domsrätten. Till största delen ingick dessa sedermera i den omkring år 1350 utarbetade, för hela landet gällande landslagen, den så kallade Magnus Erikssons landslag och kan betraktas som förarbeten till denna. Otvivelaktigt är vidare att han utfärdat flera andra stadgar, vilka även införlivats i landslagen (se Landskapslagar och Landslag). Om hans verksamhet på rättskipningens område vittnar de inte få ännu i behåll varande domar, som utfärdats av honom eller på hans vägnar.

Eftervärldens bild av Magnus Eriksson har präglats av en pamflett, Libellus de Magno Erici regi, där kungen framställs som en lastbar och omoralisk person som styr sitt rike som en tyrann. Härifrån härstammar även tillnamnet Magnus smek.

In English===:

Magnus II Eriksson or Magnus VII of Norway and Magnus IV (II) of Sweden was king of Sweden (spring 1316 – December 1, 1374), Norway, and Terra Scania, and was son of Duke Erik Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, daughter of Haakon V of Norway. Also known by his nickname "Magnus Smek" (Eng. "Pet-Magnus").

Referring to Magnus Eriksson as Magnus IV is a later invention. The Swedish kings Erik XIV (1560-68) and Charles IX (1604-1611) took their numbers after studying a highly fictitious History of Sweden.[1]

Magnus was elected king of Sweden on 8 July 1319, and acclaimed as hereditary king of Norway at the thing of Haugathing in Tønsberg in August the same year. Under the Regencies of his Grandmother Queen Helvig and his Mother Duchess Ingeborg the countries were ruled by Knut Jonsson and Erling Vidkunsson.

Magnus was declared to have come of age at 15 in 1331. This caused resistance in Norway, where a statute from 1302 made clear that kings came of age at the age of 20, and a rising by Erling Vidkunsson and other Norwegian nobles ensued. In 1333, the rebels submitted to king Magnus.

In 1332 the king of Denmark, Christopher II, died as a "king without a country" after he and his older brother and predecessor had pawned Denmark piece by piece. King Magnus took advantage of his neighbour's distress, redeeming the pawn for the eastern Danish provinces for a huge amount of silver, and thus became ruler also of Terra Scania.

On 21 July 1336 Magnus was crowned king of both Norway and Sweden in Stockholm. This caused further resentment in Norway, where the nobles and magnates wished a separate Norwegian coronation. A second rising by members of the high nobility of Norway ensued in 1338.

In spite of his many formal expansions his rule was considered a period of decrease both to the Swedish royal power and to Sweden as a whole. Foreign nations like Denmark (after its recovery in 1340) and Mecklenburg intervened and Magnus himself does not seem to have been able to resist the internal opposition. He was regarded a weak king and criticised because for giving favourites too much power.

In 1336 he married Blanche of Namur, daughter of Count Jean of Namur and Marie of Artois, a descendant of Louis VIII of France.

Opposition to Magnus' rule in Norway led to a settlement between the king and the Norwegian nobility at Varberg on 15 August 1343. In violation of the Norwegian laws on royal inheritance, Magnus' younger son Håkon would become king of Norway, with Magnus as regent during his minority. Later the same year, it was declared that Magnus' older son, Eric would become king of Sweden on Magnus' death. Thus, the union between Norway and Sweden would be severed. This occurred when Håkon came of age in 1355.

Magnus' young favorite courtier was Bengt Algotsson, whom he elevated to Duke of Finland and Halland, as well as Viceroy of the province of Scania. Because homosexuality was a mortal sin and vehemently scorned at that time, revelations about the king's alleged love relationship with Algotsson, and other erotic excapades, were spread by his enemies, particularly by some noblemen who referred to mystical visions of St. Bridget (Birgitta) [2]. The allegations earned Magnus the epithet of Magnus the Petter (M. Smek), and caused him a lot of harm, but there is no factual basis for them in historical sources. Magnus and Blanche had at least five children, of whom three daughters died in infancy.

Because of the raise in taxation to pay for the acquisition of the Scanian province, some Swedish nobles supported by the Church attempted to oust Magnus, setting up his elder son Eric as king (Eric XII of Sweden), but Eric died supposedly of the plague in 1359, with his wife Beatrice of Brandenburg and their two sons.

King Valdemar IV of Denmark conquered Terra Scania in 1360. He went on to conquer Gotland in 1361. On the 27th of July, 1361, outside the city of Visby, the main city of Gotland, the final battle took place. It ended in a complete victory for Valdemar. Magnus had warned the inhabitants of Visby in a letter and started to gather troops to reconquer Scania. Valdemar went home to Denmark again in August and took a lot of plunder with him. Either in late 1361 or early 1362 the inhabitants of Visby raised themselves against the few Danish that Valdemar left behind and killed them. In 1363 a rebellion against Magnus broke out. It was supported by Valdemar and resulted a few months later (February 1364) in that Magnus was deposed from the Swedish throne being replaced by the Duke of Mecklenburg's son Albert of Sweden. Magnus was seeking refuge with his younger son in Norway, where he drowned in 1374.

According to an allegedly autobiographic account known as the "Rukopisanie Magnusha" (Magnus's Testament) which has been inserted into the Russian Sofia First Chronicle composed in Novgorod (against whom Magnus had crusaded in the 1340s and 50s), Magnus in fact, did not drown at sea, but saw the errors of his ways and converted to Orthodoxy, becoming a monk in a Novgorodian monastery in Karelia. The account is apocryphal

Magnus IV of Sweden

King of Sweden

Reign 8 July 1319 – February 1364

Coronation 21 July 1336, Stockholm

Predecessor Birger Magnusson

Successor Albert

King of Norway

Reign August 1319 – 1343

Coronation 21 July 1336, Stockholm

Predecessor Haakon V

Successor Haakon VI

Spouse Blanka of Namur

Issue

Eric XII of Sweden (1339–1359)

Haakon VI of Norway (1340–1380)

Father Erik Magnusson (c. 1282–1318)

Mother Ingeborg Håkonsdotter (1301–1361)

Born Spring 1316

Norway

Died December 1, 1374 (Aged 58)

Bømlofjord, Norway (shipwreck)

Magnus IV of Sweden (Swedish: Magnus Eriksson; spring 1316 – 1 December 1374), also Magnus VII of Norway, was king of Sweden, Norway, and Scania. He has also vindictively been called Magnus Smek (English equivalent: Magnus the Caresser). Referring to Magnus Eriksson as Magnus II is inaccurate. The Swedish Royal Court officially lists three Swedish kings before him by the name.[1][2]

Biography

Magnus was the son of Duke Erik Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, a daughter of Haakon V of Norway. Magnus was elected king of Sweden on 8 July 1319, and acclaimed as hereditary king of Norway at the thing of Haugathing in Tønsberg in August the same year. Under the Regencies of his Grandmother Queen Helvig and his Mother Duchess Ingeborg the countries were ruled by Knut Jonsson and Erling Vidkunsson.

Magnus was declared to have come of age at 15 in 1331. This caused resistance in Norway, where a statute from 1302 made clear that kings came of age at the age of 20, and a rising by Erling Vidkunsson and other Norwegian nobles ensued. In 1333, the rebels submitted to king Magnus.

In 1332 the king of Denmark, Christopher II, died as a "king without a country" after he and his older brother and predecessor had pawned Denmark piece by piece. King Magnus took advantage of his neighbour's distress, redeeming the pawn for the eastern Danish provinces for a huge amount of silver, and thus became ruler also of Skåneland.

On 21 July 1336 Magnus was crowned king of both Norway and Sweden in Stockholm. This caused further resentment in Norway, where the nobles and magnates wished a separate Norwegian coronation. A second rising by members of the high nobility of Norway ensued in 1338.

In 1336 he married Blanche of Namur, daughter of Count Jean of Namur and Marie of Artois, a descendant of Louis VIII of France. The wedding took place in October or early November 1335, possibly at Bohus castle. As a wedding gift Blanche received the province of Tunsberg in Norway and Lödöse in Sweden as fiefs. Together they had two sons, Eric and Haakon. Magnus and Blanche had at least five children, of whom three daughters died in infancy.

Opposition to Magnus' rule in Norway led to a settlement between the king and the Norwegian nobility at Varberg on 15 August 1343. In violation of the Norwegian laws on royal inheritance, Magnus' younger son Haakon would become king of Norway, with Magnus as regent during his minority. Later the same year, it was declared that Magnus' older son, Eric would become king of Sweden on Magnus' death. Thus, the union between Norway and Sweden would be severed. This occurred when Haakon came of age in 1355.

Because of the raise in taxation to pay for the acquisition of the Scanian province, some Swedish nobles supported by the Church attempted to oust Magnus, setting up his elder son Erik Magnusson as king (Eric XII of Sweden), but Eric died supposedly of the plague in 1359, with his wife Beatrix of Bavaria, daughter of Louis IV of Bavaria and their two sons.

The Peace of Nöteborg

On 12 August 1323, Magnus concluded the first treaty between Sweden and Novgorod (represented by Grand Prince Yury of Moscow) at Nöteborg (Orekhov) where Lake Ladoga empties into the Neva River.[3] The treaty delineated spheres of influence among the Finns and Karelians and was supposed to be an "eternal peace", but Magnus' relations with Russia were not so peaceful. In 1337, religious strife between Orthodox Karelians and the Swedes led to a Swedish attack on the town of Korela (Keksholm, Priozersk) and Vyborg (Vipuri), in which the Novgorodian and Ladogan merchants there were slaughtered. A Swedish commander named Sten also captured the fortress at Orekhov. Negotiations with the Novgorodian mayor (Posadnik) Fedor were inconclusive and the Swedes attacked Karelians around Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega before a peace was concluded in 1339 along the old terms of the 1323 treaty. In this treaty, the Swedes claimed that Sten and others acted on their own without the consent of the king.[4]

Crusade against Novgorod

Relations were quiet between Sweden and Novgorod until 1348, when Magnus led a crusade against Novgorod, marching up the Neva, forcibly converting the tribes along that river, and briefly capturing the fortress of Orekhov for a second time.[5] The Novgorodians retook the fortress in 1349 after a seven month siege, and Magnus fell back, in large part due to the ravages of the plague farther West. While he spent much of 1351 trying to drum up support for further crusading action among the German cities in the Baltic States, he never returned to attack Novgorod.[6]

Later years

King Valdemar IV of Denmark conquered Scania in 1360. He went on to conquer Gotland in 1361. On the 27th of July, 1361, outside the city of Visby, the main city of Gotland, the final battle took place. It ended in a complete victory for Valdemar. Magnus had warned the inhabitants of Visby in a letter and started to gather troops to reconquer Scania. Valdemar went home to Denmark again in August and took a lot of plunder with him. Either in late 1361 or early 1362 the inhabitants of Visby raised themselves against the few Danish that Valdemar left behind and killed them.

In 1363, members of the Swedish Council of Aristocracy, led by Bo Jonsson Grip, arrived in the court of Mecklenburg. They had been banished from the country after a revolt against king Magnus Eriksson. At the nobles' request, Albrekt of Mecklenburg launched an invasion of Sweden supported by several German dukes and counts. Several Hanseatic cities and dukes in Northern Germany expressed support of the new king. Stockholm and Kalmar, with large Hanseatic populations, and also welcomed the intervention. Albrekt was proclaimed King of Sweden and officially crowned on 18 February 1364. Magnus was seeking refuge with his younger son in Norway, where he drowned in 1374.

Evaluation of his reign

In spite of his many formal expansions his rule was considered a period of decrease both to the Swedish royal power and to Sweden as a whole. Foreign nations like Denmark (after its recovery in 1340) and Mecklenburg intervened and Magnus himself does not seem to have been able to resist the internal opposition. He was regarded a weak king and criticised because for giving favourites too much power.

Magnus' young favourite courtier was Bengt Algotsson, whom he elevated to Duke of Finland and Halland, as well as Viceroy of the province of Scania. Because homosexuality was a mortal sin and vehemently scorned at that time, rumours about the king's alleged love relationship with Algotsson, and other erotic excapades, were spread by his enemies, particularly by some noblemen who referred to mystical visions of St. Bridget (Birgitta). The allegations earned Magnus the epithet of Magnus the Caresser and caused him a lot of harm, but there is no factual basis for them in historical sources.[7].

In a bit of propagandist retaliations against Magnus, the Russians drew up an allegedly autobiographic account known as the Testament of Magnus (Rukopisanie Magnusha) which has been inserted into the Russian Sofia First Chronicle, composed in Novgorod, which claimed that Magnus in fact, did not drown at sea, but saw the errors of his ways and converted to Orthodoxy, becoming a monk in a Novgorodian monastery in Karelia. The account is apocryphal.[8] -------------------- Magnus II Eriksson or Magnus VII of Norway and Magnus IV (II) of Sweden was king of Sweden (spring 1316 – December 1, 1374), Norway, and Terra Scania, and was son of Duke Erik Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, daughter of Haakon V of Norway. Also known by his nickname "Magnus Smek" (Eng. "Pet-Magnus").

Referring to Magnus Eriksson as Magnus IV is a later invention. The Swedish kings Erik XIV (1560-68) and Charles IX (1604-1611) took their numbers after studying a highly fictitious History of Sweden.

Magnus was elected king of Sweden on 8 July 1319, and acclaimed as hereditary king of Norway at the thing of Haugathing in Tønsberg in August the same year. Under the Regencies of his Grandmother Queen Helvig and his Mother Duchess Ingeborg the countries were ruled by Knut Jonsson and Erling Vidkunsson.

Magnus was declared to have come of age at 15 in 1331. This caused resistance in Norway, where a statute from 1302 made clear that kings came of age at the age of 20, and a rising by Erling Vidkunsson and other Norwegian nobles ensued. In 1333, the rebels submitted to king Magnus.

In 1332 the king of Denmark, Christopher II, died as a "king without a country" after he and his older brother and predecessor had pawned Denmark piece by piece. King Magnus took advantage of his neighbour's distress, redeeming the pawn for the eastern Danish provinces for a huge amount of silver, and thus became ruler also of Terra Scania.

On 21 July 1336 Magnus was crowned king of both Norway and Sweden in Stockholm. This caused further resentment in Norway, where the nobles and magnates wished a separate Norwegian coronation. A second rising by members of the high nobility of Norway ensued in 1338.

In spite of his many formal expansions his rule was considered a period of decrease both to the Swedish royal power and to Sweden as a whole. Foreign nations like Denmark (after its recovery in 1340) and Mecklenburg intervened and Magnus himself does not seem to have been able to resist the internal opposition. He was regarded a weak king and criticised because for giving favourites too much power.

In 1336 he married Blanche of Namur, daughter of Count Jean of Namur and Marie of Artois, a descendant of Louis VIII of France.

Opposition to Magnus' rule in Norway led to a settlement between the king and the Norwegian nobility at Varberg on 15 August 1343. In violation of the Norwegian laws on royal inheritance, Magnus' younger son Håkon would become king of Norway, with Magnus as regent during his minority. Later the same year, it was declared that Magnus' older son, Eric would become king of Sweden on Magnus' death. Thus, the union between Norway and Sweden would be severed. This occurred when Håkon came of age in 1355.

Magnus' young favourite courtier was Bengt Algotsson, whom he elevated to Duke of Finland and Halland, as well as Viceroy of the province of Scania. Because homosexuality was a mortal sin and vehemently scorned at that time, revelations about the king's alleged love relationship with Algotsson, and other erotic excapades, were spread by his enemies, particularly by some noblemen who referred to mystical visions of St. Bridget (Birgitta) . The allegations earned Magnus the epithet of Magnus the Petter (M. Smek), and caused him a lot of harm, but there is no factual basis for them in historical sources. Magnus and Blanche had at least five children, of whom three daughters died in infancy.

Because of the raise in taxation to pay for the acquisition of the Scanian province, some Swedish nobles supported by the Church attempted to oust Magnus, setting up his elder son Eric as king (Eric XII of Sweden), but Eric died supposedly of the plague in 1359, with his wife Beatrice of Brandenburg and their two sons.

King Valdemar IV of Denmark conquered Terra Scania in 1360. He went on to conquer Gotland in 1361. On the 27th of July, 1361, outside the city of Visby, the main city of Gotland, the final battle took place. It ended in a complete victory for Valdemar. Magnus had warned the inhabitants of Visby in a letter and started to gather troops to reconquer Scania. Valdemar went home to Denmark again in August and took a lot of plunder with him. Either in late 1361 or early 1362 the inhabitants of Visby raised themselves against the few Danish that Valdemar left behind and killed them. In 1363 a rebellion against Magnus broke out. It was supported by Valdemar and resulted a few months later (February 1364) in that Magnus was deposed from the Swedish throne being replaced by the Duke of Mecklenburg's son Albert of Sweden. Magnus was seeking refuge with his younger son in Norway, where he drowned in 1374.

According to an allegedly autobiographic account known as the "Rukopisanie Magnusha" (Magnus's Testament) which has been inserted into the Russian Sofia First Chronicle composed in Novgorod (against whom Magnus had crusaded in the 1340s and 50s), Magnus in fact, did not drown at sea, but saw the errors of his ways and converted to Orthodoxy, becoming a monk in a Novgorodian monastery in Karelia. The account is apocryphal.

Källor

  1. ^ Diplomatarium Norvegicum (volumes I-XXI). Officiellt påbud från kung Magnus Eriksson i Helsingborg, daterat 4 juli 1343. Document Nr. 220, Riksarkivet. Utlagt av Dokumentasjonsprosjektet (Universitetet i Bergen, Universitetet i Oslo, Universitetet i Trondheim og Universitetet i Tromsø): Magnus medr guds nad Noreghs Svyia ok Skana konongr (Magnus med Guds Nåd Norges Sveriges och Skånes konung).
  2. ^ Tegnér,Göran och Nina Folin. Medeltidens ABC. Statens historiska museum, 1985. ISBN 91-7844-041-6. s. 314.
  3. ^ Henrikson, Alf och Björn Berg. Dansk historia. Stockholm: Bonnier, 1989. ISBN 91-0-047565-3. s. 170.
  4. ^ Lars O. Lagerqvist & Nils Åberg Litet lexikon över Sveriges regenter Vincent förlag, Boda kyrkby 2004 ISBN: 91-87064-43-X s. 19
   * Jerker Rosén: Gunvor Grenholm: Den svenska historien. Band 2. Medeltid 1319-1520, Albert Bonniers Förlag, Stockholm 1966, sid. 14-47. 
   * Magnus, 4. Magnus Eriksson i Nordisk familjebok (2:a upplagan, 1912)

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnus_IV_of_Sweden

Magnus IV of Sweden (Swedish: Magnus Eriksson; spring 1316 – 1 December 1374), also Magnus VII of Norway, was king of Sweden, Norway, and Scania. He has also vindictively been called Magnus Smek (English equivalent: Magnus the Caresser). Referring to Magnus Eriksson as Magnus II is inaccurate. The Swedish Royal Court officially lists three Swedish kings before him by the name.[1][2]

Magnus was the son of Duke Erik Magnusson of Sweden and Ingeborg, a daughter of Haakon V of Norway. Magnus was elected king of Sweden on 8 July 1319, and acclaimed as hereditary king of Norway at the thing of Haugathing in Tønsberg in August the same year. Under the Regencies of his Grandmother Queen Helvig and his Mother Duchess Ingeborg the countries were ruled by Knut Jonsson and Erling Vidkunsson.

Magnus was declared to have come of age at 15 in 1331. This caused resistance in Norway, where a statute from 1302 made clear that kings came of age at the age of 20, and a rising by Erling Vidkunsson and other Norwegian nobles ensued. In 1333, the rebels submitted to king Magnus.

In 1332 the king of Denmark, Christopher II, died as a "king without a country" after he and his older brother and predecessor had pawned Denmark piece by piece. King Magnus took advantage of his neighbour's distress, redeeming the pawn for the eastern Danish provinces for a huge amount of silver, and thus became ruler also of Skåneland.

On 21 July 1336 Magnus was crowned king of both Norway and Sweden in Stockholm. This caused further resentment in Norway, where the nobles and magnates wished a separate Norwegian coronation. A second rising by members of the high nobility of Norway ensued in 1338.

In 1336 he married Blanche of Namur, daughter of Count Jean of Namur and Marie of Artois, a descendant of Louis VIII of France. The wedding took place in October or early November 1335, possibly at Bohus castle. As a wedding gift Blanche received the province of Tunsberg in Norway and Lödöse in Sweden as fiefs. Together they had two sons, Eric and Haakon. Magnus and Blanche had at least five children, of whom three daughters died in infancy.

Opposition to Magnus' rule in Norway led to a settlement between the king and the Norwegian nobility at Varberg on 15 August 1343. In violation of the Norwegian laws on royal inheritance, Magnus' younger son Haakon would become king of Norway, with Magnus as regent during his minority. Later the same year, it was declared that Magnus' older son, Eric would become king of Sweden on Magnus' death. Thus, the union between Norway and Sweden would be severed. This occurred when Haakon came of age in 1355.

Because of the raise in taxation to pay for the acquisition of the Scanian province, some Swedish nobles supported by the Church attempted to oust Magnus, setting up his elder son Erik Magnusson as king (Eric XII of Sweden), but Eric died supposedly of the plague in 1359, with his wife Beatrix of Bavaria, daughter of Louis IV of Bavaria and their two sons.

The Peace of Nöteborg

On 12 August 1323, Magnus concluded the first treaty between Sweden and Novgorod (represented by Grand Prince Yury of Moscow) at Nöteborg (Orekhov) where Lake Ladoga empties into the Neva River.[3] The treaty delineated spheres of influence among the Finns and Karelians and was supposed to be an "eternal peace", but Magnus' relations with Russia were not so peaceful. In 1337, religious strife between Orthodox Karelians and the Swedes led to a Swedish attack on the town of Korela (Keksholm, Priozersk) and Vyborg (Vipuri), in which the Novgorodian and Ladogan merchants there were slaughtered. A Swedish commander named Sten also captured the fortress at Orekhov. Negotiations with the Novgorodian mayor (Posadnik) Fedor were inconclusive and the Swedes attacked Karelians around Lake Ladoga and Lake Onega before a peace was concluded in 1339 along the old terms of the 1323 treaty. In this treaty, the Swedes claimed that Sten and others acted on their own without the consent of the king.[4]

Crusade against Novgorod

Relations were quiet between Sweden and Novgorod until 1348, when Magnus led a crusade against Novgorod, marching up the Neva, forcibly converting the tribes along that river, and briefly capturing the fortress of Orekhov for a second time.[5] The Novgorodians retook the fortress in 1349 after a seven month siege, and Magnus fell back, in large part due to the ravages of the plague farther West. While he spent much of 1351 trying to drum up support for further crusading action among the German cities in the Baltic States, he never returned to attack Novgorod.[6]

Later years

King Valdemar IV of Denmark conquered Scania in 1360. He went on to conquer Gotland in 1361. On the 27th of July, 1361, outside the city of Visby, the main city of Gotland, the final battle took place. It ended in a complete victory for Valdemar. Magnus had warned the inhabitants of Visby in a letter and started to gather troops to reconquer Scania. Valdemar went home to Denmark again in August and took a lot of plunder with him. Either in late 1361 or early 1362 the inhabitants of Visby raised themselves against the few Danish that Valdemar left behind and killed them.

In 1363, members of the Swedish Council of Aristocracy, led by Bo Jonsson Grip, arrived in the court of Mecklenburg. They had been banished from the country after a revolt against king Magnus Eriksson. At the nobles' request, Albrekt of Mecklenburg launched an invasion of Sweden supported by several German dukes and counts. Several Hanseatic cities and dukes in Northern Germany expressed support of the new king. Stockholm and Kalmar, with large Hanseatic populations, and also welcomed the intervention. Albrekt was proclaimed King of Sweden and officially crowned on 18 February 1364. Magnus was seeking refuge with his younger son in Norway, where he drowned in 1374.

Evaluation of his reign

In spite of his many formal expansions his rule was considered a period of decrease both to the Swedish royal power and to Sweden as a whole. Foreign nations like Denmark (after its recovery in 1340) and Mecklenburg intervened and Magnus himself does not seem to have been able to resist the internal opposition. He was regarded a weak king and criticised for giving favourites too much power.

Magnus' young favourite courtier was Bengt Algotsson, whom he elevated to Duke of Finland and Halland, as well as Viceroy of the province of Scania. Because homosexuality was a mortal sin and vehemently scorned at that time, rumours about the king's alleged love relationship with Algotsson, and other erotic escapades, were spread by his enemies, particularly by some noblemen who referred to mystical visions of St. Bridget (Birgitta). The allegations earned Magnus the epithet of Magnus the Caresser and caused him a lot of harm, but there is no factual basis for them in historical sources.[7].

In a bit of propagandist retaliations against Magnus, the Russians drew up an allegedly autobiographic account known as the Testament of Magnus (Rukopisanie Magnusha) which has been inserted into the Russian Sofia First Chronicle, composed in Novgorod, which claimed that Magnus in fact, did not drown at sea, but saw the errors of his ways and converted to Orthodoxy, becoming a monk in a Novgorodian monastery in Karelia. The account is apocryphal.[8]

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Magnus IV & VII Eriksson Smek, Konung av Sverige och Norge's Timeline

1316
1316
1319
May 1, 1319
Age 3
Tunsberg, King of Norway & Sweden - aka Smek
1335
November 1, 1335
Age 19
Kungälv, Bohuslän, Bohus slott
1339
1339
Age 23
Sweden
1340
August 15, 1340
Age 24
Norge
1374
December 1, 1374
Age 58
Bømlafjorden, Hordaland, Norway
????
????
Oslo, Oslo, Norway