Benedict Arnold, V
|Also Known As:||"The Traitor"|
|Birthplace:||Norwich, New London, Connecticut, USA|
|Death:||Died in London, Middlesex, England|
|Place of Burial:||St. Mary's Church, Battersea, London, Middlesex, England|
Son of Captain Benedict Arnold, lll and Hannah Arnold
|Occupation:||Notorous American Revolution General|
|Managed by:||Private User|
Historical records matching Maj. Gen. Benedict Arnold, V
About Maj. Gen. Benedict Arnold, V
Benedict Arnold V (January 14, 1741 – June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War. He began the war in the Continental Army but later defected to the British Army. While he was still a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York, and plotted unsuccessfully to surrender it to the British. After the plot was exposed in September 1780, he entered the British Army as a brigadier general.
Norwich, New London, Connecticut 1767
27 Feb Age: 26 Marriage to Margaret Mansfield, daughter of Samuel Mansfield, the sheriff of New Haven, an acquaintance that may have been made through the membership of both Mansfield and Arnold in the local Masonic Lodge.
New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut 1775
20 Apr Age: 34 Military
Revolutionary War: Considered a traitor at the end of the War. 1779
8 AprAge: 38 Marriage to Margaret Shippen
Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1801
14 JunAge: 60 Death
London, Middlesex, England -------------------- From findagrave.com:
Birth: Jan 14 1741, Norwich, New London Co, CT, USA
Death: Jun 14 1801, London, Greater London, Eng
Rev War Continental Maj Genl, Reknown Traitor. Son of Benedict Arnold & Hannah Waterman King, Benedict Jr schooled in Canterbury, Eng. Financial problems at home forced his return to CT, & eventually he established apothecary business aft serving apprenticeship w/cousins, Daniel & Joshua Lathrop. He established an Apothecary in New Haven, CT w/sis, Hannah. In 1767, he m Margaret Mansfield, & together they had 3 sons; she d 1775. In 1775, he was Capt in Gov's 2nd Co of Guards, & he immediately took them to capture Ft Ticonderoga. His small unit met up w/Col Ethan Allen & joined forces to capture Ft Ticonderoga. Initially, he billed Continental Congress for his expenses, & it took nearly 2 yrs to pay him. In meantime, George Washington had promoted him to Col, & he was given command of expedition to sieze Canada from British control. This expedition failed at Montreal, however, Arnold's superior leadership was noted. Despite failure of Canada Expedition, Washington had Arnold promoted to Brig Genl. His hot temper caused many arguments w/fellow officers, & even though he routed British Army at Danbury, CT, winning promotion to Maj Genl, his disenchantment w/Am Rev was growing. In 1777, he sided w/Genl Schuyler in dispute bet Schuyler & Genl Horatio Gates. 2 mos later, at Am victory at Saratoga, Genl Gates ignored Arnold's accomplishments to help win victory. Arnold broke his leg at Freeman's Farm during battle, & Gate's intense dislike of him almost caused him to resign. Washington had him recalled, to be w/him at Valley Forge, & when Philadelphia was recaptured, Arnold was named Commandant of city. While in Philadelphia, Arnold met & m Peggy Shippen, young 19 yr old Loyalist; they later had 5 children. She put her husband in contact w/Maj John Andre, chief of intelligence for British Genl Henry Clinton. In correspondence, Arnold offered Clinton strategic Ft of West Point, along w/20,000 Am soldiers, in exchg for British commission & 10,000 pounds. When Maj John Andre was captured & this was reported to Arnold, he realized his treason would soon be discovered, & he immediately defected to British. British gave Arnold 10,000 pounds, commission as Brig Genl, pension when he retired, & land in Canada. Even though Arnold served British Army well, they never trusted him. Aft war, he moved to London, but could find no job. He entered shipping business in Canada, but Tories there disliked him, so he returned to London, where he d 1801, virtually unk, & penniless. (bio by: Kit & Morgan Benson)
Burial: St Mary Churchyard, Battersea, Grter London, Eng
Plot: Crypt in Basement
Benedict Arnold b Jan 14 1741 Norwich, CT. Arnold was 1 of number of Benedict Arnolds including early gov of RI & his father. Arnold's mother was Hannah Waterman King, wealthy widow, bef marriage to elder Arnold. Family fortunes were well for while, however some poor business deals caused financial problems for family. Arnold's father turned to local taverns for solace. Arnold attended school at Canterbury. While there, some of his siblings died from Yellow Fever. W/out money, Benedict Arnold was w/drawn from school. Arnold was young, full of energy & willing to try & do anything. W/lack of structure of school regime, & lax parental control, Arnold was often in trouble. His mother finally found help in form of family: cousins Daniel & Joshua Lathrop took Arnold in as apprentice to their lrg & successful apothecary business. He left his apprenticeship a couple of times to join army for periods of time during French & Indian War, but remained in employ of his cousins for yrs. Arnold's mother d 1759, & his father followed his wife in death 2 yrs later. Aft leaving apprenticeship, Arnold traveled to Europe, buying supplies for his own apothecary which he established in New Haven. Only surviving mbr of his immediate family was Hannah, his sister, & she became his assistant. His business dealings drifted into smuggling...in contempt of customs laws of Crown. Margaret Mansfield became bride of Benedict Arnold in 1767. They had 3 sons. Prior to official outbreak of war, Arnold became Capt in Gov's 2nd Co of Guards. When word spread of Battles of Lexington & Concord, Arnold marched off to action w/his troop. He was eager for action & at Cambridge he requested permission of MA Committee of Safety to capture Ft Ticonderoga. Ethan Allen & his Green Mtn Boys were equally eager to capture such a prize & 2 grps met w/each other at Bennington. Arnold was surprised & little angered because Ethan Allen did not care if Arnold had permission from Committee of Safety & Arnold couldn't talk Allen out of relinquishing command. Arnold had to concede to accompanying Allen & his rowdy, rough & tumble fighters. May 10 they surprised British garrison & Green Mtn Boys celebrated by invading rum stores of British & getting totally sloshed. They virtually ignored Benedict Arnold except when they were teasing & jeering him. Arnold had argument w/Col Easton, who was to deliver missive announcing victory of capture to MA...which doesn't make it surprising that Arnold spent time w/captured enemy officers than his fellow countrymen. Arnold eventually gained some control by way of his sailing experience, however he & Allen really never could see things same way...except for essential need of invasion of Canada. Easton returned from his mission to MA while Arnold & Allen were planning Canadian Invasion. Easton had done his best to diminish Arnold's participation in capture of Ticonderoga & 2 were arguing once more. Arnold challenged him to duel & Easton refused. When fight got physical, Allen & Easton both left. He proceeded w/his own plans, but soon MA Committee commanded him to place himself under Col Benjamin Hinman. W/his quick temper, he immediately dismissed all his troops aft resigning his commission. He was not any happier when he found his men had been recruited by his nemesis, Col Easton. Completely affronted, he went to Albany & there sent off statement of situation at Ticonderoga to Continental Congress. His experiences in North were not very happy ones, & while his own behavior was not exemplary in any fashion, he still had right to feel angry over his treatment by other men. He had been caught in middle of political machinations of CT & MA, both vying for kudos of accomplishment of capture of British stores at Ft Ticonderoga. When MA acquiesced to CT's preeminence in territory, Arnold most certainly felt abandoned. Aft illness of his wife, & succumbing to bout of gout himself, Arnold traveled to Cambridge to settle up his accts w/MA Committee of Safety. There, he again rec'd shabby treatment & was given only small portion of his expenses, nowhere near his total bill. Piqued, he turned accting over to Silas Deane, who in turn presented them to Continental Congress, & he was finally repaid balance of acct. Canadian invasion plans were still in works & it was George Washington who proposed name of Benedict Arnold to Continental Congress. He was commissioned Col, & began to implement his plans. Arnold was given pretty much free hand by Gen Schuyler & enjoyed his independence. Subsequent wilderness march is example of incredible stamina & daring these men had. It will remain very important Am military feat for ages. Washington had placed grt deal of trust in Arnold & he solidly backed that trust. However, weather conditions due to lateness of season would present problem for Arnold & his men. Terrain was difficult & rocky & water supplies were not adequate due to severe rainfall. Ltr from Arnold to Schuyler was given to trustworthy Indian scout who ended up not to be so trustworthy. It was placed into hands of British. Arnold was zealous & encouraging, but conditions were hard. Some of his men deserted, taking much-needed supplies w/them. Snow, rain, mud, hunger were just some of conditions troops had to endure while pressing on to Quebec. Arnold finally reached St Lawrence w/600 men & Arnold was commended for his success. Benedict Arnold tried to take Quebec, however rainstorm prevented any movement for 3 days & in interim, intercepted ltr allowed British to bring reinforcements to add more protection. Arnold fell back to wait for more men by coming of Col Montgomery. He, however had lost number of his due to expiration of their subscription. Arnold was soon to lose number of his own men for same reason & smallpox broke out at same time amg Am forces. Snow began to fall & Dec 31 1775 battle ensued, but things went poorly for Ams. Montgomery fell & Benedict Arnold was wounded w/bullet in his leg. Daniel Morgan was forced to take over & did so fiercely. They were trapped, however, by their lack of knowledge of area & were forced to surrender. Arnold was in command & refused to end siege, bellowing orders from his sickbed. He did not want to leave unless he was triumphant. He requested reinforcements which he rec'd only in small amts. He was given high praise by Washington & others & made Brig Genl which he was happy abt, but expedition failed anyway. Arnold went to Montreal where he rec'd delegation of mbrs of Congress to deal w/Canada. Diplomatic acts failed & eventually Arnold checked attack by British & Indians & successfully evacuated Montreal. Seizures of stores were ordered for severely lacking troops & Arnold plundered efficiently & "legally". Arnold ended up to be 1 of last to leave Canada shoreline on retreat south. Benedict Arnold's summer battles of 1776 involved legal matters, not tactical warfare. He was being taken to court for plundering of Montreal's stores. Major arguments ensued where Arnold accused another officer, Hazen, of not taking control, & as result, he had to. Arguments bet to 2 were hot & heavy & Hazen eventually insisted to be court-martialed in order to clear his name. Court took brunt of Arnold's anger & they demanded apology which, Arnold, of course, refused to do. Instead, he challenged them. Court demanded his arrest. Task of ending quarrel fell to Gen Horatio Gates who knew man of Arnold's ability & acumen was needed in growing heat bet British & Ams in North. Arnold was exonerated. He was soon in charge of small fleet of ships & ordered to Ticonderoga. Here again, Arnold was successful, but found his critics willing to point fingers & pass blame. Am lost 10 of their 15 ships & Arnold was blamed. While not victory, battle showed British stamina & tenacity Ams had. Following winter was trying for Arnold. Some of his old Army nemeses rose up once more to bring chgs against him. He spent most of winter defending himself. He saw number of jr officers receive promotions to Brig Genl above him, leaving him behind. Here again, political machinations, robbed him of his due, he felt. Washington was upset over situation & spent time trying to calm his friend & find out what happened in Congress, especially for fact he was not consulted over promotions. Washington was not completely successful at either task & Arnold ended up traveling to Philadelphia to get answers for himself. Because of action that took place on way—he successfully routed British aft they burned Danbury—he was appointed maj genl, but w/out his seniority. This fact rankled Arnold, as well as outstanding acct which he was due repayment for his expenses. Congress tried to be affable w/Arnold, but still refused to restore his seniority. Washington went to bat for Arnold & submitted ltr to Congress commending Arnold. W/nothing being done, even w/aid of Commander-in-Chief, Arnold resigned Jul 1777. Same day, Washington had recommended Arnold to aid Schuyler near Ticonderoga. Arnold felt opportunity too great, & asked to put his resignation on hold. He immediately took off for north. This was opportunity he could not miss! At same time, Congress voted not to reinstate Arnold's seniority & he would never forgive them for slight. Upon his arrival in north, Arnold was immediately embroiled in another war bet states, as he had been early in his military career. Here 2 Am forces were "warring" against other for leadership. Most of New Englanders backed Horatio Gates, while NYers in areas were supporting Gen Schuyler. Arnold was torn, but threw his "support" to Schuyler since he was in similar straits as Arnold. Later, it was Arnold, only volunteer, to take Ft Schuyler. He accomplished this by faking out British into thinking there were 100s of 1000s of Am forces heading to ft, when in actuality he had less than 1000. He entered ft empty of enemy. Returning to main force, Arnold found himself under leadership of Gen Gates. It wasn't too long bef 2 men found difference of opinion in tactical stance when Battle of Freeman's Farm (Battle of Saratoga Sep 19-Oct 7 1777) began. Arnold was ripe & ready for battle & wanted to press his forces bef Am lines. Gates, however, held him back & refused reinforcements, remaining cautious. When Gates removed some of his forces w/out his knowledge and failed to credit Arnold & his forces w/their participation in Battle of Freeman's Farm to Congress, it put him over the edge. He wanted to leave, but Gates pulled his command instead for insubordination. Having little time to think, Arnold paced his tent, realizing his reluctance to actually leave when there was soon to be some action taking place. So, he paced & complained, paced & complained & paced & complained little more. Finally, while his aides were trying to keep him informed & not hearing anything satisfactory, he ordered his horse & chged into battle, conveniently ignoring fact he had no official command. Sight of fighting man invigorated troops & they rallied around him. In 2 severe assaults, Arnold led men to push open ctr of enemy's line. Backed by Daniel Morgan & his riflemen, pressure from Am forces was so strong, British collapsed. As victory was staring Ams in face, Arnold's horse was shot & fell on same leg injured bef. It was Arnold's actions, however, perhaps more than any officer there, led to Am success, because 10 days later, Burgoyne conceded—& as direct result, France came to aid of infant country. Arnold's seniority was subsequently restored, but he was already too angry to forgive Congress, & never would. He was now also crippled, blow to his pride aft being such actively athletic man. He spent winter of 1777-1778 w/army at Valley Forge. May 30 1778, Benedict Arnold signed Oath of Allegiance to his country. It was signed at Artillery Park in Valley Forge & witnessed by Henry Knox. Aft evacuation of British in Philadelphia, Washington appointed him commandant of city. In Philadelphia, still recuperating, he met Peggy Shippen, boisterous young woman, baby of 3 dtrs of Judge Edward Shippen. (William Shippen, his cousin, was surgeon genl to Continental Army.) Arnold pursued & wooed Miss Peggy Shippen who was missing company of Capt John Andre, & aft some misgivings on her part and hesitation of her father, Arnold finally succeeded. Peggy was 18 & Arnold was 38 when they married. His marriage into Shippen family brought him social status, however, it was something he really could not afford. Couple lived well beyond their means, & as result, Arnold entered into some shady business dealings, including shipping, real estate speculation & authorizing use of gov't supplies for his own personal needs. W/people in Congress eyeing everything he did, he was soon brought up on chgs & court-martialed. He defended himself, furiously as always, but he was found guilty on 2 chgs: using gov't wagons for his personal use & issuing pass to ship he later invested in. Washington, himself pronounced chgs "imprudent & improper" & "peculiarly reprehensible." By May 1779, Arnold had begun bargaining w/British. Why would man commit treason against his country, especially 1 who had fought so valiantly? We can only speculate. He was certainly angry & hurt over many slights he rec'd over yrs. He prob felt unappreciated by his country & those he fought with, even sacrificing his own leg for cause. His pride was most likely biggest piece of his life damaged—humiliation was always affront Arnold could never take. Money, of course, played big part. He was offered in excess of 10,000 pounds & commission in British military. At time, Arnold's wife was considered innocent in matter, however, new research leads us to believe young woman played important part in knowing what was going on & aiding her husband's endeavors. Occupation of Philadelphia during winter of 1777-1778 was exciting 1 for young woman. Parties, routs, & balls were all aspects of social scene w/numerous British officers & Tory sympathizers. Peggy had made some friends amg them. Bounty Arnold offered British was West Point. He began correspondence w/Maj John Andre by circuitous route. Andre had been friends w/Peggy Shippen Arnold during Philadelphia occupation. Andre was adjutant genl & intelligence chief of Sir Henry Clinton. Washington offered Arnold position of left wing of army, in meantime, which earlier in Arnold's career would have been a coup. He used his crippled leg as excuse & was given West Point instead. Andre was courier bet Arnold & Clinton regarding closing of deal. W/his ship forced back by Am troops, Andre was sent on foot back to British lines w/pass from Arnold as well as documents for Clinton in his sock. He was captured & placed into Am custody when documents were found. Arnold heard of his capture & was able to make his escape...to same ship, Vulture, which Andre had arrived on. Andre was put on trial, & met his death as spy. Arnold defected to British & rec'd substantial remuneration for his defection. These included pay, land in Canada, pensions for himself, his wife & his children (5 surviving from Peggy & 3 from his 1st marriage to Margaret) & military commission as British Provincial brig genl. British provided handsomely for Arnold, but never completely trusted him. He was never given important military command. They moved to London where he found no job, some admiration & even some contempt. He moved his family to Canada where he reentered shipping business. Tories there disliked him & had no use for him, & eventually he returned his family to London. When fighting began bet France & Eng, he tried again for military svc, but to no avail. His shipping ventures eventually failed & he d 1801, virtually unk, his wife joining him in death 3 yrs later.
Benedict Arnold V
Birthplace: Norwich, CT
Location of death: London, England
Cause of death: unspecified
Remains: St Marys Church, Battersea, London, Eng
Race or Ethnicity: White
Occupation: Military, Spy
Executive summary: Betrayed colonists to British
Military service: Continental Army
Am soldier, b Norwich, CT, 14 Jan 1741. He was ggrdson of Benedict Arnold (1615-1678), thrice colonial gov of RI between 1663-1678; & was 4th in direct descent to bear name. He rec'd a fair education but was not studious, & his youth was marked by same waywardness which characterized his whole career. At 15 he ran away from home & took part in expedition against French, but, restless under restraint, he soon deserted & returned home. In 1762 he settled in New Haven, where he became proprietor of drug & book shop; & he subsequently engaged successfully in trade w/West Indies. Immediately after Battle of Lexington Arnold led local militia co, of which he was capt, & add'l volunteers to Cambridge, & 29 Apr 1775 he proposed to MA Committee of Safety an expedition against Crown Point & Ticonderoga. After delay of 4 days offer was accepted, & as col of MA militia he was directed to enlist in west part of MA & neighboring colonies men necessary for undertaking. He was forestalled, however, Ethan Allen, acting on behalf of some mbrs of CT Assembly. Under him, reluctantly waiving his own claim to command, Arnold served as volunteer; & soon afterwards, MA having yielded to CT, & having angered Arnold by sending committee to make inquiry into his conduct, he resigned & returned to Cambridge. He was then ordered to cooperate w/Gen Richard Montgomery in invasion of Canada, which he had been 1 of 1st to suggest to Continental Congress. Starting w/1100 men from Cambridge 17 Sep 1775, he reached Gardiner, ME, on the 20th, advanced thru ME woods, & aft suffering terrible privations & hardships, his little force, depleted by death & desertion, reached Quebec 13 Nov. Garrison had been forewarned, & Arnold was compelled to await coming of Montgomery from Montreal. Combined attack 31 Dec 1775 failed; Montgomery was killed, & Arnold was severely wounded. Arnold, who had been commissioned brig-genl Jan 1776, remained in Canada until following Jun, being aft April in command at Montreal. Some time aft retreat from Canada, chgs of misconduct & dishonesty, growing chiefly out of his seizure from merchants in Montreal of goods for use of his troops, were brought against him; these chgs were tardilty investigated by Board of War, which in report made 23 May 1777, & confirmed by Congress, declared his "character & conduct" had been "cruelly & groundlessly aspersed." Having constructed flotilla on Lk Champlain, Arnold engaged greatly superior British fleet near Valcour Island (Oct 11 1776), & aft inflicting severe loss on enemy, made his escape under cover of night. 2 days later he was overtaken by British fleet, which however he, w/only 1 war-vessel, & that crippled, delayed long enough to enable his other vessels to make good their escape, fighting w/desperate valour & finally running his own ship aground & escaping to Crown Point. Engagement of the 11th as 1st bet British & Am fleets. Arnold's brilliant exploits had drawn attention to him as 1 of most promising of Continental officers, & had won for him friendship of George Washington. Nevertheless, when in Feb 1777 Congress created 5 new maj-genls, Arnold, altho ranking brig, was passed over, partly at least for sectional reasons-CT had already 2 maj-genls-in favor of his juniors. At this time it was only Washington's urgent persuasion that prevented Arnold from leaving svc. 2 months later while he was at New Haven, Gov Tryon's descent on Danbury took place; & Arnold, who took command of militia aft death of Gen Wooster, attacked British w/such vigour at Ridgefleld (Apr 27 1777) they escaped to their ships w/difficulty. In recognition of this svc Arnold was now commissioned maj-genl (his commission dating from 17 Feb) but w/out his former relative rank. Aft serving in NJ w/Washington, he joined Gen Philip Schuyler in Northern Dept, & in Aug 1777 proceeded up Mohawk Valley against Col St Leger, & raised siege of Ft Stanwix (or Schuyler). Subsequently, aft Gates superseded Schuyler (Aug 19), Arnold commanded Am left wing in 1st battle of Saratoga (Sep 19 1777). His ill-treatment at hands of Gen Gates, whose jealousy had been aroused, led to quarrel which terminated in Arnold being relieved of command. He remained w/army, however, at urgent request of his bro officers, & altho nominally w/out command served brilliantly in 2nd battle of Saratoga (Oct 7 1777), during which he was seriously wounded. For his svcs he was thanked by Congress, & rec'd new commission giving him at last his proper relative rank. Jun 1778 Washington placed him in command of Philadelphia. Here he soon came into conflict w/state authorities, jealous of any outside control. In social life of Philadelphia, largely dominated by families of Loyalist sympathies, Arnold was most conspicuous figure; he lived extravagantly, entertained lavishly, & in Apr 1779 took for his 2nd wife, Margaret Shippen (1760-1804), dtr of Edward Shippen (1729-1806), moderate Loyalist, who eventually became reconciled to new order & was in 1799-1805 chief-justice of state. Early in Feb 1779 executive council of PA, presided over by Joseph Reed, 1 of his most persistent enemies, presented to Congress 8 chgs of misconduct against Arnold, none of which was of any great importance. Arnold at once demanded investigation, & in Mar committee of Congress made report exonerating him; but Reed obtained reconsideration, & in Apr 1779 Congress, though throwing out 4 chgs, referred other 4 to court-martial. Despite Arnold's demand for speedy trial, it was Dec bef court was convened. It was prob during this period of vexatious delay that Arnold, always sensitive & now incited by keen sense of injustice, entered into secret correspondence w/Sir Henry Clinton w/view to join British svc. 26 Jan 1780 court, bef which Arnold had ably argued his own case, rendered its verdict, practically acquitting him of all intentional wrong, but, apparently in deference to PA authorities, directing Washington to reprimand him for 2 trivial & very venial offenses. Arnold, who had confidently expected absolute acquittal, was inflamed w/burning anger that even Washington's kindly reprimand, couched almost in words of praise, could not subdue. It was now apparently that he 1st conceived plan of betraying some important post to British. W/this in view he sought & obtained from Washington (Aug 1780) command of West Point, key to Hudson Riv Valley. Arnold's offers now became more explicit, &, in order, to perfect details of plot, Clinton's adj-genl, Maj John Andre, met him near Stony Pt on night of 21 Sep. On 23rd, while returning by land, Andre w/incriminating papers was captured, & officer to whom he was entrusted unsuspectingly sent info of his capture to Arnold, who was thus enabled to escape to British lines. Arnold, commissioned brig-genl in British army, rec'd £6315 in compensation for his property losses, & was employed in leading expedition into VA which burned Richmond, & in attack upon New London Sep 1781. In Dec 1781 he removed to London & was consulted on Am affairs by king & ministry, but could obtain no further employment in active svc. Disappointed at failure of his plans & embittered by neglect & scorn which he met in Eng, he spent 1787-1791 at St John, New Brunswick, once more engaging in West India trade, but in 1791 he returned to London, & aft war had broken out bet Grt Brit & France, was active in fitting out privateers. Gradually sinking into melancholia, worn down by depression, & suffering from nervous disease, he d at London 14 Jun 1801.
Arnold had 3 sons-Benedict, Richard & Henry-by 1st wife, & 4 sons-Edward Shippen, James Robertson, George & William Fitch-by 2nd wife; 5 of them, & 1 grdson, served in British army. Benedict (1768-1795) was officer of artillery & was mortally wounded in West Indies. Edward Shippen (1780-1813) became Lt of 6th Bengal Cavalry & later paymaster at Muttra, India. James Robertson (1781-1854) entered corps of Royal Engineers in 1798, served in Napoleonic wars, in Egypt & in West Indies, & rose to rank of lt-genl, was aide-de-camp to William IV, & was created knight of Hanoverian Guelphic order & knight of Crescent. George (1787-1828) was lt-col in 2nd Bengal Cavalry at time of his death. William Fitch (1794-1828) became capt in 19th Royal Lancers; his son, William Trail (1826-1855) served in Crimean War as capt of 4th Regiment of Foot & was killed during siege of Sevastopol.
Father: Benedict III (d 1761)
Mother: Hannah Waterman King (wealthy widow of Absalom King, d 1759)
Brother: Benedict IV (d yellow fever)
Wife: Margaret Mansfield (m 22-Feb-1767, d 19-Jun-1775)
Son: Benedict VI (b 1768, d 1795 gangrene)
Son: Richard (b 1769, d 1847)
Son: Henry (b 1772, d 1826)
Wife: Margaret Shippen ("Peggy", m 8-Apr-1779, d 24-Aug-1804 cancer)
Son: Edward Shippen (b 19-Mar-1780, d 1813)
Son: James Robertson (b 28-Aug-1781, d 1852)
Dtr: Sophia Matilda (b 28-Jul-1785)
Son: George (b 5-Sep-1787, d 1828)
Son: William Fitch (b 25-Jun-1794)
Son: John Sage (illegitimate, 14-Apr-1786, d 22-Oct-1831)
Ran Away From Home (age 14)
Disturbing Peace (31-Jan-1767)
Shot: Battle Battle of Quebec (31-Dec-1775)
Shot: Battle Battle of Bemis Heights (7-Oct-1777)
Corruption court martialed (Jan-1780)
Duel w/Earl of Landerdale (1-Jul-1792)
Risk Factors: Depression, Gout
Book: Traiterous Hero: Life & Fortunes of Benedict Arnold, 1954, Willard M Wallace
From Smithsonian Inst:
Benedict Arnold has become synonymous w/treason but bef he betrayed America, he saved it. More than 200 yrs aft his death, most notorious traitor of Rev War has unlikely supporter.
•Myths of Am Rev•George Washington's Christmas Crossing “You have 5 minutes,” vicar said, as he led us thru foyer of St Marys Church in Battersea section of London. “I’m sorry I can’t give you more time, but we have meeting down there that’s about to start.” And w/that, we descended flight of stairs to see tomb of Am’s most infamous turncoat. I was on London “Tory Tour”—afternoon-long look at sites associated w/7000 Am Loyalists who fled to Eng’s capital during Rev. Our tour guide, Tom Sebrell, young historian from VA currently living & tchg in London, made crypt of Benedict Arnold 1st stop. Our group included couple of Am expats, Oxford-educated Brit who confessed to knowing little abt Loyalists or Arnold; young Chinese graduate student; & 2 Am-born professors of journalism at Concordia Univ in Montreal, both in London for conference. “In Canada, United Empire Loyalists, as they’re called there, are well respected,” says Brian Gabrial, 1 of Concordia profs. “I’m interested to see how they’re remembered here.” So was I. In particular, Arnold who, though not technically Loyalist (he fought 5 yrs on side of rebels), was certainly amg most prominent Ams in exile aft Rev. Instead of crypt-like shadows, we emerged into glare of fluorescent lights. St Marys Sunday school is held in basement level; during wk, it’s rented by private kindergarten. This Saturday, mtg was indeed underway. Folding chairs gathered in circle, plastic foam cups & minutes in hand, grp of parishioners looked curiously at group of 8 who came traipsing past them, led by apologetic vicar, Rev Paul Kennington. In corner on far side of room, we found ceiling festooned w/colorful balloons. There were crayon drawings by children; fish tank—& Benedict Arnold. While church has been on this spot since Middle Ages, current St Marys was only 18 yrs old when general & his family arrived in London in 1795. Arnold—embroiled in controversy, as always, this time over bad investments in Canada—spent last 5 yrs of his life here as mbr of St Marys. His remains, & those of wife, former Margaret Shippen, & dtr lie here. Headstone, we notice as we cluster around it, looks surprisingly new & identifies Arnold as “Sometime General in Army of George Washington …2 Nations Whom He Served In Turn in Yrs of their Enmity Have United in Enduring Friendship.” Very diplomatic; but who would have put up new headstone of Arnold down here? “Am,” answered vicar. We looked at each other, dumbfounded. Am erecting monument to 1 of most infamous villains in our history? Upon investigation, we learned this benefactor, Bill Stanley of Norwich, CT, was former state senator, president of Norwich Historical Soc, & oft-quoted, indefatigable defender of Norwich native Benedict Arnold (“If we can forgive Japanese for Pearl Harbor, can’t we forgive him?” Stanley once said to a reporter). “Bill felt that Arnold never got enough credit for what he did bef he became traitor,” says Olive Buddington, close friend of Stanley’s & colleague in historical soc. In articles & speeches over 4 decades, Stanley—who d April 2009, at age 79—cited as proof of Arnold’s greatness his epic march to Quebec in 1775; his brilliant naval engagement at Valcour Island on Lk Champlain in 1776 (action that delayed British invasion from north that could have destroyed rebellion); & ultimately, his heroic chg at Freeman’s Farm, during decisive 1777 Battle of Saratoga. Of course, there was also that little matter in West Point in 1780, when Arnold’s plot to turn over Am fort to British was uncovered. His contact, gallant British officer John André, was caught & hanged as spy; Arnold made beeline for Brits, &…well, you know rest of story: Benedict Arnold became Benedict Arnold—synonym for treason to this day. Stanley did not deny Arnold’s treachery. He just felt man should have gotten more credit for what he did prior to switching sides. “He saved Am, bef he betrayed it,” he once said. On trip to London, Stanley & wife, Peggy, visited St Marys & found faded painted epitaph on Arnold’s basement crypt. “He said when he saw seeming insignificance marking [Arnold’s] burial site, he almost cried,” recalls his son, Bill Stanley Jr of New London, CT. “He said, ‘This guy deserves better than this.’ But you can’t exactly call Am gov't & say ‘We need better monument to Benedict Arnold!’ ” (Indeed, in US, there are some tributes to Arnold—including 1 at Saratoga Nat'l Historic Pk & another at West Point—that note his “pre-treasonous” achievements, while pointedly omitting his name.) Stanley decided to undertake project himself. Using his own money, he paid $15000 to have granite headstone cut & epitaph inscribed. Church agreed to install it & in May 2004, Stanley, his wife, son & dtr, & abt 25 other friends & mbrs of Norwich Historical Soc flew to London for installation of new headstone at St Marys. At special Sun svc—w/160-pound headstone displayed on altar—“enduring friendship” bet US & Grt Britain was extolled, & Stanley, altho weak from gallbladder surgery (1 of succession of maladies that would keep him in & out of hospital for last 6 yrs of life) felt vindicated. “He literally almost died doing this,” says Bill Jr. “But I think his feeling was aft he’d gotten headstone over there his mission was accomplished. Arnold to some degree had been exonerated, or at least recognized.” Though impressed by efforts of this determined man from CT to honor his hero, Gabrial, Concordia professor, for 1, wasn’t buying revisionist perspective on Arnold—nor was he moved to tears by obscurity of his final resting place. “As Am, I’m quite pleased to see that, in death, Benedict Arnold is hardly celebrated figure to most Brits,” he said. And being buried in basement, next to fish tank? “Serves him right.” Still, as we learned on Tory Tour, late Bill Stanley was not alone amg his countrymen in his views on Arnold. Magnificent stained-glass tribute to Arnold at St Marys was donated by Am Vincent Lindner in 1976; & at last stop of Sebrell’s tour, Arnold’s home in fashionable Marylebone neighborhood, another surprise awaited us. On door of handsome 3-story town house on Gloucester Pl, plaque—not, Sebrell noted, 1 of official Nat'l Trust plaques usually accorded to historic homes in Britain—identifies Arnold as “Am Patriot.” Patriot? W/out even acknowledgement of his treachery? “It might be someone’s idea of joke…or irony,” Sebrell speculated. After all, even tireless Bill Stanley didn’t try to defend “2nd half” of Benedict Arnold’s career. “He knew it was tough sell,” his son acknowledged. “It was like trying to get people to look at all great things OJ did bef Bronco.” Read more: http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/The-Curious-London-Legacy-of-Benedict-Arnold.html?c=y&page=2#ixzz0ttN13Ql1 -------------------- Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benedict_Arnold
Benedict Arnold V (January 14, 1741 [O.S. January 3, 1740] – June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War. He began the war in the Continental Army but later defected to the British Army. While he was still a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York, and plotted unsuccessfully to surrender it to the British forces. After the plot was exposed in September 1780, he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general.
Born in Connecticut, Arnold was a merchant operating ships on the Atlantic Ocean when the war broke out in 1775. After joining the growing army outside Boston, he distinguished himself through acts of cunning and bravery. His actions included the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, successful defensive and delaying tactics despite losing the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain in 1776, the Battle of Ridgefield, Connecticut (after which he was promoted to major general), operations in relief of the Siege of Fort Stanwix, and key actions during the pivotal Battles of Saratoga in 1777, in which he suffered leg injuries that ended his combat career for several years.
In spite of successes, Arnold was passed over for promotion by the Continental Congress while other officers claimed credit for some of his accomplishments. Adversaries in military and political circles brought charges of corruption or other malfeasance, but he was acquitted in most formal inquiries. Congress investigated his accounts, and found that he owed it money after he had spent much of his own money on the war effort. Frustrated and bitter, Arnold decided to change sides in 1779, and opened secret negotiations with the British. In July 1780, he sought and obtained command of West Point in order to surrender it to the British. Arnold's scheme was exposed when American forces captured British Major John André carrying papers that revealed the plot. Upon learning of André's capture, Arnold fled down the Hudson River to the British sloop-of-war Vulture, narrowly avoiding capture by the forces of George Washington, who had been alerted to the plot.
Arnold received a commission as a brigadier general in the British Army, an annual pension of £360, and a lump sum of over £6,000. He led British forces on raids in Virginia, and against New London and Groton, Connecticut, before the war effectively ended with the American victory at Yorktown. In the winter of 1782, Arnold moved to London with his second wife, Margaret "Peggy" Shippen Arnold. He was well received by King George III and the Tories but frowned upon by the Whigs. In 1787, he entered into mercantile business with his sons Richard and Henry in Saint John, New Brunswick, but returned to London to settle permanently in 1791, where he died ten years later.
Because of the way he changed sides, his name quickly became a byword in the United States for treason or betrayal. His conflicting legacy is recalled in the ambiguous nature of some of the memorials that have been placed in his honor. Contents [hide]
* 1 Early life * 2 Businessman * 3 Early Revolutionary War * 4 Saratoga and Philadelphia * 5 Plotting to change sides o 5.1 Secret communications o 5.2 Court martial o 5.3 Offer to surrender West Point o 5.4 Command at West Point o 5.5 Plot exposed * 6 After switching sides o 6.1 British Army service o 6.2 New business opportunities * 7 Death * 8 Demonization * 9 Family * 10 Tributes * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links
Benedict was born the second of six children to Benedict Arnold III (1683–1761) and Hannah Waterman King in Norwich, Connecticut, on January 14, 1741. He was named after his great-grandfather Benedict Arnold, an early governor of the Colony of Rhode Island, and his brother Benedict IV, who died in infancy. Only Benedict and his sister Hannah survived to adulthood; his other siblings succumbed to yellow fever in childhood. Through his maternal grandmother, Arnold was a descendant of John Lothropp, an ancestor of at least four U.S. presidents.
Arnold's father was a successful businessman, and the family moved in the upper levels of Norwich society. When he was ten, Arnold was enrolled in a private school in nearby Canterbury, with the expectation that he would eventually attend Yale. However, the deaths of his siblings two years later may have contributed to a decline in the family fortunes, since his father took up drinking. By the time he was fourteen, there was no money for private education. His father's alcoholism and ill health kept him from training Arnold in the family mercantile business, but his mother's family connections secured an apprenticeship for Arnold with two of her cousins, brothers Daniel and Joshua Lathrop, who operated a successful apothecary and general merchandise trade in Norwich. His apprenticeship with the Lathrops lasted seven years.
In 1755, Arnold, attracted by the sound of a drummer, attempted to enlist in the provincial militia for service against the French, but his mother refused permission. In 1757, when he was sixteen, he did enlist in the militia, which marched off toward Albany and Lake George. The French had besieged Fort William Henry, and their Indian allies had committed atrocities after their victory. Word of the siege's disastrous outcome led the company to turn around; Arnold served for 13 days. A commonly accepted story that Arnold deserted from militia service in 1758 is based on uncertain documentary evidence.
Arnold's mother, to whom he was very close, died in 1759. His father's alcoholism worsened after the death of his wife, and the youth took on the responsibility of supporting his father and younger sister. His father was arrested on several occasions for public drunkenness, was refused communion by his church, and eventually died in 1761. Businessman
In 1762, with the help of the Lathrops, Arnold established himself in business as a pharmacist and bookseller in New Haven, Connecticut. Arnold was hardworking and successful, and was able to rapidly expand his business. In 1763 he repaid money borrowed from the Lathrops, repurchased the family homestead that his father had sold when deeply in debt, and re-sold it a year later for a substantial profit. In 1764 he formed a partnership with Adam Babcock, another young New Haven merchant. Using the profits from the sale of his homestead they bought three trading ships and established a lucrative West Indies trade. During this time he brought his sister Hannah to New Haven and established her in his apothecary to manage the business in his absence. He traveled extensively in the course of his business, throughout New England and from Quebec to the West Indies, often in command of one of his own ships. On one of his voyages, Arnold fought a duel in Honduras with a British sea captain who had called him a "damned Yankee, destitute of good manners or those of a gentleman". The captain was wounded after the first exchange of gunfire, and apologized after Arnold threatened to aim to kill on the second. A procession of men, depicting various members of the British Parliament at the time, accompany then-Prime Minister Grenville as he carries a small coffin representing the Stamp Act near a waterfront scene with a sailing ship, cranes, bales of goods, and wharf warehouses in the background. A 1766 political cartoon on the repeal of the Stamp Act
The Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765 severely curtailed mercantile trade in the colonies. The latter act prompted Arnold to join the chorus of voices in opposition to those taxes, and also led to his entry into the Sons of Liberty, a secret organization that was not afraid to use violence to oppose implementation of those and other unpopular Parliamentary measures. Arnold initially took no part in any public demonstrations but, like many merchants, continued to trade as if the Stamp Act did not exist, in effect becoming a smuggler in defiance of the act. Arnold also faced financial ruin, falling £16,000 in debt, with creditors spreading rumors of his insolvency to the point where he took legal action against them. On the night of January 28, 1767, Arnold and members of his crew, watched by a crowd of Sons, roughed up a man suspected of attempting to inform authorities of Arnold's smuggling. Arnold was convicted of a disorderly conduct charge and fined the relatively small amount of 50 shillings; publicity of the case and widespread sympathy for his view probably contributed to the light sentence.
On February 22, 1767, he married Margaret Mansfield, daughter of Samuel Mansfield, the sheriff of New Haven, an acquaintance that may have been made through the membership of both Mansfield and Arnold in the local Masonic Lodge. Their first son, Benedict VI, was born the following year, and was followed by brothers Richard in 1769, and Henry in 1772. Margaret died early in the revolution, on June 19, 1775, while Arnold was at Fort Ticonderoga following its capture. The household, even while she lived, was dominated by Arnold's sister Hannah. Arnold benefited from his relationship with Mansfield, who became a partner in his business and used his position as sheriff to shield Arnold from creditors.
Arnold was in the West Indies when the Boston Massacre took place on March 5, 1770. He wrote he was "very much shocked" and wondered "good God, are the Americans all asleep and tamely giving up their liberties, or are they all turned philosophers, that they don't take immediate vengeance on such miscreants". Early Revolutionary War Main article: Military career of Benedict Arnold, 1775-1776
Arnold began the war as a captain in Connecticut's militia, a position to which he was elected in March 1775. Following the outbreak of hostilities at Lexington and Concord the following month, his company marched northeast to assist in the siege of Boston that followed. Arnold proposed to the Massachusetts Committee of Safety an action to seize Fort Ticonderoga in New York, which he knew was poorly defended. They issued him a colonel's commission on May 3, 1775, and he immediately rode off to the west, arriving at Castleton in the disputed New Hampshire Grants (present-day Vermont) in time to participate with Ethan Allen and his men in the capture of Fort Ticonderoga. He followed up that action with a bold raid on Fort Saint-Jean on the Richelieu River north of Lake Champlain. When a Connecticut militia force arrived at Ticonderoga in June, he had a dispute with its commander over control of the fort, and resigned his Massachusetts commission. He was on his way home from Ticonderoga when he learned that his wife died earlier in June. A half-height oil portrait of Carleton. He faces front, wearing a red coat and vest over a ruffled white shirt. His hair is white, and is apparently pulled back. Quebec Governor Guy Carleton opposed Arnold at Quebec and Valcour Island
When the Second Continental Congress authorized an invasion of Quebec, in part on the urging of Arnold, he was passed over for command of the expedition. Arnold then went to Cambridge, Massachusetts, and suggested to George Washington a second expedition to attack Quebec City via a wilderness route through present-day Maine. This expedition, for which Arnold received a colonel's commission in the Continental Army, left Cambridge in September 1775 with 1,100 men. After a difficult passage in which 300 men turned back and another 200 died en route, Arnold arrived before Quebec City in November. Joined by Richard Montgomery's small army, he participated in the December 31 assault on Quebec City in which Montgomery was killed and he was wounded. Arnold, who was promoted to brigadier general for his role in reaching Quebec, maintained an ineffectual siege of the city until he was replaced by Major General David Wooster in April 1776.
Arnold then traveled to Montreal, where he served as military commander of the city until forced to retreat by an advancing British army that had arrived at Quebec in May. He presided over the rear of the Continental Army during its retreat from Saint-Jean, where he was reported by James Wilkinson to be the last person to leave before the British arrived. He then directed the construction of a fleet to defend Lake Champlain, which was defeated in the October 1776 Battle of Valcour Island. His actions at Saint-Jean and Valcour Island played a notable role in delaying the British advance against Ticonderoga until 1777.
During these actions, Arnold made a number of friends and a larger number of enemies within the army power structure and in Congress. He had established decent relationships with George Washington, commander of the army, as well as Philip Schuyler and Horatio Gates, both of whom had command of the army's Northern Department during 1775 and 1776. However, an acrimonious dispute with Moses Hazen, commander of the 2nd Canadian Regiment, boiled over into a court martial of Hazen at Ticonderoga during the summer of 1776. Only action by Gates, then his superior at Ticonderoga, prevented his own arrest on countercharges levelled by Hazen. He had also had disagreements with John Brown and James Easton, two lower-level officers with political connections that resulted in ongoing suggestions of improprieties on his part. Brown was particularly vicious, publishing a handbill that claimed of Arnold, "Money is this man's God, and to get enough of it he would sacrifice his country". Saratoga and Philadelphia Main article: Military career of Benedict Arnold, 1777-1779 A three-quarters length oil portrait of Gates against a neutral dark background. He is wearing a general's uniform, blue jacket with gold facing and gold epaulets. He is holding a sword in one hand and a paper in the other. His hair is white and has been tied back. General Horatio Gates led the forces at Saratoga (portrait by Gilbert Stuart, 1793–94)
General Washington assigned Arnold to the defense of Rhode Island following the British seizure of Newport in December 1776, where the militia were too poorly equipped to even consider an attack on the British. Arnold took the opportunity while near his home in New Haven to visit his children, and he spent much of the winter socializing in Boston, where he unsuccessfully courted a young belle named Betsy Deblois. In February of 1777, he learned that he had been passed over for promotion to major general by Congress. Washington refused his offer to resign, and wrote to members of Congress in an attempt to correct this, noting that "two or three other very good officers" might be lost if they persisted in making politically-motivated promotions. Arnold was on his way to Philadelphia to discuss his future when he was alerted that a British force was marching toward a supply depot in Danbury, Connecticut. Along with David Wooster and Connecticut militia General Gold S. Silliman he organized the militia response. In the Battle of Ridgefield, he led a small contingent of militia attempting to stop or slow the British return to the coast, and was again wounded in his left leg. Arnold continued on to Philadelphia, where he met with members of Congress about his rank. His action at Ridgefield, coupled with the death of Wooster due to wounds sustained in the action, resulted in Arnold's promotion to major general, although his seniority was not restored over those who had been promoted before him. Amid negotiations over that issue, Arnold wrote out a letter of resignation on July 11, the same day word arrived in Philadelphia that Fort Ticonderoga had fallen to the British. Washington refused his resignation and ordered him north to assist with the defense there.
Arnold arrived in Schuyler's camp at Fort Edward, New York on July 24. On August 13 Schuyler dispatched him with a force of 900 to relieve the siege of Fort Stanwix, where he succeeded in the use of a ruse to lift the siege. Arnold had an Indian messenger sent into the camp of British Brigadier General Barry St. Leger with news that the approaching force was much larger and closer than it actually was; this convinced St. Leger's Indian support to abandon him, forcing him to give up the effort.
Arnold then returned to the Hudson, where General Gates had taken over command of the American army, which had by then retreated to a camp south of Stillwater. He then distinguished himself in both Battles of Saratoga, even though General Gates, following a series of escalating disagreements and disputes that culminated in a shouting match, removed him from field command after the first battle. During the fighting in the second battle, Arnold, operating against Gates' orders, took to the battlefield and led attacks on the British defenses. He was again severely wounded in the left leg late in the fighting. Arnold himself said it would have been better had it been in the chest instead of the leg. Burgoyne surrendered ten days after the second battle, on October 17, 1777. In response to Arnold's valor at Saratoga, Congress restored his command seniority. However, Arnold interpreted the manner in which they did so as an act of sympathy for his wounds, and not an apology or recognition that they were righting a wrong. Arnold's Oath of Allegiance, May 30, 1778
Arnold spent several months recovering from his injuries. Rather than amputating his shattered left leg, he had it crudely set, leaving it 2 inches (5 cm) shorter than the right. He returned to the army at Valley Forge in May 1778 to the applause of men who had served under him at Saratoga. There he participated in the first recorded Oath of Allegiance along with many other soldiers, as a sign of loyalty to the United States. President's House, Philadelphia. Arnold made the Masters-Penn mansion, as it was then called, his headquarters while military commander of Philadelphia. It later served as the presidential mansion of George Washington and John Adams, 1790–1800.
After the British withdrew from Philadelphia in June 1778 Washington appointed Arnold military commander of the city. Even before the Americans reoccupied Philadelphia, Arnold began planning to capitalize financially on the change in power there, engaging in a variety of business deals designed to profit from war-related supply movements and benefiting from the protection of his authority. These schemes were sometimes frustrated by powerful local politicians, who eventually amassed enough evidence to publicly air charges. Arnold demanded a court martial to clear the charges, writing to Washington in May 1779, "Having become a cripple in the service of my country, I little expected to meet [such] ungrateful returns".
Arnold lived extravagantly in Philadelphia, and was a prominent figure on the social scene. During the summer of 1778 Arnold met Peggy Shippen, the 18-year-old daughter of Judge Edward Shippen, a Loyalist sympathizer who had done business with the British while they occupied the city. Peggy had been courted by British Major John André during the British occupation of Philadelphia. Peggy and Arnold married on April 8, 1779. Peggy and her circle of friends had found methods of staying in contact with paramours across the battle lines, in spite of military bans on communication with the enemy. Some of this communication was effected through the services of Joseph Stansbury, a Philadelphia merchant. Plotting to change sides
Sometime early in May 1779, Arnold met with Stansbury. Stansbury, whose testimony before a British commission apparently erroneously placed the date in June, said that, after meeting with Arnold, "I went secretly to New York with a tender of [Arnold's] services to Sir Henry Clinton." Ignoring instructions from Arnold to involve no one else in the plot, Stansbury crossed the British lines and went to see Jonathan Odell in New York. Odell was a Loyalist working with William Franklin, the last Colonial Governor of New Jersey and the son of Benjamin Franklin. On May 9, Franklin introduced Stansbury to Major André, who had just been named the British spy chief. This was the beginning of a secret correspondence between Arnold and André, sometimes using his wife Peggy as a willing intermediary, that culminated over a year later with Arnold's change of sides. Secret communications One of Arnold's coded letters. Cipher lines by Arnold are interspersed with lines by his wife Peggy.
André conferred with General Clinton, who gave him broad authority to pursue Arnold's offer. André then drafted instructions to Stansbury and Arnold. This initial letter opened a discussion on the types of assistance and intelligence Arnold might provide, and included instructions for how to communicate in the future. Letters would be passed through the women's circle that Peggy Arnold was a part of, but only Peggy would be aware that some letters contained instructions written in both code and invisible ink that were to be passed on to André, using Stansbury as the courier.
By July 1779, Arnold was providing the British with troop locations and strengths, as well as the locations of supply depots, all the while negotiating over compensation. At first, he asked for indemnification of his losses and £10,000, an amount the Continental Congress had given Charles Lee for his services in the Continental Army. General Clinton, who was pursuing a campaign to gain control of the Hudson River Valley, was interested in plans and information on the defenses of West Point and other defenses on the Hudson River. He also began to insist on a face-to-face meeting, and suggested to Arnold that he pursue another high-level command. By October 1779, the negotiations had ground to a halt. Furthermore, Patriot mobs were scouring Philadelphia for Loyalists, and Arnold and the Shippen family were being threatened. Arnold was rebuffed by Congress and by local authorities in requests for security details for himself and his in-laws. Court martial
The court martial to consider the charges against Arnold began meeting on June 1, 1779, but was delayed until December 1779 by General Clinton's capture of Stony Point, New York, throwing the army into a flurry of activity to react. In spite of the fact that a number of members of the panel of judges were men ill-disposed to Arnold over actions and disputes earlier in the war, Arnold was cleared of all but two minor charges on January 26, 1780. Arnold worked over the next few months to publicize this fact; however, in early April, just one week after Washington congratulated Arnold on the May 19 birth of his son, Edward Shippen Arnold, Washington published a formal rebuke of Arnold's behavior.
The Commander-in-Chief would have been much happier in an occasion of bestowing commendations on an officer who had rendered such distinguished services to his country as Major General Arnold; but in the present case, a sense of duty and a regard to candor oblige him to declare that he considers his conduct [in the convicted actions] as imprudent and improper.
– Notice published by George Washington, April 6, 1780
A black and white full length portrait of André. He wears a uniform, dark jacket over white pants and shirt, with dark boots, and a three-cornered hat. His right hand holds a sword upright by his side, and his left arm is extending, pointing forward. Major John André, British General Henry Clinton's spy chief, was captured and hanged for his role in the plot
Shortly after Washington's rebuke, a Congressional inquiry into his expenditures concluded that Arnold had failed to fully account for his expenditures incurred during the Quebec invasion, and that he owed the Congress some £1,000, largely because he was unable to document them. A significant number of these documents were lost during the retreat from Quebec; angry and frustrated, Arnold resigned his military command of Philadelphia in late April. Offer to surrender West Point
Early in April, Philip Schuyler had approached Arnold with the possibility of giving him the command at West Point. Discussions between Schuyler and Washington on the subject had not borne fruit by early June. Arnold reopened the secret channels with the British, informing them of Schuyler's proposals and including Schuyler's assessment of conditions and West Point. He also provided information on a proposed French-American invasion of Quebec that was to go up the Connecticut River. (Arnold did not know that this proposed invasion was a ruse intended to divert British resources.) On June 16, Arnold inspected West Point while on his way home to Connecticut to take care of personal business, and sent a highly detailed report through the secret channel. When he reached Connecticut Arnold arranged to sell his home there, and began transferring assets to London through intermediaries in New York. By early July he was back in Philadelphia, where he wrote another secret message to Clinton on July 7, which implied that his appointment to West Point was assured and that he might even provide a "drawing of the works ... by which you might take [West Point] without loss".
General Clinton and Major André, who returned victorious from the Siege of Charleston on June 18, were immediately caught up in this news. Clinton, concerned that Washington's army and the French fleet would join in Rhode Island, again fixed on West Point as a strategic point to capture. André, who had spies and informers keeping track of Arnold, verified his movements. Excited by the prospects, Clinton informed his superiors of his intelligence coups, but failed to respond to Arnold's July 7 letter.
Arnold next wrote a series of letters to Clinton, even before he might have expected a response to the July 7 letter. In a July 11 letter, he complained that the British did not appear to trust him, and threatened to break off negotiations unless progress was made. On July 12 he wrote again, making explicit the offer to surrender West Point, although his price (in addition to indemnification for his losses) rose to £20,000, with a £1,000 downpayment to be delivered with the response. These letters were delivered not by Stansbury but by Samuel Wallis, another Philadelphia businessman who spied for the British. Command at West Point Col. Beverley Robinson's house, Arnold's headquarters at West Point
On August 3, 1780, Arnold obtained command of West Point. On August 15 he received a coded letter from André with Clinton's final offer: £20,000, and no indemnification for his losses. Due to difficulties in getting the messages across the lines, neither side knew for some days that the other was in agreement to that offer. Arnold's letters continued to detail Washington's troop movements and provide information about French reinforcements that were being organized. On August 25, Peggy finally delivered to him Clinton's agreement to the terms.
Washington, in assigning Arnold to the command at West Point, also gave him authority over the entire American-controlled Hudson River, from Albany down to the British lines outside New York City. While en route to West Point, Arnold renewed an acquaintance with Joshua Hett Smith, someone Arnold knew had done spy work for both sides, and who owned a house near the western bank of the Hudson just south of West Point.
Once he established himself at West Point, Arnold began systematically weakening its defenses and military strength. Needed repairs on the chain across the Hudson were never ordered. Troops were liberally distributed within Arnold's command area (but only minimally at West Point itself), or furnished to Washington on request. He also peppered Washington with complaints about the lack of supplies, writing, "Everything is wanting". At the same time, he tried to drain West Point's supplies, so that a siege would be more likely to succeed. His subordinates, some of whom were long-time associates, grumbled about unnecessary distribution of supplies, and eventually concluded that Arnold was selling some of the supplies on the black market for personal gain. A French map of West Point in 1780
On August 30, Arnold sent a letter accepting Clinton's terms and proposing a meeting to André through yet another intermediary: William Heron, a member of the Connecticut Assembly he thought he could trust. Heron, in a comic twist, went into New York unaware of the significance of the letter, and offered his own services to the British as a spy. He then took the letter back to Connecticut, where, suspicious of Arnold's actions, he delivered it to the head of the Connecticut militia. General Parsons, seeing a letter written as a coded business discussion, laid it aside. Four days later, Arnold sent a ciphered letter with similar content into New York through the services of a prisoner-of-war's wife. Eventually, a meeting was set for September 11 near Dobb's Ferry. This meeting was thwarted when British gunboats in the river, not having been informed of his impending arrival, fired on his boat. Plot exposed
Arnold and André finally met on September 21 at Joshua Hett Smith's house. On the morning of September 22, James Livingston, the colonel in charge of the outpost at Verplanck's Point, fired on HMS Vulture, the ship that was intended to carry André back to New York. This action did sufficient damage that she was retreated downriver, forcing André to return to New York overland. Arnold wrote out passes for André so that he would be able to pass through the lines, and also gave him plans for West Point. On Saturday, September 23, André was captured, near Tarrytown, by three Westchester patriots named John Paulding, Isaac Van Wart and David Williams; the papers exposing the plot to capture West Point were found and sent to Washington, and Arnold's treachery came to light after Washington examined them. Meanwhile, André convinced the unsuspecting commanding officer to whom he was delivered, Colonel John Jameson, to send him back to Arnold at West Point. However, Major Benjamin Tallmadge, a member of Washington's secret service, insisted Jameson order the prisoner intercepted and brought back. Jameson reluctantly recalled the lieutenant delivering André into Arnold's custody, but then sent the same lieutenant as a messenger to notify Arnold of André's arrest.
Arnold learned of André's capture the following morning, September 24, when he received Jameson's message that André was in his custody and that the papers André was carrying had been sent to General Washington. Arnold received Jameson's letter while waiting for Washington, with whom he had planned to have breakfast. He made all haste to the shore and ordered bargemen to row him downriver to where the Vulture was anchored, which then took him to New York. From the ship Arnold wrote a letter to Washington, requesting that Peggy be given safe passage to her family in Philadelphia, a request Washington granted. When presented with evidence of Arnold's betrayal, it is reported that Washington was calm. He did, however, investigate the extent of the betrayal, and suggested in negotiations with General Clinton over the fate of Major André that he was willing to exchange André for Arnold. This suggestion Clinton refused; after a military tribunal, André was hanged at Tappan, New York on October 2. Washington also infiltrated men into New York in an attempt to kidnap Arnold; this plan, which very nearly succeeded, failed when Arnold changed living quarters prior to sailing for Virginia in December.
Arnold attempted to justify his actions in an open letter titled To the Inhabitants of America, published in newspapers in October 1780. In the letter to Washington requesting safe passage for Peggy, he wrote that "Love to my country actuates my present conduct, however it may appear inconsistent to the world, who very seldom judge right of any man's actions." After switching sides British Army service Main article: Military career of Benedict Arnold, 1781
The British gave Arnold a brigadier general's commission with an annual income of several hundred pounds, but only paid him £6,315 plus an annual pension of £360 because his plot failed. In December 1780, under orders from Clinton, Arnold led a force of 1,600 troops into Virginia, where he captured Richmond by surprise and then went on a rampage through Virginia, destroying supply houses, foundries, and mills. This activity brought Virginia's militia out, and Arnold eventually retreated to Portsmouth to either be evacuated or reinforced. The pursuing American army included the Marquis de Lafayette, who was under orders from Washington to summarily hang Arnold if he was captured. Reinforcements led by William Phillips (who served under Burgoyne at Saratoga) arrived in late March, and Phillips led further raids across Virginia, including a defeat of Baron von Steuben at Petersburg, until his death of fever on May 12, 1781. Arnold commanded the army only until May 20, when Lord Cornwallis arrived with the southern army and took over. One colonel wrote to Clinton of Arnold, "there are many officers who must wish some other general in command". Cornwallis ignored advice proffered by Arnold to locate a permanent base away from the coast that might have averted his later surrender at Yorktown. General Sir Henry Clinton
On his return to New York in June, Arnold made a variety of proposals for continuing to attack essentially economic targets in order to force the Americans to end the war. Clinton, however, was not interested in most of Arnold's aggressive ideas, but finally relented and authorized Arnold to raid the port of New London, Connecticut. On September 4, not long after the birth of his and Peggy's second son, Arnold's force of over 1,700 men raided and burned New London and captured Fort Griswold, causing damage estimated at $500,000. British casualties were high—nearly one quarter of the force was killed or wounded, a rate at which Clinton claimed he could ill afford more such victories.
Even before Cornwallis' surrender in October, Arnold had requested permission from Clinton to go to England to give Lord Germain his thoughts on the war in person. When word of the surrender reached New York, Arnold renewed the request, which Clinton then granted. On December 8, 1781, Arnold and his family left New York for England. In London he aligned himself with the Tories, advising Germain and King George III to renew the fight against the Americans. In the House of Commons, Edmund Burke expressed the hope that the government would not put Arnold "at the head of a part of a British army" lest "the sentiments of true honor, which every British officer [holds] dearer than life, should be afflicted." To Arnold's detriment the anti-war Whigs had gotten the upper hand in Parliament, and Germain was forced to resign, with the government of Lord North falling not long after.
Arnold then applied to accompany General Carleton, who was going to New York to replace Clinton as commander-in-chief; this request went nowhere. Other attempts to gain positions within the government or the British East India Company over the next few years all failed, and he was forced to subsist on the reduced pay of non-wartime service. His reputation also came under criticism in the British press, especially when compared to that of Major André, who was celebrated for his patriotism. One particularly harsh critic said that he was a "mean mercenary, who, having adopted a cause for the sake of plunder, quits it when convicted of that charge." In turning him down for an East India Company posting, George Johnstone wrote, "Although I am satisfied with the purity of your conduct, the generality do not think so. While this is the case, no power in this country could suddenly place you in the situation you aim at under the East India Company." New business opportunities Arnold duellist, the Earl of Lauderdale, portrait by Thomas Gainsborough
In 1785 Arnold and his son Richard moved to Saint John, New Brunswick, where they speculated in land, and established a business doing trade with the West Indies. Arnold purchased large tracts of land in the Maugerville area, and acquired city lots in Saint John and Fredericton. Delivery of his first ship, the Lord Sheffield, was accompanied by accusations from the builder that Arnold had cheated him; Arnold claimed that he had merely deducted the contractually agreed amount when the ship was delivered late. After her first voyage, Arnold returned to London in 1786 to bring his family to Saint John. While there he disentangled himself from a lawsuit over an unpaid debt that Peggy had been fighting while he was away, paying £900 to settle a £12,000 loan he had taken while living in Philadelphia. The family moved to Saint John in 1787, where Arnold created an uproar with a series of bad business deals and petty lawsuits. Following the most serious, a slander suit he won against a former business partner, townspeople burned him in effigy in front of his house as Peggy and the children watched. The family left Saint John to return to London in December 1791.
In July 1792 he fought a bloodless duel with the Earl of Lauderdale after the Earl impugned his honor in the House of Lords. With the outbreak of the French Revolution Arnold outfitted a privateer, while continuing to do business in the West Indies, even though the hostilities increased the risk. He was imprisoned by French authorities on Guadeloupe amid accusations of spying for the British, and narrowly eluded hanging by escaping to the blockading British fleet after bribing his guards. He helped organize militia forces on British-held islands, receiving praise from the landowners for his efforts on their behalf. This work, which he hoped would earn him wider respect and a new command, instead earned him and his sons a land grant of 15,000 acres (6,100 ha) in Upper Canada, near present-day Renfrew, Ontario. Death
In January 1801 Arnold's health began to decline. Gout, which he had suffered since 1775, attacked his unwounded leg to the point where he was unable to go to sea; the other ached constantly, and he walked only with a cane. His doctors diagnosed him as having dropsy, and a visit to the countryside only temporarily improved his condition. He died after four days of delirium, on June 14, 1801, at the age of 60. Legend has it that when he was on his deathbed he said, "Let me die in this old uniform in which I fought my battles. May God forgive me for ever having put on another," but this may be apocryphal. Arnold was buried at St. Mary's Church, Battersea in London, England. As a result of a clerical error in the parish records, his remains were removed to an unmarked mass grave during church renovations a century later. His funeral procession boasted "seven mourning coaches and four state carriages"; the funeral was without military honors.
He left a small estate, reduced in size by his debts, which Peggy undertook to clear. Among his bequests were considerable gifts to one John Sage, who turned out to be an illegitimate son conceived during his time in New Brunswick. Demonization
Arnold's contributions to American independence are largely underrepresented in popular culture, while his name became synonymous with traitor in the 19th century. The demonization of Arnold began immediately after his betrayal became public. Biblical themes were often invoked; Benjamin Franklin wrote that "Judas sold only one man, Arnold three millions", and Alexander Scammel described Arnold's actions as "black as hell". An 1865 political cartoon depicting Jefferson Davis and Benedict Arnold in Hell
Early biographers attempted to describe Arnold's entire life in terms of treacherous or morally questionable behavior. The first major biography of Arnold, The Life and Treason of Benedict Arnold, published in 1832 by historian Jared Sparks, was particularly harsh in showing how Arnold's treacherous character was allegedly formed out of childhood experiences. George Canning Hill, who authored a series of moralistic biographies in the mid-19th century, began his 1865 biography of Arnold "Benedict, the Traitor, was born ...". Social historian Brian Carso notes that as the 19th century progressed, the story of Arnold's betrayal took on near-mythic proportions as a part of the national creation story, and was again invoked as sectional conflicts leading up the American Civil War increased. Washington Irving used it as part of an argument against dismemberment of the union in his 1857 Life of George Washington, pointing out that only the unity of New England and the southern states that led to independence was made possible in part by holding West Point. Jefferson Davis and other southern secessionist leaders were unfavorably compared to Arnold, implicitly and explicitly likening the idea of secession to treason. Harper's Weekly published an article in 1861 describing Confederate leaders as "a few men directing this colossal treason, by whose side Benedict Arnold shines white as a saint."
Fictional invocations of Arnold's name also carried strongly negative overtones. A moralistic children's tale entitled "The Cruel Boy" was widely circulated in the 19th century. It described a boy who stole eggs from birds' nests, pulled wings off insects, and engaged in other sorts of wanton cruelty, who then grew up to become a traitor to his country. The boy is not identified until the end of the story, when his place of birth is given as Norwich, Connecticut, and his name is given as Benedict Arnold. However, not all depictions of Arnold were strongly negative. Some theatrical treatments of the 19th century explored his duplicity, seeking to understand rather than demonize it.
The connection between Arnold and treason continued into the 20th and 21st centuries. On an episode of The Brady Bunch, Everyone Can't Be George Washington, after Peter is assigned the role of Arnold in the school play, everyone hates him. A line by the comically insincere character Sir in the 1965 Broadway musical The Roar of the Greasepaint – The Smell of the Crowd, who often declares his integrity with references to entirely untrustworthy individuals which his foil Cocky does not understand, declares, "God knows I'm not perfect, Cocky, but by the unswerving loyalties of Benedict Arnold, I do believe in forgiving a friend." In a recent reference, Dan Gilbert, owner of the National Basketball Association's Cleveland Cavaliers, subtly invoked Arnold in 2010. Upset over the manner in which LeBron James announced his departure from the team, Gilbert's company lowered the price of posters bearing James's likeness to $17.41, referring to the year of Arnold's birth.
Novelistic treatments of the revolution sometimes feature Arnold as a character. One notable treatment, depicting Arnold in a generally positive light, is in a series of books by Kenneth Roberts covering many of the campaigns in which he participated:
* Arundel (1929) – The American Revolution through the Battle of Quebec * Rabble in Arms (1933) – The American Revolution through the Battles of Saratoga * Oliver Wiswell (1940) – The American Revolution from a Loyalist's perspective
Family Peggy Shippen Arnold and daughter, by Sir Thomas Lawrence
During his marriage to Margaret Mansfield, Arnold had the following children:
Benedict Arnold VI (1768–1795) (captain in the British Army, killed in action) Richard Arnold (1769–1847) Henry Arnold (1772–1826)
and with Peggy Shippen, he raised a family active in British military service:
Edward Shippen Arnold (1780–1813) (lieutenant) James Robertson Arnold (1781–1854) (lieutenant general) George Arnold (1787–1828) (lieutenant colonel) Sophia Matilda Arnold (1785–1828) William Fitch Arnold (1794–1846) (captain)
Tributes The Boot Monument at Saratoga
On the battlefield at Saratoga, now preserved in Saratoga National Historical Park, stands a monument in memorial to Arnold, but there is no mention of his name on the engraving. Donated by Civil War General John Watts DePeyster, the inscription on the Boot Monument reads: "In memory of the most brilliant soldier of the Continental army, who was desperately wounded on this spot, winning for his countrymen the decisive battle of the American Revolution, and for himself the rank of Major General." The victory monument at Saratoga has four niches, three of which are occupied by statues of Generals Gates, Schuyler, and Morgan. The fourth niche is empty.
On the grounds of the United States Military Academy at West Point there are plaques commemorating all of the generals that served in the Revolution. One plaque bears only a rank, "major general" and a date, "born 1740", and no name.
The house at 62 Gloucester Place where Arnold lived in central London still stands, bearing a plaque that describes Arnold as an "American Patriot".
The church where Arnold was buried, St. Mary's Church, Battersea, England, has a commemorative stained-glass window which was added between 1976 and 1982.
In the Faculty Club at the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, there is a Benedict Arnold Room. This had framed original letters written by Arnold hanging on the walls. See also
* Jane Teurs * John Champe (soldier)
1. ^ a b c Brandt (1994), p. 4 2. ^ a b Arnold's birth records indicate that he was born January 3, 1740 (Vital Records of Norwich (1913)). Because of the change from Julian to Gregorian calendar and the change of the beginning of the year from March 25 to January 1, Arnold's date of birth is recorded in the Gregorian calendar as January 11, 1741. 3. ^ a b Martin (1997) 4. ^ a b c d Fahey 5. ^ Rogets (2008) 6. ^ Brandt (1994), pp. 5–6 7. ^ Price (1984), pp. 38–39 8. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 6 9. ^ a b Brandt (1994), p. 7 10. ^ Flexner (1953), p. 7 11. ^ Flexner (1953), p. 8 12. ^ Randall (1990), p. 32 13. ^ Murphy (2007), p. 18 14. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 8 15. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 10 16. ^ Flexner (1953), p. 13 17. ^ Murphy (2007), p. 38 18. ^ Roth (1995), p. 75 19. ^ Flexner (1953), p. 17 20. ^ Randall (1990), p. 46 21. ^ Randall (1990), p. 49 22. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 52–53 23. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 56–60 24. ^ a b Randall (1990), p. 62 25. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 14 26. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 38 27. ^ Randall (1990), p. 64 28. ^ Randall (1990), p. 68 29. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 78–132 30. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 131–228 31. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 228–320 32. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 318–323 33. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 262–264 34. ^ Howe (1848), pp. 4–6 35. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 323–325 36. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 324–327 37. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 118 38. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 332–334 39. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 339–342 40. ^ Martin (1997), pp. 364–367 41. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 346–348 42. ^ Randall (1990), p. 360 43. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 350–368 44. ^ Randall (1990), p. 372 45. ^ Palmer (2006), p. 256 46. ^ Brandt (1994), pp. 141–146 47. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 147 48. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 146 49. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 148–149 50. ^ a b Martin (1997), p. 428 51. ^ Randall (1990), p. 420 52. ^ Edward Shippen biography 53. ^ Randall (1990), p. 448 54. ^ Randall (1990), p. 455 55. ^ Randall (1990), p. 456 56. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 456–457 57. ^ Randall (1990), p. 457 58. ^ Randall (1990), p. 463 59. ^ Randall (1990), p. 464 60. ^ Randall (1990), p. 474 61. ^ Randall (1990), p. 476 62. ^ Randall (1990), p. 477 63. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 482–483 64. ^ Brandt (1994), pp. 181–182 65. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 486–492 66. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 492–494 67. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 190 68. ^ Randall (1990), p. 497 69. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 497–499 70. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 503–504 71. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 506–507 72. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 505–508 73. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 508–509 74. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 511–512 75. ^ Randall (1990), p. 517–518 76. ^ a b Randall (1990), pp. 522–523 77. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 524–526 78. ^ Randall (1990), p. 533 79. ^ Lossing (1852), pp. 151–156 80. ^ Carl Van Doren (1969). Secret History of the American Revolution. Popular Library. p. 340. LCCN 41-24478. 81. ^ Lossing (1852), pp. 187–189 82. ^ Rowan, Richard Wilmer (1967). Secret Service: 33 Centuries of Espionage. Hawthorn Books Inc.. pp. 140, 145. LCCN 66-15344. 83. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 220 84. ^ Lossing (1852), p. 159 85. ^ a b Arnold to Washington, September 25, 1780 86. ^ a b c d e f Lomask (1967) 87. ^ Lossing (1852), pp. 160, 197–210 88. ^ Carso (2006), p. 153 89. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 582–583 90. ^ a b Randall (1990) 91. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 585–591 92. ^ Randall (1990), p. 589 93. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 252 94. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 253 95. ^ a b c Brandt (1994), p. 255 96. ^ Brandt (1994), pp. 257–259 97. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 257 98. ^ a b Randall (1990), pp. 599–600 99. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 261 100. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 262 101. ^ "Benedict Arnold and Monson Hayt fonds.". UNB Archives. Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada: University of New Brunswick. 26 September 2001. http://www.lib.unb.ca/archives/finding/arnold.html. Retrieved 7 December 2009. "However, Arnold created an uproar within the small community of Saint John when his firm launched several suits against its debtors, and Arnold himself sued Edward Winslow in 1789." 102. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 263 103. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 264 104. ^ Wilson (2001), p. 223 105. ^ Brandt (1994), p. 42 106. ^ Johnson (1915) 107. ^ Randall (1990), pp. 612–613 108. ^ a b Randall (1990), p. 613 109. ^ Carso (2006), p. 154 110. ^ a b Carso (2006), p. 155 111. ^ Hill (1865), p. 10 112. ^ Carso (2006), pp. 168–170 113. ^ Carso (2006), p. 201 114. ^ Carso (2006), pp. 157–159 115. ^ Carso (2006), pp. 170–171 116. ^ Episode summary: Everyone Can't Be George Washington 117. ^ Cleveland Cavaliers (2010-07-08). "Open Letter to Fans from Cavaliers Majority Owner Dan Gilbert". Press release. http://www.nba.com/cavaliers/news/grant_statement_100708.html. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 118. ^ "Fathead suggests LeBron is the new Benedict Arnold". USA Today. 2010-07-08. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/gameon/post/2010/07/lebron-james-fathead-dan-gilbert-benedict-arnold/1. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 119. ^ Randall (1990), p. 610 120. ^ The New England Register 1880, pp. 196–197 121. ^ Saratoga National Historical Park - Tour Stop 7 122. ^ Saratoga National Historical Park - Activities 123. ^ Blue and Green Plaques 124. ^ "St. Mary's Church Parish website". http://home.clara.net/pkennington/VirtualTour/windows_modern.htm#Arnold. "St Mary's Modern Stained Glass"
* Arnold, Benedict (1780-09-25). "Letter, Benedict Arnold to George Washington pleading for mercy for his wife". Library of Congress (George Washington Papers). http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mcc:@field(DOCID+@lit(mcc/054)). Retrieved 2007-12-14. * Brandt, Clare (1994). The Man in the Mirror: A Life of Benedict Arnold. New York: Random House. ISBN 0679401067. * Carso, Brian F (2006). "Whom can we trust now?": the meaning of treason in the United States, from the Revolution through the Civil War. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739112564. OCLC 63692586. * Desjardin, Thomas A (2006). Through a Howling Wilderness: Benedict Arnold's March to Quebec, 1775. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-33904-6. * Fahey, Curtis (2000). "Biography of Benedict Arnold". Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online. http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=2241. Retrieved 2007-12-09. * Flexner, James Thomas (1953). The traitor and the spy: Benedict Arnold and John André. New York: Harcourt Brace. OCLC 426158. * Hill, George Canning (1865). Benedict Arnold. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott. OCLC 22419760. http://books.google.com/?id=aKDPj4Y5hd0C&dq=Benedict%20Arnold%20Hill&pg=PA12. * Johnson, Clifton (1915). "The Picturesque Hudson". MacMillan. http://www.kellscraft.com/PicturesqueHudson/PicturesqueHudson08.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08. * Howe, Archibald (1908). Colonel John Brown, of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, the Brave Accuser of Benedict Arnold. Boston: W. B. Clarke. http://www.scribd.com/doc/2381381/Colonel-John-Brown-of-Pittsfield-Massachusetts-the-Brave-Accuser-of-Benedict-Arnold-by-Howe-Archibald-Murray-1848. Retrieved 2009-05-14. * Lomask, Milton (October 1967). "Benedict Arnold: The Aftermath of Treason". American Heritage Magazine. http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1967/6/1967_6_16.shtml. * Lossing, Benson John (1852). The Pictorial Field-book of the Revolution. Harper & Brothers. http://books.google.com/?id=ZmQsAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA160&lpg=RA1-PA160&dq=washington+%22whom+can+we+trust+now%22+arnold. * Martin, James Kirby (1997). Benedict Arnold: Revolutionary Hero (An American Warrior Reconsidered). New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-5560-7. (This book is primarily about Arnold's service on the American side in the Revolution, giving overviews of the periods before the war and after he changes sides.) * Morrissey, Brendan (2000). Saratoga 1777: Turning Point of a Revolution. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781855328624. * Murphy, Jim (2007). The Real Benedict Arnold. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. ISBN 9780395776094. OCLC 85018164. http://books.google.com/?id=zKRMKajh1PUC&pg=PA38. Retrieved 2009-04-01. * Nelson, James L. (2006). Benedict Arnold's Navy: The Ragtag Fleet that Lost the Battle of Lake Champlain But Won the American Revolution. Camden, Maine: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 9780071468060. * New England Historic Genealogical Society (1996). The New England Register 1880. Heritage Books. ISBN 9780788404313. OCLC 0788404318. http://books.google.com/?id=PKDwX9lpNrUC&lpg=PA196&dq=%22Richard%20Arnold%22%20Margaret%20Canada&pg=PA196. * Price, Richard (1984). John Lothropp: A Puritan Biography And Genealogy. Salt Lake City. * Randall, Willard Sterne (1990). Benedict Arnold: Patriot and Traitor. William Morrow and Inc. ISBN 1-55710-034-90. This book is a comprehensive biography, and goes into great detail about Arnold's part in military operations in Quebec, as well as much of the behind-the-scenes political and military wrangling and infighting that occurred prior to his defection. It also includes detailed accounts of his negotiations with André and Clinton. * Roth, Philip A. (1995 (first published 1927)). Masonry in the Formation of Our Government 1761–1799. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 9781564595270. OCLC 48996481. http://books.google.com/?id=eVPqnnOEhp8C&pg=PA75. Retrieved 2009-04-01. * Smith, Justin Harvey (1903). Arnold's March from Cambridge to Quebec. New York: G. P. Putnams Sons. OCLC 1013608. http://books.google.com/?id=vlU06ifA9ZEC. This book includes a reprint of Arnold's diary of his march. * Smith, Justin Harvey (1907). Our Struggle for the Fourteenth Colony: Canada, and the American Revolution, Volume 1. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. OCLC 259236. http://books.google.com/?id=Ls9BAAAAIAAJ. * Wilson, Barry K (2001). Benedict Arnold: A Traitor in Our Midst. McGill Queens Press. ISBN 077352150X. This book is about Arnold's time in Canada both before and after his treachery. * "Blue and Green Plaques". The Portman Estate. http://www.portmanestate.co.uk/heritage/plaques.html. Retrieved 2009-05-23. * "Edward Shippen (1729–1806)". University of Pennsylvania. http://www.archives.upenn.edu/people/1700s/shippen_ed.html. Retrieved 2009-07-08. * Roget's 21st Century Thesaurus, Third Edition. Philip Lief Group. 2008. http://dictionary.classic.reference.com/browse/traitor. Retrieved 2009-06-04. * "Saratoga National Historical Park - Activities". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/archive/sara/s-act.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-09. * "Saratoga National Historical Park - Tour Stop 7". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/archive/sara/tour-7.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-23. * Vital Records of Norwich, 1659–1848. Norwich, CT: Hartford: Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. 1913. pp. 153. OCLC 1850353. http://books.google.com/?id=QPULAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved 2008-01-25.
* Roberts, Kenneth (1995 (first published 1929)). Arundel. Camden, ME: Down East Enterprise. ISBN 9780892723645. OCLC 32347225. * Roberts, Kenneth (1996 (first published 1933)). Rabble in Arms. Camden, ME: Down East Enterprise. ISBN 9780892723867. OCLC 34651615. * Roberts, Kenneth (1999 (first published 1940)). Oliver Wiswell. Camden, ME: Down East Enterprise. ISBN 9780892724680. OCLC 40668330. * Sparks, Jared (1835). The Life and Treason of Benedict Arnold. Boston: Hilliard, Gray. OCLC 2294719. http://books.google.com/?id=FHIFAAAAQAAJ. * Todd, Charles Burr (1903). The Real Benedict Arnold. New York: A.S. Barnes. OCLC 1838934. http://books.google.com/?id=C8R2AAAAMAAJ&dq=Benedict%20Arnold%20Todd&pg=PP7.
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* Wiktionary-logo-en.svg The Wiktionary definition of benedict arnold
* Wikiquote logo Quotations related to Benedict Arnold at Wikiquote * Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Arnold, Benedict". Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press. * Wikisource-logo.svg John Fiske (1900). "Arnold, Benedict (soldier)". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. * Wikisource-logo.svg "Arnold, Benedict". The New Student's Reference Work. Chicago: F. E. Compton and Co.. 1914. * Some details from ushistory.org * Biographical sketch by a contemporary, reflecting American sentiment towards Arnold * Benedict Arnold's Portraits * usahistory site includes details on Arnold's escape * Resort located on Arnold's trail to Quebec City * The original proclamation accusing Benedict Arnold of High Treason from the Pennsylvania Archives * Virtual Tour of burial site - Stained glass * 1894 NY Times article * Benedict Arnold Letters * Arnold's Treason from Thrilling Incidents in American History
-------------------- Benedict Arnold was born on January 14, 1741 in Norwich, Connecticut. Arnold was one of a number of Benedict Arnolds including an early governor of Rhode Island and his father. Arnold's mother was Hannah Waterman King, a wealthy widow, before her marriage to the elder Arnold. The family fortunes were well for a while, however some poor business deals caused some financial problems for the family. Arnold's father turned to the local taverns for solace. Arnold attended school at Canterbury. While there, some of his siblings died from the Yellow Fever.
Without money, Benedict Arnold was withdrawn from school. Arnold was young, full of energy and willing to try and do anything. With the lack of the structure of the school regime, and lax parental control, Arnold was often in trouble. His mother finally found help in the form of family: cousins Daniel and Joshua Lathrop took Arnold in as an apprentice to their large and successful apothecary business. He left his apprenticeship a couple of times to join the army for periods of time during the French and Indian War, but remained in the employ of his cousins for years.
Arnold's mother died in 1759, and his father followed his wife in death two years later. After leaving the apprenticeship, Arnold traveled to Europe, buying supplies for his own apothecary which he established in New Haven. The only surviving member of his immediate family was Hannah, his sister, and she became his assistant. His business dealings drifted into smuggling...in contempt of the customs laws of the Crown.
Margaret Mansfield became the bride of Benedict Arnold in 1767. They had three sons. Prior to the official outbreak of war, Arnold became a Captain in the Governor's Second Company of Guards. When the word spread of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, Arnold marched off to the action with his troop. He was eager for action and at Cambridge he requested permission of the Massachusetts Committee of Safety to capture Ft. Ticonderoga.
Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys were as equally eager to capture such a prize and the two groups met up with each other at Bennington. Arnold was surprised and a little angered because Ethan Allen did not care if Arnold had permission from the Committee of Safety and Arnold couldn't talk Allen out of relinquishing command. Arnold had to concede to accompanying Allen and his rowdy, rough and tumble fighters. On May 10, they surprised the British garrison and the Green Mountain Boys celebrated by invading the rum stores of the British and getting totally sloshed. They virtually ignored Benedict Arnold except when they were teasing and jeering him. Arnold had an argument with Colonel Easton, who was to deliver the missive announcing the victory of the capture to Massachusetts...which doesn't make it surprising that Arnold spent time with the captured enemy officers than his fellow countrymen.
Arnold eventually gained some control by way of his sailing experience, however he and Allen really never could see things the same way...except for the essential need of an invasion of Canada. Easton returned from his mission to Massachusetts while Arnold and Allen were planning the Canadian Invasion. Easton had done his best to diminish Arnold's participation in the capture of Ticonderoga and the two were arguing once more. Arnold challenged him to a duel and Easton refused. When the fight got physical, Allen and Easton both left. He proceeded with his own plans, but soon a Massachusetts Committee commanded him to place himself under Colonel Benjamin Hinman. With his quick temper, he immediately dismissed all his troops after resigning his commission. He was not any happier when he found out his men had been recruited by his nemesis, Colonel Easton. Completely affronted, he went to Albany and there sent off a statement of the situation at Ticonderoga to Continental Congress.
His experiences in the North were not very happy ones, and while his own behavior was not exemplary in any fashion, he still had the right to feel angry over the his treatment by the other men. He had been caught in the middle of the political machinations of Connecticut and Massachusetts, both vying for the kudos of the accomplishment of the capture of the British stores at Fort Ticonderoga. When Massachusetts acquiesced to Connecticut's preeminence in the territory, Arnold most certainly felt abandoned.
After the illness of his wife, and succumbing to a bout of gout himself, Arnold traveled to Cambridge to settle up his accounts with the Massachusetts Committee of Safety. There, he again received shabby treatment and was given only a small portion of his expenses, no where near his total bill. Piqued, he turned the accounting over to Silas Deane, who in turn presented them to the Continental Congress, and he was finally repaid the balance of the account.
The Canadian invasion plans were still in the works and it was George Washington who proposed the name of Benedict Arnold to the Continental Congress. He was commissioned a Colonel, and began to implement his plans. Arnold was given pretty much a free hand by General Schuyler and enjoyed his independence. The subsequent wilderness march is one the examples of the incredible stamina and daring these men had. It will remain a very important American military feat for ages.
Washington had placed a great deal of trust in Arnold and he solidly backed that trust. However, the weather conditions due to the lateness of the season would present a problem for Arnold and his men. The terrain was difficult and rocky and the water supplies were not adequate due to the severe rainfall. A letter from Arnold to Schuyler was given to a trustworthy Indian scout who ended up not to be so trustworthy. It was placed into the hands of the British.
Arnold was zealous and encouraging, but the conditions were hard. Some of
Maj. Gen. Benedict Arnold, V's Timeline
January 14, 1741
Norwich, New London, Connecticut, USA
February 27, 1767
February 14, 1768
New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut, USA
August 22, 1769
New Haven, CT, USA
September 19, 1772
NEWHAVEN, CT, USA
April 8, 1779
March 19, 1780
Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
August 28, 1781
Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
July 28, 1785
Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA