Philip John Schuyler (1733 - 1804) MP

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Birthdate:
Birthplace: Menands, Albany, New York, United States
Death: Died in Albany, Albany, New York, United States
Occupation: General in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York, Major General
Managed by: Clarice Nykorchuck
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About Philip John Schuyler

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_John_Schuyler

Philip John Schuyler (November 20, 1733 – November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. He is usually known as Philip Schuyler, while his son is usually known as Philip J. Schuyler.

Early life

Philip Schuyler was born in Albany, New York, on November 20, 1733, to a wealthy colonial family. His family had gradually expanded their holdings and influence in the New World. His father, John Schuyler, Jr., was the third generation of the family in America, when he married Cornelia Van Cortlandt, connecting them with another prominent family. (A cousin of John Schuyler, Jr., was Peter Schuyler who commanded the Jersey Blues. Another Cousin of Philip Schuyler, Hester Schuyler, married William Colfax, a veteran of George Washington's Life Guards and later a general in the New Jersey militia who also commanded the Jersey Blues {These were also the grandparents of Congressman Schuyler Colfax}. A nephew of Peter Schuyler was Loyalist Arent Schuyler De Peyster. A brother-in-law of Philip Schuyler was Director General of the Military Hospitals of the Continental Army, Dr. John Cochran (military physician).

Philip's father died on the eve of his seventh birthday. After attending the public school at Albany he was educated by tutors at the Van Cortlandt family estate at New Rochelle. He joined the British forces in 1755 during the French and Indian War, raised a company, and was commissioned as its Captain by his cousin, Lt. Governor James Delancey. Later in that war, he served as a quartermaster, purchasing supplies and organizing equipment.

In September of 1755, he married Catherine Van Rensselaer (1734-1803) at Albany. This cemented his relationship with another powerful New York family. Although the marriage was urgent (their first daughter Angelica was born in February, 1756), they were a devoted couple for the rest of their lives, and had fifteen children.

From 1761 to 1762, Schuyler made a trip to England to settle accounts from his work as quartermaster. During this time his home in Albany, later called Schuyler Mansion, was built. His country estate at Saratoga (which is now Schuylerville, New York) was also begun. After the war he also expanded his estate at Saratoga, expanding his holdings to tens of thousands of acres, adding slaves, tenant farmers, a store, mills for flour, flax, and lumber. His flax mill for the making of linen was the first one in America. If they had been situated in the South, Schuyler's holdings at Saratoga would have been called a plantation. He built several schooners on the Hudson River, and named the first Saratoga.

Schuyler began his political career as a member of the New York Assembly in 1768, and served in that body until 1775. During this time his views came to be more opposed to the colonial government. He was particularly outspoken in matters of trade and currency. He was also made a Colonel in the militia for his support of governor Henry Moore.

Revolutionary War

Schuyler was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775, and served until he was appointed a Major General of the Continental Army in June. General Schuyler took command of the Northern Department, and planned the Invasion of Canada (1775). His poor health required him to place Richard Montgomery in command of the invasion.

As department commanding General, he was active in preparing a defense against the Saratoga Campaign, part of the "Three Pronged Attack" strategy of the British to cut the American Colonies in two by invading and occupying New York State in 1777. In the summer of that year General John Burgoyne marched his British army south from Quebec over the valleys of Lakes Champlain and George. On the way he invested the small Colonial garrison occupying Fort Ticonderoga at the nexus of the two lakes. When General St. Clair surrendered Fort Ticonderoga in July, the Congress replaced Schuyler with General Horatio Gates, who had accused Schuyler of dereliction of duty.

The British invasion was eventually stopped and defeated at the Battle of Saratoga by Continental forces then under the command of Gates and Benedict Arnold. That victory, the first wholesale defeat of a large British army at the hands of the former colonials, brought France into the war on the American side. When Schuyler demanded a court martial to answer Gates' charges, he was vindicated but resigned from the army on April 19, 1779. He then served in two more sessions of the Continental Congress in 1779 and 1780.

Later career

He was a member of the New York State Senate from 1780 to 1784, and at the same time New York State Surveyor General from 1781 to 1784. Afterwards he returned to the State Senate from 1786 to 1790, where he actively supported the adoption of the United States Constitution.

In 1789, he was elected a U.S. Senator from New York to the First United States Congress, serving from July 27, 1789, to March 4, 1791. After losing his bid for re-election in 1791, he returned to the State Senate from 1792 to 1797. In 1797, he was elected again to the U.S. Senate and served in the 5th United States Congress from March 4, 1797 until his resignation because of ill health on January 3, 1798.

Descendants

His daughter Elizabeth married Alexander Hamilton, who was later Secretary of the Treasury.

His son Philip Jeremiah Schuyler also had a political career and served in the United States House of Representatives.

Another daughter, Margarita, married a cousin Stephen Van Rensselaer III 8th Patroon of the name.

Angelica married John Barker Church Member of Parliament. Schuyler's family line continues; descendants of him and his children are living today.

Philip's country home had been destroyed by British General John Burgoyne's forces in September, 1777. Starting later that year, he rebuilt on the same site, now located in southern Schuylerville, New York. The 1777 home is maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Saratoga National Historical Park, and is open to the public.

Schuyler died at his mansion in Albany on November 18, 1804, and is buried in the Albany Rural Cemetery at Menands, New York. His mansion in Albany is maintained by New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation and is open to the public.Schuyler County, Illinois, and Schuyler County, New York, were named in his honor.

In 1833, construction of a fort began on the tip of the Throggs Neck peninsula in New York, to protect the western end of the Long Island Sound. The installation of armament was completed in 1856, and the fortification was named Fort Schuyler in his honor. Fort Schuyler now houses the Maritime Industry Museum and the State University of New York Maritime College.

Albany, New York erected a statue of Schuyler by sculptor J. Massey Rhind in 1925.

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Philip Schuyler was born in November 1733. He was the sixth child (and eldest surviving son) of Johannes and Cornelia Van Cortlandt Schuyler. He grew up at the Schuyler house in Albany and on the family farm at the Flats.

Losing his father on the eve of his seventh birthday and several uncles during the 1740s as well, the boy grew up with his younger brothers and was schooled at home. In 1748 he was sent to New Rochelle to be educated by Peter Stouppe - a French Protestant minister. By that time, he was being groomed to take over family leadership in the years to come. Returning home in 1751, Philip began to show symptoms of the gout and pleuresy that would plague him for the rest of his life. But that summer, he undertook a traditional rite of passage with a trip into the Mohawk country to experience the Indian trade.

During that decade he was counselled by and learned from two early American icons, his aunt Margarita Schuyler - who lived at the Flats, and John Bradstreet - a British officer in Albany to procure supplies and transport them to the frontier.

In September 1755, twenty-one-year-old Philip married Catherine Van Rensselaer, daughter of the Lower or Claverack manor. A few months later the first of their fifteen children was baptized in the Albany Dutch church - where both parents were prominent members. At that time, they were living with his mother in the large and rambling Schuyler house at Albany's main intersection.

In 1755, Philip was commissioned a Captain and empowered to raise a militia company that would build fortifications north of Albany. In 1756, he accompanied Bradstreet to Oswego where he learned the business of military supply and also experienced disillusionment when that outpost fell to the French.

Back home in Albany, in 1756 Schuyler was elected to the common council as assistant alderman for the first ward and was able to obtain the contract to operate the ferry that connected Albany with Greenbush. He also held a provincial appointment as commissioner of the excise (import tax) and procured supplies and provisions for Bradstreet as well.

Philip Schuyler returned to active service. As an officer in the British supply train, he took part in attack on Ticonderoga and in Bradstreet's capture of Fort Frontenac. Stationed for the most part at Albany, he served in Bradstreet's quartermaster's department for the remainder of the war.

By 1761, he had begun to gather resources that would enable him to build his own landed estate south of the Beaverkill that became Schuyler Mansion. But in March, Schuyler went to England to broker settlement of Bradstreet's quartermaster's accounts leaving his mentor with the Schuyler family and in charge of the actual construction of his new home. When he returned to Albany at the end of 1762, he found John Bradstreet living with his family in his new Georgian mansion.

Philip Schuyler was elected to the New York General Assembly in 1768. He served until that colonial body disbanded and was replaced by an extra-legal Provincial Congress in 1775. It was in the Assembly that Philip Schuyler began to emerge as a leader of the opposition to post-war British restrictions and strictures.

During that time, his business involved the harvesting of farm and forest products on his extensive Hudson Valley estates and shipping them to New York on his own sloops and schooner. Trading on his inherited real estate and family credit, by the eve of the Revolution, the forty-three-year-old American had emerged as one of the wealthiest landholders in the region. However, his success rested on already functional estates that needed more independent access to markets and resources to develop further. Thus, he had little trouble supporting the resistance activities that eventually made colonists into revolutionaries!

In June 1775, he was appointed one of the four Major Generals of the Continental army by the Continental Congress. He served until he was replaced in 1777 and finally resigned his commission in April 1779. He then returned to the Continental Congress.

He was selected to the New York State Senate in 1780 and was appointed one of the first two United States Senators for New York in 1788. He served until 1791 and later from 1797 to January 1798 when another attack of gout forced him to resign.

He died on November 18, 1804 and was buried in the Ten Broeck family vault. Later, his remains were removed to Albany Rural Cemetery and a large monument was erected. His will left an extensive estate to his many heirs!

General Philip Schuyler was the son of the most important early Albany family! He also was one of the wealthiest community residents with extensive client lists in Albany and throughout the region. He was the only Albany native of his day with a reputation beyond the region. However, he only held one Albany municipal office and much of his business was conducted beyond/away from the mainstream Albany commerical establishment. Much of his achievement was betond the parameters of his birthplace. That said, many things in the community today commemorate his life. Because so much community iconography is focused on him, Philip Schuyler is one of the best-known figures in early Albany history. Although his papers are scattered, they are voluminous and his life has been closely interpreted by several generations of historians. In the process, his story has been mixed (made interchangeable) with that of his home town. Our task is to place "the General" in his proper Albany perspective and not let his interesting, significant, and largely beyond Albany careers speak for the more complex stories of the growth and development of this early American city! --------------------

  • 'Calendar of wills on file and recorded in the offices of the clerk of the Court of appeals (1896)
  • http://www.archive.org/stream/calendarofwillso01fern#page/350/mode/1up
  • 1538 (S 67) 1758 Novbr. 29 1762 Novbr. 24
  • SCHUYLER, Cornelia, of Albany, widow of John. Sons Philipp, Cortlandt, Stephen, da. Geertruyd, widow of Peter Schuyler. Land in Cortlandt Manor, houses and lots in Queens Str., N. Y. City, personal property. Codicil of Aug. 26, 1760, gives legacy to children of da. Geertruyd, vizt. Cornelia and 'Peter Schuyler'. Witnesses to will Pr. Stuyvesant, John Stevenson and James Stevenson, both of Albany, merchants, who sign also as witnesses to codicil with William Ashton. Copy.
  • __________________
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_Schuyler
  • 'Philip John Schuyler (November 20, 1733 – November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. He is usually known as Philip Schuyler, while his son is usually known as Philip J. Schuyler.
  • Early life
  • 'Philip Schuyler was born in Albany, New York, on November 20, 1733, to a wealthy colonial family. His family had gradually expanded their holdings and influence in the New World. His father, John Schuyler, Jr., was the third generation of the family in America, when he married Cornelia Van Cortlandt, connecting them with another prominent family. (A cousin of John Schuyler, Jr., was Peter Schuyler who commanded the Jersey Blues. Another Cousin of Philip Schuyler, Hester Schuyler, married William Colfax, a veteran of George Washington's Life Guards and later a general in the New Jersey militia who also commanded the Jersey Blues {These were also the grandparents of Congressman Schuyler Colfax}. A nephew of Peter Schuyler was Loyalist Arent Schuyler De Peyster. A brother-in-law of Philip Schuyler was Director General of the Military Hospitals of the Continental Army, Dr. John Cochran (military physician).[1])
  • 'Philip's father died on the eve of his seventh birthday. After attending the public school at Albany he was educated by tutors at the Van Cortlandt family estate at New Rochelle. He joined the British forces in 1755 during the French and Indian War, raised a company, and was commissioned as its Captain by his cousin, Lt. Governor James Delancey. Later in that war, he served as a quartermaster, purchasing supplies and organizing equipment.
  • 'In September of 1755, he married Catherine Van Rensselaer[2] (1734-1803) at Albany. This cemented his relationship with another powerful New York family. Although the marriage was urgent (their first daughter Angelica was born in February, 1756), they were a devoted couple for the rest of their lives, and had fifteen children.
  • 'From 1761 to 1762, Schuyler made a trip to England to settle accounts from his work as quartermaster. During this time his home in Albany, later called Schuyler Mansion, was built. His country estate at Saratoga (which is now Schuylerville, New York) was also begun. After the war he also expanded his estate at Saratoga, expanding his holdings to tens of thousands of acres, adding slaves, tenant farmers, a store, mills for flour, flax, and lumber. His flax mill for the making of linen was the first one in America. If they had been situated in the South, Schuyler's holdings at Saratoga would have been called a plantation. He built several schooners on the Hudson River, and named the first Saratoga.
  • Schuyler began his political career as a member of the New York Assembly in 1768, and served in that body until 1775. During this time his views came to be more opposed to the colonial government. He was particularly outspoken in matters of trade and currency. He was also made a Colonel in the militia for his support of governor Henry Moore.
  • Revolutionary War
  • 'Schuyler was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775, and served until he was appointed a Major General of the Continental Army in June. General Schuyler took command of the Northern Department, and planned the Invasion of Canada (1775). His poor health required him to place Richard Montgomery in command of the invasion.
  • As department commanding General, he was active in preparing a defense against the Saratoga Campaign, part of the "Three Pronged Attack" strategy of the British to cut the American Colonies in two by invading and occupying New York State in 1777. In the summer of that year General John Burgoyne marched his British army south from Quebec over the valleys of Lakes Champlain and George. On the way he invested the small Colonial garrison occupying Fort Ticonderoga at the nexus of the two lakes. When General St. Clair surrendered Fort Ticonderoga in July, the Congress replaced Schuyler with General Horatio Gates, who had accused Schuyler of dereliction of duty.
  • The British invasion was eventually stopped and defeated at the Battle of Saratoga by Continental forces then under the command of Gates and Benedict Arnold. That victory, the first wholesale defeat of a large British army at the hands of the former colonials, brought France into the war on the American side. When Schuyler demanded a court martial to answer Gates' charges, he was vindicated but resigned from the army on April 19, 1779. He then served in two more sessions of the Continental Congress in 1779 and 1780.
  • Later career
  • He was a member of the New York State Senate from 1780 to 1784, and at the same time New York State Surveyor General from 1781 to 1784. Afterwards he returned to the State Senate from 1786 to 1790, where he actively supported the adoption of the United States Constitution.
  • In 1789, he was elected a U.S. Senator from New York to the First United States Congress, serving from July 27, 1789, to March 4, 1791. After losing his bid for re-election in 1791, he returned to the State Senate from 1792 to 1797. In 1797, he was elected again to the U.S. Senate and served in the 5th United States Congress from March 4, 1797 until his resignation because of ill health on January 3, 1798.
  • Descendants
  • His daughter Elizabeth married Alexander Hamilton, who was later Secretary of the Treasury.
  • His son Philip Jeremiah Schuyler also had a political career and served in the United States House of Representatives.
  • Another daughter, Margarita, married a cousin Stephen Van Rensselaer III 8th Patroon of the name.
  • Angelica married John Barker Church Member of Parliament.
  • 'Schuyler's family line continues; descendants of him and his children are living today.
  • 'Philip's country home had been destroyed by British General John Burgoyne's forces in September, 1777. Starting later that year, he rebuilt on the same site, now located in southern Schuylerville, New York. The 1777 home is maintained by the National Park Service as part of the Saratoga National Historical Park, and is open to the public.
  • 'Schuyler died at his mansion in Albany on November 18, 1804, and is buried in the Albany Rural Cemetery at Menands, New York. His mansion in Albany is maintained by New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation and is open to the public.Schuyler County, Illinois, and Schuyler County, New York, were named in his honor.
  • In 1833, construction of a fort began on the tip of the Throggs Neck peninsula in New York, to protect the western end of the Long Island Sound. The installation of armament was completed in 1856, and the fortification was named Fort Schuyler in his honor. Fort Schuyler now houses the Maritime Industry Museum and the State University of New York Maritime College.
  • 'Albany, New York erected a statue of Schuyler by sculptor J. Massey Rhind in 1925.
  • Notes
  • 1.^ John Cochran Office of Medical History
  • 2.^ Catherine Van Rensselaer Find A Grave
  • References
  • Barbagallo, Tricia (March 10, 2007). "Fellow Citizens Read a Horrid Tale" (PDF). http://www.archives.nysed.gov/apt/magazine/archivesmag_sum07.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-04.
  • Revolutionary Enigma; A Re-Appraisal of General Philip Schuyler of New York by Martin H. Bush; 1969; (ISBN 0-87198-080-0).
  • Life of General Philip Schuyler, 1733-1804 by Bayard Tuckerman; 1903; (1969 reprint ISBN 0-8369-5031-3).
  • Proud Patriot: Philip Schuyler and the War of Independence, 1775-1783 by Don Gerlach; 1987; Syracuse University Press; (ISBN 0-8156-2373-9).
  • The New York Civil List compiled by Franklin Benjamin Hough (pages 37f; Weed, Parsons and Co., 1858)
  • The Real George Washington by the National Center for Constitutional Studies; 1991; (2009 reprint ISBN 10:0-88080-014-3
  • External links
  • Philip Schuyler at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
  • Co-Planner of the Sullivan-Clinton Campaign Against the Iroquois
  • Collection of Letters from Philip Schuyler
  • ________________________
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Maj. General Philip J. Schuyler (Continental Army)'s Timeline

1733
November 22, 1733
Menands, Albany, New York, United States
1755
September 17, 1755
Age 21
Albany, New York, United States
1756
February 20, 1756
Age 22
Albany, Albany, New York, United States
1757
August 9, 1757
Age 23
Albany, Albany, New York, United States
1765
July 12, 1765
Age 31
1773
1773
Age 39
1804
November 18, 1804
Age 70
Albany, Albany, New York, United States
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????
????
Albany, NY, USA