Malcolm II "The Destroyer", King of Scots

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Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, Rí na h'Alba

Also Known As: "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda", "Malcolm MacKenneth", "Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich", "Melkolf", "King Malcolm II of /Scotland/", "o Destruidor", "Malcolm II // K of Scots", "Mael /Coluim/", "Máel Coluim /Mac Cináeda/", "MacAlpin", "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Gaelic)", "8955", "The Des..."
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Dunkeld, Perthshire, Scotland
Death: Died in Glamis, Angus, Scotland, United Kingdom
Cause of death: Murdered
Place of Burial: Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland
Immediate Family:

Son of Kenneth II, King of Scots and A woman of Leinster
Husband of Hvarflad of Orkney Hlodversdottir and Ælfgifu 'Edith' Sigurdsdóttir
Father of Bethóc ingen Maíl Coluim meic Cináeda; Donada 'Anleta' / 'Thora' ingen Maíl Coluim meic Cináeda and Olith (possibly Donada) 'Thora' 'Anleta' MacKenneth
Brother of Dúngal mac Cinaeda; Anleta McAlpin and Dunclina nic Cineada

Occupation: King of Scotland, King Bet 1005 and 1034, , Scotland, kongei Scotland, KING OF SCOTLAND, King of the Scots 1005-1034, Roi d'Ecosse du 25 mars 1005 à 1034, Roi de Strathclyde 990 à 1005, Roi de Lothian de 1016 à 1034, Roi d'Albanie de 1016 à 1034
Managed by: Private User
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About Malcolm II "The Destroyer", King of Scots

Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, Malcolm II, King of Scots

  • Parents: Kenneth II and his wife the Lady of Leinster
  • Spouses: (name unknown - Ælfgifu "Edith" Sigurdsdóttir of Ossory)
  • Children: He had no sons, but three daughters:

1. Bethóc who married Crínan of Dunkeld

2. Donada who married Finlay

3. Olith who married Sigurd earl of Orkney

Sources and Resources

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/SCOTLAND.htm#_Toc209085740

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_II_of_Scotland

MEDIEVAL LANDS

a) MALCOLM ([954]-Glamis Castle, Angus 25 Nov 1034, bur Isle of Iona). The 11th century Synchronisms of Flann Mainistreach name (in order) "…Cuillen mac Illiulb, Cinaet mac Maelcolaim, Custantin mac Cuilen, Cinaet mac Duib, Maelcolaim mac Cinaeta" as Scottish kings, dated to the 10th and 11th centuries[147]. The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Malcolin filius Kinet xxx…" as king[148]. He is named "Malcolmum filium Cyneth regem Scottorum" in the Historia Regem[149]. It is tempting to suggest that either he, or his first cousin with the same name, spent time at the court of Edgar King of England during his youth, as "Malcolm dux" subscribed a charter of King Edgar relating to land in Cambridgeshire and Norfolk dated 970[150], but there is no proof of the co-identity of these persons. He succeeded in 1005 as MALCOLM II King of Scotland. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Grime was killed by Malcolm, son of King Kenneth II, who succeeded as king[151]. He attacked northern England in 1006. King of Lothian from [1016], becoming effective ruler of the whole of Scotland. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Malcolm submitted to Canute King of England in 1031, along with "two other kings, Mælbeth and Iehmarc"[152]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun defended Cumbria against King Canute, who agreed that it should be ruled by Malcolm´s grandson Duncan[153]. The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1034 of "Mael Coluim son of Cinaed, king of Scotland"[154]. The Annals of Tigernach record the death in 1034 of “Mael-Coluímb son of Cinaed king of Scotland”[155]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Malcolm mac Kynnat Rex" reigned for 30 years, died "in Glammes" and was buried "in Yona"[156]. The Chronicle of the Picts and Scots dated 1251 includes the same information[157].

m ---. The name of Malcolm's wife is not known.

King Malcolm III & his wife had [four] children:

i) BETHOC . The "Genealogy of King William the Lyon" dated 1175 names "Betoch filii Malcolmi" as parent of "Malcolmi filii Dunecani"[158]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 names "Cran Abbatis de Dunkelden et Bethok filia Malcolm mac Kynnet" as parents of King Duncan[159]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that King Malcolm II had "an only daughter…Beatrice who married Crynyne Abthane of Dul and Steward of the Isles…in some annals, by a blunder of the writer…abbot of Dul"[160]. Lady of Atholl.

m ([1000]) CRINAN "the Thane" Mormaer of Atholl, son of DUNCAN Mormaer of Atholl & his wife --- (-killed in battle 1045). Abthane of Dule. Lay abbot of Dunkeld. Steward of the Western Isles. He was killed fighting King Macbeth.

ii) [DONADA . The primary source which confirms her parentage and marriage has not yet been identified. 1007.

m as his second wife, FINDLAECH MacRory Thane of Angus Mormaer of Moray, son of RUAIDHRI Mormaer of Moray & his wife --- (-1020). The Annals of Ulster record the death in 1020 of "Finnlaech son of Ruadrí king of Alba…killed by his own people"[161].] Donada & her husband had one child:

(a) MACBETH ([1005]-killed in battle Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire 15 Aug 1057, bur Isle of Iona). The 12th century Cronica Regum Scottorum lists "…Macheth filius Findleg xvii…" as king[162]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Machabeus son of Finele" killed King Duncan and succeeded as king in 1040[163]. Mormaer of Moray [1029/32]. He may have been one of the "two other kings, Mælbeth and Iehmarc" recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has having submitted to Canute King of England in 1031 with King Malcolm II[164]. He succeeded in 1040 as MACBETH King of Scotland. The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Donnchal rex Scotiæ" was killed "1040 XIX Kal Sep" by "duce suo Macbethad mac Finnloech" who succeeded as king for 17 years[165]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "comes Siward" invaded Scotland with a large army in 1046 and briefly expelled "rege Macbeod", the king recovering his realm when Siward withdrew[166]. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that he was defeated in battle 27 Jul 1054 by the army of Siward Earl of Northumbria which had invaded Scotland[167]. The Annales Dunelmenses record that "Siwardus" put "Macbeth" to flight in 1054 and installed "Malcolmum rege" in the following year[168]. The Chronicon of Mariano Scotti records that "Macfinlaeg" was killed "1057…in Augusto"[169]. The Annals of Tigernach record that “Mac bethadh son of Findlaech overking of Scotland” was killed by “Malcolm, son of Donnchad” in 1058[170]. The Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177 records that "Maket mac Fyngal" reigned 17 years, was killed "in Lufanan a Malcolm mac Dunkat" and was buried "in Iona insula"[171]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that Malcolm recaptured his kingdom with the help of "Siward Earl of Northumberland" and killed "Machabeus" 5 Dec 1056[172]. The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Machabeus" was buried "in the island of Iona"[173]. m (after 1032) as her second husband, GRUOCH, widow of GILLACOMGAIN Mormaer of Moray, daughter of BOITE [Bodhe] of Scotland & his wife --- ([1015]-). "Machbet filius Finlach…et Gruoch filia Bodhe, rex et regina Scottorum" made grants to the church of St Serf, although the document also names "Malcolmus Rex filius Duncani" which casts doubt on its authenticity[174].

iii) [son . Rodulfus Glaber refers to Canute King of England seeking "the friendship of the king of the Scots, receiving his son at the font of baptism"[175]. This passage follows a description of "the Scots whose king was called Malcolm" resisting King Canute's invasion, undated but from the context apparently occurring at the start of Canute's reign. If it is correct that King Malcolm had a son baptised at this time, he would have been considerably younger than the king's daughters, presumably therefore born to a different mother. No corroborative evidence for the existence of this son has been found in other contemporary sources.]

iv) [daughter . Orkneyinga Saga records that “Earl Sigurd” married “the daughter of Malcolm King of Scots”[176]. Snorre records the marriage of "Sigurd the Thick" and "a daughter of the Scottish king Malcolm"[177]. It appears unlikely that Sigurd´s wife could have been King Malcolm´s daughter Donada (as shown in many secondary sources, including the Complete Peerage[178]) if it is correct that Donada´s recorded husband Findlaech was killed in 1020 and also that their son was born in [1005][179].

m SIGURD "Digri" Hlodverson Jarl of Orkney and Caithness, son of HLODVIR [Lodver] Torfinnsson & his wife Audna --- (-killed in battle Clontarf 23 Apr 1014).]

Malcolm I had [one illegitimate child by an unknown mistress]:

3. [KENNETH . The Chronicle of John of Fordun records that "Constantine the Bald, son of King Culen" succeeded in 994 after King Kenneth II was killed, but that he was "continually harassed by Malcolm [son of King Kenneth] and his illegitimate uncle…Kenneth" and killed in battle "in Laudonia by the banks of the river Almond" after reigning for one and a half years[180]. He is not mentioned in any of the earlier sources so far consulted. His existence should be treated with caution.]

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MacDonnell of Leinster webpage:

http://macdonnellofleinster.org/page_7y__the_birth_of_scotland.htm

Malcolm II (1005-1034), son of Kenneth II, demonstrated a rare ability to survive among early Scottish kings by reigning for twenty-nine years. He was a clever and ambitious man. Brehon tradition provided that the successor to Malcolm was to be selected by him from among the descendants of King Aedh, with the consent of Malcolm’s ministers and of the church. Ostensibly in an attempt to end the devastating feuds in the north of Scotland, but obviously influenced by the Norman feudal model, Malcolm ignored tradition and determined to retain the succession within his own line. But since Malcolm had no son of his own, he undertook to negotiate a series of dynastic marriages of his three daughters to men who might otherwise be his rivals, while securing the loyalty of the principal chiefs, their relatives.

First he married his daughter Bethoc to Crinan, Thane of The Isles, head of the house of Atholl and secular Abbot of Dunkeld; then his youngest daughter, Olith, to Sigurd, Earl of Orkney. His middle daughter, Donada, was married to Findláich, Mormaer of Moray, Thane of Ross and Cromarty and a descendant of Loarn of Dalriada. This was risky business under the rules of succession of the Gael, but he thereby secured his rear and, taking advantage of the renewal of Viking attacks on England, marched south to fight the Sasunnaich. He defeated the Angles at Carham in 1018 and installed his grandson, Duncan, son of the Abbot of Dunkeld and his choice as Tanist, in Carlisle as King of Cumbria that same year.

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WIKIPEDIA

Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich[1], known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034),[2] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[3] He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".[4]

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east.[5]

Early years

In 997, the killer of Causantín mac Cuilén is credited as being Cináed mac Maíl Coluim. Since there is no known and relevant Cináed alive at that time (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim having died in 995), it is considered an error for either Cináed mac Duib, who succeeded Causantín, or, possibly, Máel Coluim himself, the son of Cináed II.[6] Whether Máel Coluim killed Causantín or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Causantín's successor Cináed III in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn.[7]

John of Fordun writes that Máel Coluim defeated a Norwegian army "in almost the first days after his coronation", but this is not reported elsewhere. Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach (later moved to Aberdeen) was founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians, but this claim appears to have no foundation.[8]

Bernicia

The first reliable report of Máel Coluim's reign is of an invasion of Bernicia in 1006, perhaps the customary crech ríg (literally royal prey, a raid by a new king made to demonstrate prowess in war), which involved a siege of Durham. This appears to have resulted in a heavy defeat, by the Northumbrians led by Uhtred of Bamburgh, later Earl of Bernicia, which is reported by the Annals of Ulster.[9]

A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful. The Battle of Carham, by the River Tweed, was a victory for the Scots led by Máel Coluim and the men of Strathclyde led by their king, Owen the Bald. By this time Earl Uchtred may have been dead, and Eiríkr Hákonarson was appointed Earl of Northumbria by his brother-in-law Cnut the Great, although his authority seems to have been limited to the south, the former kingdom of Deira, and he took no action against the Scots so far as is known.[10] The work De obsessione Dunelmi (The siege of Durham, associated with Symeon of Durham) claims that Uchtred's brother Eadwulf Cudel surrendered Lothian to Máel Coluim, presumably in the aftermath of the defeat at Carham. This is likely to have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control before this time. It has been suggested that Cnut received tribute from the Scots for Lothian, but as he had likely received none from the Bernician Earls this is not very probable.[11]

Cnut

Cnut, reports the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army into Scotland on his return from pilgrimage to Rome. The Chronicle dates this to 1031, but there are reasons to suppose that it should be dated to 1027.[12] Burgundian chronicler Rodulfus Glaber recounts the expedition soon afterwards, describing Máel Coluim as "powerful in resources and arms ... very Christian in faith and deed."[13] Ralph claims that peace was made between Máel Coluim and Cnut through the intervention of Richard, Duke of Normandy, brother of Cnut's wife Emma. Richard died in about 1027 and Rodulfus wrote close in time to the events.[14]

It has been suggested that the root of the quarrel between Cnut and Máel Coluim lies in Cnut's pilgrimage to Rome, and the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, where Cnut and Rudolph III, King of Burgundy had the place of honour. If Máel Coluim were present, and the repeated mentions of his piety in the annals make it quite possible that he made a pilgrimage to Rome, as did Mac Bethad mac Findláich ("Macbeth") in later times, then the coronation would have allowed Máel Coluim to publicly snub Cnut's claims to overlordship.[15]

Cnut obtained rather less than previous English kings, a promise of peace and friendship rather than the promise of aid on land and sea that Edgar and others had obtained. The sources say that Máel Coluim was accompanied by one or two other kings, certainly Mac Bethad, and perhaps Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Mann and the Isles, and of Galloway.[16] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle remarks of the submission "but he [Máel Coluim] adhered to that for only a little while".[17] Cnut was soon occupied in Norway against Olaf Haraldsson and appears to have had no further involvement with Scotland.

Orkney and Moray

A daughter of Máel Coluim, married Sigurd Hlodvisson, Earl of Orkney.[18] Their son Thorfinn Sigurdsson was said to be five years old when Sigurd was killed on 23 April 1014 in the Battle of Clontarf. The Orkneyinga Saga says that Thorfinn was raised at Máel Coluim's court and was given the Mormaerdom of Caithness by his grandfather. Thorfinn, says the Heimskringla, was the ally of the king of Scots, and counted on Máel Coluim's support to resist the "tyranny" of Norwegian King Olaf Haraldsson.[19] The chronology of Thorfinn's life is problematic, and he may have had a share in the Earldom of Orkney while still a child, if he was indeed only five in 1014.[20] Whatever the exact chronology, before Máel Coluim's death a client of the king of Scots was in control of Caithness and Orkney, although, as with all such relationships, it is unlikely to have lasted beyond his death.

If Máel Coluim exercised control over Moray, which is far from being generally accepted, then the annals record a number of events pointing to a struggle for power in the north. In 1020, Mac Bethad's father Findláech mac Ruaidrí was killed by the sons of his brother Máel Brigte.[21] It seems that Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti took control of Moray, for his death is reported in 1029.[22]

Despite the accounts of the Irish annals, English and Scandinavian writers appear to see Mac Bethad as the rightful king of Moray: this is clear from their descriptions of the meeting with Cnut in 1027, before the death of Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti. Máel Coluim was followed as king or mormaer by his brother Gille Coemgáin, husband of Gruoch, a granddaughter of King Cináed III. It has been supposed that Mac Bethad was responsible for the killing of Gille Coemgáin in 1032, but if Mac Bethad had a cause for feud in the killing of his father in 1020, Máel Coluim too had reason to see Gille Coemgáin dead. Not only had Gille Coemgáin's ancestors killed many of Máel Coluim's kin, but Gille Coemgáin and his son Lulach might be rivals for the throne. Máel Coluim had no living sons, and the threat to his plans for the succession was obvious. As a result, the following year Gruoch's brother or nephew, who might have eventually become king, was killed by Máel Coluim.[23]

[edit] Strathclyde and the succession

It has traditionally been supposed that King Eógan the Bald of Strathclyde died at the Battle of Carham and that the kingdom passed into the hands of the Scots afterwards. This rests on some very weak evidence. It is far from certain that Eógan died at Carham, and it is reasonably certain that there were kings of Strathclyde as late as the 1054, when Edward the Confessor sent Earl Siward to install "Máel Coluim son of the king of the Cumbrians". The confusion is old, probably inspired by William of Malmesbury and embellished by John of Fordun, but there is no firm evidence that the kingdom of Strathclyde was a part of the kingdom of the Scots, rather than a loosely subjected kingdom, before the time of Máel Coluim II of Scotland's great-grandson Máel Coluim mac Donnchada.[24]

By the 1030s Máel Coluim's sons, if he had any, were dead. The only evidence that he did have a son or sons is in Rodulfus Glaber's chronicle where Cnut is said to have stood as godfather to a son of Máel Coluim.[25] His grandson Thorfinn would have been unlikely to accepted as king by the Scots, and he chose the sons of his other daughter, Bethóc, who was married to Crínán, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and perhaps Mormaer of Atholl. It may be no more than coincidence, but in 1027 the Irish annals had reported the burning of Dunkeld, although no mention is made of the circumstances.[26] Máel Coluim's chosen heir, and the first tánaise ríg certainly known in Scotland, was Donnchad mac Crínáin ("Duncan I").

It is possible that a third daughter of Máel Coluim married Findláech mac Ruaidrí and that Mac Bethad was thus his grandson, but this rests on relatively weak evidence.[27]

Death and posterity

C19th engraving of "King Malcolm's grave stone" (Glamis no. 2) at GlamisMáel Coluim died in 1034, Marianus Scotus giving the date as 25 November 1034. The king lists say that he died at Glamis, variously describing him as a "most glorious" or "most victorious" king. The Annals of Tigernach report that "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, king of Scotland, the honour of all the west of Europe, died." The Prophecy of Berchán, perhaps the inspiration for John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun's accounts where Máel Coluim is killed fighting bandits, says that he died by violence, fighting "the parricides", suggested to be the sons of Máel Brigte of Moray.[28]

Perhaps the most notable feature of Máel Coluim's death is the account of Marianus, matched by the silence of the Irish annals, which tells us that Donnchad I became king and ruled for five years and nine months. Given that his death in 1040 is described as being "at an immature age" in the Annals of Tigernach, he must have been a young man in 1034. The absence of any opposition suggests that Máel Coluim had dealt thoroughly with any likely opposition in his own lifetime.[29]

Tradition, dating from Fordun's time if not earlier, knew the Pictish stone now called "Glamis 2" as "King Malcolm's grave stone". The stone is a Class II stone, apparently formed by re-using a Bronze Age standing stone. Its dating is uncertain, with dates from the 8th century onwards having been proposed. While an earlier date is favoured, an association with accounts of Máel Coluim's has been proposed on the basis of the iconography of the carvings.[30]

On the question of Máel Coluim's putative pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Rome, or other long-distance journeys, were far from unusual. Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Cnut and Mac Bethad have already been mentioned. Rognvald Kali Kolsson is known to have gone crusading in the Mediterranean in the 12th century. Nearer in time, Dyfnwal of Strathclyde died on pilgrimage to Rome in 975 as did Máel Ruanaid uá Máele Doraid, King of the Cenél Conaill, in 1025.

Not a great deal is known of Máel Coluim's activities beyond the wars and killings. The Book of Deer records that Máel Coluim "gave a king's dues in Biffie and in Pett Meic-Gobraig, and two davochs" to the monastery of Old Deer.[31] He was also probably not the founder of the Bishopric of Mortlach-Aberdeen. John of Fordun has a peculiar tale to tell, related to the supposed "Laws of Malcolm MacKenneth", saying that Máel Coluim gave away all of Scotland, except for the Moot Hill at Scone, which is unlikely to have any basis in fact.[32]

Notes

1.^ Máel Coluim mac Cináeda is the Mediaeval Gaelic form.

2.^ Skene, Chronicles, pp. 99-100.

3.^ Máel Coluim's birth date is not known, but must have been around 980 if the Flateyjarbók is right in dating the marriage of his daughter and Sigurd Hlodvisson to the lifetime of Olaf Tryggvason; Early Sources, p. 528, quoting Olaf Tryggvason's Saga.

4.^ Early Sources, pp. 574–575.

5.^ Higham, pp. 226–227, notes that the kings of the English had neither lands nor mints north of the Tees.

6.^ Early Sources, pp. 517–518. John of Fordun has Máel Coluim as the killer; Duncan, p. 46, credits Cináed mac Duib with the death of Causantín.

7.^ Chronicon Scotorum, s.a. 1005; Early Sources, pp. 521–524; Fordun, IV, xxxviii. Berchán places Cináed's death by the Earn.

8.^ Early Sources, p. 525, note 1; Fordun, IV, xxxix–xl.

9.^ Duncan, pp.27–28; Smyth, pp.236–237; Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1006.

10.^ Duncan, pp. 28–29 suggests that Earl Uchtred may not have died until 1018. Fletcher accepts that he died in Spring 1016 and the Eadwulf Cudel was Earl of Bernicia when Carham was fought in 1018; Higham, pp.225–230, agrees. Smyth, pp. 236–237 reserves judgement as to the date of the battle, 1016 or 1018, and whether Uchtred was still living when it was fought. See also Stenton, pp.418–419.

11.^ Early Sources, p. 544, note 6; Higham, pp. 226–227.

12.^ ASC, Ms D, E and F; Duncan, pp. 29–30.

13.^ Early Sources, pp. 545–546.

14.^ Ralph was writing in 1030 or 1031; Duncan, p. 31.

15.^ Duncan, pp.31–32; the alternative, he notes, that Cnut was concerned about support for Olaf Haraldsson, "is no better evidenced."

16.^ Duncan, pp.29–30. St. Olaf's Saga, c. 131 says "two kings came south from Fife in Scotland" to meet Cnut, suggesting only Máel Coluim and Mac Bethad, and that Cnut returned their lands and gave them gifts. That Echmarcach was king of Galloway is perhaps doubtful; the Annals of Ulster record the death of Suibne mac Cináeda, rí Gall-Gáedel ("King of Galloway") by Tigernach, in 1034.

17.^ ASC, Ms. D, s.a. 1031.

18.^ Early Sources, p. 528; Orkneyinga Saga, c. 12.

19.^ Orkneyinga Saga, cc. 13–20 & 32; St. Olaf's Saga, c. 96.

20.^ Duncan, p.42; reconciling the various dates of Thorfinn's life appears impossible on the face of it. Either he was born well before 1009 and must have died long before 1065, or the accounts in the Orkneyinga Saga are deeply flawed.

21.^ Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1020; Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1020, but the killers are not named. The Annals of Ulster and the Book of Leinster call Findláech "king of Scotland".

22.^ Annals of Ulster and Annals of Tigernach, s.a. 1029. Máel Coluim's death is not said to have been by violence and he too is called king rather than mormaer.

23.^ Duncan, pp. 29–30, 32–33 and compare Hudson, Prophecy of Berchán, pp. 222–223. Early Sources, p.571; Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1032 & 1033; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1029 & 1033. The identity of the M. m. Boite killed in 1033 is uncertain, being reading as "the son of the son of Boite" or as "M. son of Boite", Gruoch's brother or nephew respectively.

24.^ Duncan, pp. 29 & 37–41; Oram, David I, pp. 19–21.

25.^ Early Sources, p. 546; Duncan, pp.30–31, understands Rodulfus Glaber as meaning that Duke Richard was godfather to a son of Cnut and Emma.

26.^ Annals of Ulster and Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1027.

27.^ Hudson, pp. 224–225 discusses the question and the reliability of Andrew of Wyntoun's chronicle, on which this rests.

28.^ Early Sources, pp. 572–575; Duncan, pp. 33–34.

29.^ Duncan, pp. 32–33.

30.^ Laing, Lloyd (2001), "The date and context of the Glamis, Angus, carved Pictish stones", Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland (Edinburgh) 131: 223–239, http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_131/131_223_239.pdf

31.^ Gaelic Notes in the Book of Deer.

32.^ Fordun, IV, xliii and Skene's notes; Duncan, p. 150; Barrow, Kingdom of the Scots, p. 39.

References

For primary sources see also External links below.

Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History A.D. 500–1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8

Anon., Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney, tr. Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards. Penguin, London, 1978. ISBN 0-14-044383-5

Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1

Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8

Fletcher, Richard, Bloodfeud: Murder and Revenge in Anglo-Saxon England. Penguin, London, 2002. ISBN 0-14-028692-6

John of Fordun, Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, ed. William Forbes Skene, tr. Felix J.H. Skene, 2 vols. Reprinted, Llanerch Press, Lampeter, 1993. ISBN 1-897853-05-X

Higham, N.J., The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350–1100. Sutton, Stroud, 1993. ISBN 0-86299-730-5

Hudson, Benjamin T., The Prophecy of Berchán: Irish

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FURTHER LINKS

http://macdonnellofleinster.org/page_7y__the_birth_of_scotland.htm

http://www.scotshistoryonline.co.uk/dunclan.html

http://www.renderplus.com/hartgen/htm/srahteine.htm#name4565

http://www.thehistorychannel.co.uk/site/encyclopedia/article_show/Malcolm_II_Mackenneth_c_9541034_/m0081948.html

-------------------- Malcolm II of Alba, King of Scotland was born circa 954.1 He was the son of Kenneth II of Alba, King of Scotland. He married an unknown person circa 980.2 He died on 25 November 1034 at Glamis Castle, Glamis, Angus, Scotland, killed by his kinsmen.3 He was buried at Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland.3

    Malcolm II of Alba, King of Scotland succeeded to the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde between 990 and 991.1 He was deposed as King of Strathclyde in 995.1 He gained the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde in 997.1 He succeeded to the title of King Malcolm II of Scotland on 25 March 1005.1 He gained the title of King Malcolm of Lothian circa 1016.1 He gained the title of King Malcolm of Alba. He gained the title of Prince Malcolm of Cumbria.1

Children of Malcolm II of Alba, King of Scotland

   * Donalda of Alba+ 4
   * Bethoc of Scotland+ b. c 984

-------------------- Malcolm II of Alba, King of Scotland was born circa 954.1 He was the son of Kenneth II of Alba, King of Scotland. He married an unknown person circa 980.2 He died on 25 November 1034 in Glamis Castle, Glamis, Angus, Scotland, killed by his kinsmen.3 He was buried in Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland.3

    Malcolm II of Alba, King of Scotland succeeded to the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde between 990 and 991.1 He was deposed as King of Strathclyde in 995.1 He gained the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde in 997.1 He succeeded to the title of King Malcolm II of Scotland on 25 March 1005.1 He gained the title of King Malcolm of Lothian circa 1016.1 He gained the title of King Malcolm of Alba. He gained the title of Prince Malcolm of Cumbria.1 

Family Children Donalda of Alba+ 4 Bethoc of Scotland+ b. c 984


Citations [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family: A Complete Genealogy (London, U.K.: The Bodley Head, 1999), page 177. Hereinafter cited as Britain's Royal Family. [S125] Richard Glanville-Brown, online <e-mail address>, Richard Glanville-Brown (RR 2, Milton, Ontario, Canada), downloaded 17 August 2005. [S11] Alison Weir, Britain's Royal Family, page 179. [S37] Charles Mosley, editor, Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage, 107th edition, 3 volumes (Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.A.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd, 2003). Hereinafter cited as Burke's Peerage and Baronetage, 107th edition.


-------------------- Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich),[1] known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II (c. 980–25 November 1034),[2] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[3] He was a son of Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim); the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".[4]

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Malcolm was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Malcolm was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east.[5]

-------------------- Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich[1], known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034),[2] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[3] He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".[4]

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east.[5]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_II_of_Scotland --------------------

  1. ID: I183848
  2. Name: King Malcolm [II @<^>v] de Scotland
  3. Sex: M
  4. Birth: 954 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
  5. Death: 25 NOV 1034 in Murdered by Kinsman,Glamis,Forfarshire,Scotland
  6. Burial: Isle of Iona, Argylshire, Scotland
  7. Note:
   Name: Mal-Coluim II * MAC KENNETH
   Sex: M
   Name: Mal-Coluim II MAC ALPIN
   Name: Malcolm II MAC KENNETH
   Name: Blanid NIC BRIAN
   Birth: 5 OCT 958 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
   Death: 25 NOV 1034 in Glamis Castle, Angus, Scotland
   Burial: Isle of Iona, Argylshire, Scotland
   Event: Title / Occ BET. 1005 - 1034 King of Albany / Scotland - 'Melkol
   Event: OS Other Source Data
   Event: OS Birth 954 Minster, Ireland
   Note: Died of wounds

Father: King Kenneth [II @<^>v] de Scotland b: 912 in Fettercairn, Scotland

Mother: Princess Frigida [@ <^>v] de Mumhan b: 911 in Scotland

Marriage 1 Blanaid Nic [@ <^>v] Brian b: ABT 960

Children

  1. Has Children Bethoc Or Beatrix [@ <^>v] de Scotland b: 984 in Atholl,Perthshire,Scotland

Marriage 2 Ælgifu (Edith) de Ingen [<^>v] Sigurd b: 962 in Fordoun, Kincardineshire, Scotland

   * Married: 983 in Fordoun, Kincardineshire, Scotland

Children

  1. Has Children Doda [@ <^>v] de Falaise b: 985 in Falaise, Calvados, France
  2. Has Children Princess Olith [@] de Scotland b: 959
  3. Has Children Princess Beatrix [@ <^>v] de Scotland b: 969 in Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland

source:


http://worldconnect.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=PED&db=gilead07&id=I253485 -------------------- a.k.a. Máel Coluim mac Cináeda

Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich[1], known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034),[2] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[3] He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".[4]

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east.[

Early years

In 997, the killer of Causantín mac Cuilén is credited as being Cináed mac Maíl Coluim. Since there is no known and relevant Cináed alive at that time (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim having died in 995), it is considered an error for either Cináed mac Duib, who succeeded Causantín, or, possibly, Máel Coluim himself, the son of Cináed II.[6] Whether Máel Coluim killed Causantín or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Causantín's successor Cináed III in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn.[7]

John of Fordun writes that Máel Coluim defeated a Norwegian army "in almost the first days after his coronation", but this is not reported elsewhere. Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach (later moved to Aberdeen) was founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians, but this claim appears to have no foundation.[8] [edit] Bernicia

The first reliable report of Máel Coluim's reign is of an invasion of Bernicia in 1006, perhaps the customary crech ríg (literally royal prey, a raid by a new king made to demonstrate prowess in war), which involved a siege of Durham. This appears to have resulted in a heavy defeat, by the Northumbrians led by Uhtred of Bamburgh, later Earl of Bernicia, which is reported by the Annals of Ulster.[9]

A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful. The Battle of Carham, by the River Tweed, was a victory for the Scots led by Máel Coluim and the men of Strathclyde led by their king, Owen the Bald. By this time Earl Uchtred may have been dead, and Eiríkr Hákonarson was appointed Earl of Northumbria by his brother-in-law Cnut the Great, although his authority seems to have been limited to the south, the former kingdom of Deira, and he took no action against the Scots so far as is known.[10] The work De obsessione Dunelmi (The siege of Durham, associated with Symeon of Durham) claims that Uchtred's brother Eadwulf Cudel surrendered Lothian to Máel Coluim, presumably in the aftermath of the defeat at Carham. This is likely to have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control before this time. It has been suggested that Cnut received tribute from the Scots for Lothian, but as he had likely received none from the Bernician Earls this is not very probable.[11] [edit] Cnut

Cnut, reports the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army into Scotland on his return from pilgrimage to Rome. The Chronicle dates this to 1031, but there are reasons to suppose that it should be dated to 1027.[12] Burgundian chronicler Rodulfus Glaber recounts the expedition soon afterwards, describing Máel Coluim as "powerful in resources and arms ... very Christian in faith and deed."[13] Ralph claims that peace was made between Máel Coluim and Cnut through the intervention of Richard, Duke of Normandy, brother of Cnut's wife Emma. Richard died in about 1027 and Rodulfus wrote close in time to the events.[14]

It has been suggested that the root of the quarrel between Cnut and Máel Coluim lies in Cnut's pilgrimage to Rome, and the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, where Cnut and Rudolph III, King of Burgundy had the place of honour. If Máel Coluim were present, and the repeated mentions of his piety in the annals make it quite possible that he made a pilgrimage to Rome, as did Mac Bethad mac Findláich ("Macbeth") in later times, then the coronation would have allowed Máel Coluim to publicly snub Cnut's claims to overlordship.[15]

Cnut obtained rather less than previous English kings, a promise of peace and friendship rather than the promise of aid on land and sea that Edgar and others had obtained. The sources say that Máel Coluim was accompanied by one or two other kings, certainly Mac Bethad, and perhaps Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Mann and the Isles, and of Galloway.[16] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle remarks of the submission "but he [Máel Coluim] adhered to that for only a little while".[17] Cnut was soon occupied in Norway against Olaf Haraldsson and appears to have had no further involvement with Scotland. [edit] Orkney and Moray

A daughter of Máel Coluim, "Donalda", married Sigurd Hlodvisson, Earl of Orkney.[18] Their son Thorfinn Sigurdsson was said to be five years old when Sigurd was killed on 23 April 1014 in the Battle of Clontarf. The Orkneyinga Saga says that Thorfinn was raised at Máel Coluim's court and was given the Mormaerdom of Caithness by his grandfather. Thorfinn, says the Heimskringla, was the ally of the king of Scots, and counted on Máel Coluim's support to resist the "tyranny" of Norwegian King Olaf Haraldsson.[19] The chronology of Thorfinn's life is problematic, and he may have had a share in the Earldom of Orkney while still a child, if he was indeed only five in 1014.[20] Whatever the exact chronology, before Máel Coluim's death a client of the king of Scots was in control of Caithness and Orkney, although, as with all such relationships, it is unlikely to have lasted beyond his death.

If Máel Coluim exercised control over Moray, which is far from being generally accepted, then the annals record a number of events pointing to a struggle for power in the north. In 1020, Mac Bethad's father Findláech mac Ruaidrí was killed by the sons of his brother Máel Brigte.[21] It seems that Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti took control of Moray, for his death is reported in 1029.[22]

Despite the accounts of the Irish annals, English and Scandinavian writers appear to see Mac Bethad as the rightful king of Moray: this is clear from their descriptions of the meeting with Cnut in 1027, before the death of Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti. Máel Coluim was followed as king or mormaer by his brother Gille Coemgáin, husband of Gruoch, a granddaughter of King Cináed III. It has been supposed that Mac Bethad was responsible for the killing of Gille Coemgáin in 1032, but if Mac Bethad had a cause for feud in the killing of his father in 1020, Máel Coluim too had reason to see Gille Coemgáin dead. Not only had Gille Coemgáin's ancestors killed many of Máel Coluim's kin, but Gille Coemgáin and his son Lulach might be rivals for the throne. Máel Coluim had no living sons, and the threat to his plans for the succession was obvious. As a result, the following year Gruoch's brother or nephew, who might have eventually become king, was killed by Máel Coluim.[23] [edit] Strathclyde and the succession

It has traditionally been supposed that King Eógan the Bald of Strathclyde died at the Battle of Carham and that the kingdom passed into the hands of the Scots afterwards. This rests on some very weak evidence. It is far from certain that Eógan died at Carham, and it is reasonably certain that there were kings of Strathclyde as late as the 1054, when Edward the Confessor sent Earl Siward to install "Máel Coluim son of the king of the Cumbrians". The confusion is old, probably inspired by William of Malmesbury and embellished by John of Fordun, but there is no firm evidence that the kingdom of Strathclyde was a part of the kingdom of the Scots, rather than a loosely subjected kingdom, before the time of Máel Coluim II of Scotland's great-grandson Máel Coluim mac Donnchada.[24]

By the 1030s Máel Coluim's sons, if he had any, were dead. The only evidence that he did have a son or sons is in Rodulfus Glaber's chronicle where Cnut is said to have stood as godfather to a son of Máel Coluim.[25] His grandson Thorfinn would have been unlikely to accepted as king by the Scots, and he chose the sons of his other daughter, Bethóc, who was married to Crínán, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and perhaps Mormaer of Atholl. It may be no more than coincidence, but in 1027 the Irish annals had reported the burning of Dunkeld, although no mention is made of the circumstances.[26] Máel Coluim's chosen heir, and the first tánaise ríg certainly known in Scotland, was Donnchad mac Crínáin ("Duncan I").

It is possible that a third daughter of Máel Coluim married Findláech mac Ruaidrí and that Mac Bethad was thus his grandson, but this rests on relatively weak evidence.[27] [edit] Death and posterity C19th engraving of "King Malcolm's grave stone" (Glamis no. 2) at Glamis

Máel Coluim died in 1034, Marianus Scotus giving the date as 25 November 1034. The king lists say that he died at Glamis, variously describing him as a "most glorious" or "most victorious" king. The Annals of Tigernach report that "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, king of Scotland, the honour of all the west of Europe, died." The Prophecy of Berchán, perhaps the inspiration for John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun's accounts where Máel Coluim is killed fighting bandits, says that he died by violence, fighting "the parricides", suggested to be the sons of Máel Brigte of Moray.[28]

Perhaps the most notable feature of Máel Coluim's death is the account of Marianus, matched by the silence of the Irish annals, which tells us that Donnchad I became king and ruled for five years and nine months. Given that his death in 1040 is described as being "at an immature age" in the Annals of Tigernach, he must have been a young man in 1034. The absence of any opposition suggests that Máel Coluim had dealt thoroughly with any likely opposition in his own lifetime.[29]

Tradition, dating from Fordun's time if not earlier, knew the Pictish stone now called "Glamis 2" as "King Malcolm's grave stone". The stone is a Class II stone, apparently formed by re-using a Bronze Age standing stone. Its dating is uncertain, with dates from the 8th century onwards having been proposed. While an earlier date is favoured, an association with accounts of Máel Coluim's has been proposed on the basis of the iconography of the carvings.[30]

On the question of Máel Coluim's putative pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Rome, or other long-distance journeys, were far from unusual. Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Cnut and Mac Bethad have already been mentioned. Rognvald Kali Kolsson is known to have gone crusading in the Mediterranean in the 12th century. Nearer in time, Dyfnwal of Strathclyde died on pilgrimage to Rome in 975 as did Máel Ruanaid uá Máele Doraid, King of the Cenél Conaill, in 1025.

Not a great deal is known of Máel Coluim's activities beyond the wars and killings. The Book of Deer records that Máel Coluim "gave a king's dues in Biffie and in Pett Meic-Gobraig, and two davochs" to the monastery of Old Deer.[31] He was also probably not the founder of the Bishopric of Mortlach-Aberdeen. John of Fordun has a peculiar tale to tell, related to the supposed "Laws of Malcolm MacKenneth", saying that Máel Coluim gave away all of Scotland, except for the Moot Hill at Scone, which is unlikely to have any basis in fact.[32]

References

For primary sources see also External links below.

   * Anderson, Alan Orr, Early Sources of Scottish History A.D. 500–1286, volume 1. Reprinted with corrections. Paul Watkins, Stamford, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
   * Anon., Orkneyinga Saga: The History of the Earls of Orkney, tr. Hermann Pálsson and Paul Edwards. Penguin, London, 1978. ISBN 0-14-044383-5
   * Barrow, G.W.S., The Kingdom of the Scots. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1
   * Duncan, A.A.M., The Kingship of the Scots 842–1292: Succession and Independence. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2002. ISBN 0-7486-1626-8
   * Fletcher, Richard, Bloodfeud: Murder and Revenge in Anglo-Saxon England. Penguin, London, 2002. ISBN 0-14-028692-6
   * John of Fordun, Chronicle of the Scottish Nation, ed. William Forbes Skene, tr. Felix J.H. Skene, 2 vols. Reprinted, Llanerch Press, Lampeter, 1993. ISBN 1-897853-05-X
   * Higham, N.J., The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350–1100. Sutton, Stroud, 1993. ISBN 0-86299-730-5
   * Hudson, Benjamin T., The Prophecy of Berchán: Irish and Scottish High-Kings of the Early Middle Ages. Greenwood, London, 1996.
   * Smyth, Alfred P. Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80–1000. Reprinted, Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1998. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7
   * Stenton, Sir Frank, Anglo-Saxon England. 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1971 ISBN 0-19-280139-2
   * Sturluson, Snorri, Heimskringla: History of the Kings of Norway, tr. Lee M. Hollander. Reprinted University of Texas Press, Austin, 1992. ISBN 0-292-73061-6

[edit] External links

   * CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts at University College Cork includes the Annals of Ulster, Tigernach, the Four Masters and Innisfallen, the Chronicon Scotorum, the Lebor Bretnach (which includes the Duan Albanach), Genealogies, and various Saints' Lives. Most are translated into English, or translations are in progress.
   * Heimskringla at World Wide School
   * Orkneyinga Saga at Northvegr
   * Anglo-Saxon Chronicle an XML edition by Tony Jebson (translation at OMACL)

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_II_of_Scotland -------------------- Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich, known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034), was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east.

-------------------- Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich), known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II (c. 980–25 November 1034), was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of Kenneth II (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim); the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Malcolm was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Malcolm was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east. -------------------- Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich),[1] known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II (died 25 November 1034),[2] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[3] He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".[4]

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east.[5]

REF: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_II_of_Scotland -------------------- The first king to reign over an extent of land roughly corresponding to much of modern Scotland.

Malcolm succeeded to the throne after killing his predecessor, Kenneth III, and allegedly secured his territory by defeating a Northumbrian army at the battle of Carham (c. 1016); he not only confirmed the Scottish hold over the land between the rivers Forth and Tweed but also secured Strathclyde about the same time. Eager to secure the royal succession for his daughter's son Duncan, he tried to eliminate possible rival claimants; but Macbeth, with royal connections to both Kenneth II and Kenneth III, survived to challenge the succession.

-----------------------------------------------------

Malcolm II of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) (c. 954 - November 25, 1034) was King of Scots (Alba) from 1005 to 1034. He was the son of King Kenneth II of Scotland and first cousin of his predecessor, King Kenneth III of Scotland (Cináed mac Duib), who was murdered by Malcolm II at the Battle of Monzievaird in 1005 .

His rule was contested for ten years during the reign of Kenneth III but Malcolm II finally gained the throne after Kenneth III's death. It appears that he only ruled part of Scotland during his reign, in opposition to leaders from Moray such as Findláech mac Ruaidrí (d. 1020, probably father of Macbeth), and Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti (d. 1029), both of whom were also called Kings of Alba (and therefore Scotland) in the Irish annals, though neither are called Kings of Scotland in modern texts. In 1006, Malcolm II was defeated by Northumbrian forces under Uhtred the Bold while besieging Durham. The English then became preoccupied with the Danish allowing Malcolm II to march south, avenging the loss at Durham by winning the Battle of Carham against the Anglo-Saxons in 1016 and, thereby, regaining Lothian. Thirteen years later, however, Canute, King of England, Denmark, and Norway, travelled to Scotland. What happened is lost to time, but claims that Malcolm II submitted to Canute seem very unlikely. However, Canute seems to have recognised Malcolm II's possession of Lothian.

In the west, Malcolm II made an alliance with King Owen the Bald of Strathclyde and together they defeated King Canute at the Battle of Carham in 1018. At the same time, the marriage of his daughter to Sigurd the Stout, Norse Earl of Orkney, extended Malcolm II's influence to the far north. He battled to expand his kingdom, gaining land down to the River Tweed and in Strathclyde. When King Owen died without an heir, Malcolm II claimed Strathclyde for his grandson, Duncan. This caused dissent throughout the Kingdom of Strathclyde which resulted in Malcolm II's murder at Glamis in 1034. He was buried on the Isle of Iona shortly after.

As the last of the House of Alpin, he did not have any sons to succeed him. He, therefore, arranged good marriages for his daughters. One daughter married Earl Sigurd of Orkney and their son Thorfinn brought the lands of Caithness and Sutherland under the control of the King of Alba. His elder daughter, Bethoc , married Crínán, the Abbot of Dunkeld and their son became Duncan I (c. 1010 - 1040), who succeeded Malcolm II upon his death in 1034.

-------------------- Malcolm II of Alba, King of Scotland was born circa 954. He was the son of Kenneth II of Alba, King of Scotland.

He married an unknown person circa 980.

He died on 25 November 1034 at Glamis Castle, Glamis, Angus, Scotland, killed by his kinsmen. He was buried at Isle of Iona, Argyllshire, Scotland.

Malcolm II of Alba, King of Scotland succeeded to the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde between 990 and 991. He was deposed as King of Strathclyde in 995. He gained the title of King Malcolm of Strathclyde in 997. He succeeded to the title of King Malcolm II of Scotland on 25 March 1005. He gained the title of King Malcolm of Lothian circa 1016. He gained the title of King Malcolm of Alba. He gained the title of Prince Malcolm of Cumbria.

Children of Malcolm II of Alba, King of Scotland:

   * Donalda of Alba
   * Bethoc of Scotland b. c 984

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10289.htm#i102888

-------------------- Name: Mael Coluim mac Cinaeda. Mortally wounded by rival branches of the royal house. From a diary of Constance Smith (a relation) she wrote, 'he ws laid to die in the anteroom by the drawing room'. Buried ~ small island, in the Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Iona has an important place in the history of Christianity in Scotland as is popular for its tranquility & natural beauty.

Sources:

The book, 'Scotlands Story'

The book, 'The Queen Mother'

(plus many more ~ see Ancestors/Descendants) -------------------- Malcolm II of Scotland (Máel Coluim mac Cináeda) c. 954-1034 was King of Scotland (Alba) from 1005 to 1034. He was the son of King Kenneth II and first cousin of his predecessor, King Kenneth III (Cináed mac Duib), who was murdered by Malcolm at the Battle of Monzievaird in 1005. He was the last king of the House of Alpin.

His rule was contested for ten years during the reign of Kenneth III but Malcolm finally gained the throne after Kenneth's death. It appears that he only ruled part of Scotland during his reign, in opposition to leaders from Moray such as Findláech mac Ruadrí (d. 1020, probably father of Macbeth), and Máel Coluim mac Máel Brigte (d. 1029), both of whom were also called kings of Alba (and therefore Scotland) in the Irish annals, though neither are called kings of Scotland in modern texts. In 1006, Malcolm was defeated by Northumbrian forces at Durham. The English then became preoccupied with the Danish allowing Malcolm to march south, avenging the loss at Durham by winning the Battle of Carham against the Anglo-Saxons in 1018 and, thereby, regaining Lothian. Thirteen years later, however, Canute, king of England, Denmark, and Norway, invaded Scotland, and forced the Scottish king to submit to him (submission was a traditional expression of personal homage). However, Canute seems to have recognised Malcolm's possession of Lothian.

In the west, Malcolm made an alliance with King Owen the Bald of Strathclyde and together they defeated King Canute at the Battle of Carham in 1018. At the same time, the marriage of his daughter to Sigurd the Stout, Norse Earl of Orkney, extended Malcolm's influence to the far north. He battled to expand his kingdom, gaining land down to the River Tweed and in Strathclyde. When King Owen died without an heir, Malcolm claimed Strathclyde for his grandson, Duncan. This caused dissent throughout the kingdom of Strathclyde which resulted in Malcolm's murder at Glamis in 1034. He was buried on the Isle of Iona shortly after.

As the last of the House of Alpin, he did not have any sons to succeed him. He, therefore, arranged good marriages for his daughters. One daughter married Earl Sigurd of Orkney and their son Thorfinn brought the lands of Caithness and Sutherland under the control of the King of Alba. His elder daughter, Bethoc, married the Abbot of Dunkeld and their son became Duncan I(c.1010-1040), who succeeded Malcolm upon his death in 1034.

After Malcolm II's reign, Scottish succession changed to be based on the principle of direct descent. (Previously, succession was determined by tanistry - during a king's lifetime an heir was chosen and known as tanaiste rig - 'second to the king'.) -------------------- Malcolm_II . Married N.N., daughter of Sigurd

        JARL_OF_ORKNEY.  Died 25 NOV 1034.  !GENEALOGY: Royal Ancestors
        of Magna Charta Barons; Page; 226; G929.72; C6943ra; Denver
        Public Library; Genealogy

             Children of Malcolm_II  and N.N.:

           22       i   Donda , d. 1034

-------------------- SOURCES:

1) GENEALOGY: Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons; Page 228; G929.72;

C6943ra; Denver Public Library; Genealogy

Malcolm II, King of Scots 1005-34, was murdered 25 Nov 1034

2) GENEALOGY: Royal Ancestors of Magna Charta Barons; Page; 226; G929.72;

C6943ra; Denver Public Library; Genealogy -------------------- Malcolm II of ScotlandFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search Malcolm II


Fanciful and anachronistic 17th century depiction of the king; his actual appearance is unknown King of Alba Reign 1005–1034 Predecessor Kenneth III Successor Duncan I


Issue Bethóc Donada Olith


House Alpin Father Kenneth II, King of Alba Died 25 November 1034(1034-11-25) Glamis Burial Iona Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich,[1] known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034),[2] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[3] He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".[4]

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the Kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the Kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the south-east.[5]

Contents 1 Early years 2 Children 3 Bernicia 4 Cnut 5 Orkney and Moray 6 Strathclyde and the succession 7 Death and posterity 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links


[edit] Early yearsIn 997, the killer of Causantín mac Cuilén is credited as being Cináed mac Maíl Coluim. Since there is no known and relevant Cináed alive at that time (Cináed mac Maíl Coluim having died in 995), it is considered an error for either Cináed mac Duib, who succeeded Causantín, or, possibly, Máel Coluim himself, the son of Cináed II.[6] Whether Máel Coluim killed Causantín or not, there is no doubt that in 1005 he killed Causantín's successor Cináed III in battle at Monzievaird in Strathearn.[7]

John of Fordun writes that Máel Coluim defeated a Norwegian army "in almost the first days after his coronation", but this is not reported elsewhere. Fordun says that the Bishopric of Mortlach (later moved to Aberdeen) was founded in thanks for this victory over the Norwegians.[8]

[edit] ChildrenMalcolm II demonstrated a rare ability to survive among early Scottish kings by reigning for twenty-nine years. He was a clever and ambitious man. Brehon tradition provided that the successor to Malcolm was to be selected by him from among the descendants of King Aedh, with the consent of Malcolm’s ministers and of the church. Ostensibly in an attempt to end the devastating feuds in the north of Scotland, but obviously influenced by the Norman feudal model, Malcolm ignored tradition and determined to retain the succession within his own line. But since Malcolm had no son of his own, he undertook to negotiate a series of dynastic marriages of his three daughters to men who might otherwise be his rivals, while securing the loyalty of the principal chiefs, their relatives. First he married his daughter Bethoc to Crinan, Thane of The Isles, head of the house of Atholl and secular Abbot of Dunkeld; then his youngest daughter, Olith, to Sigurd, Earl of Orkney. His middle daughter, Donada, was married to Findláich, Mormaer of Moray, Thane of Ross and Cromarty and a descendant of Loarn of Dalriada. This was risky business under the rules of succession of the Gael, but he thereby secured his rear and, taking advantage of the renewal of Viking attacks on England, marched south to fight the English. He defeated the Angles at Carham in 1018 and installed his grandson, Duncan, son of the Abbot of Dunkeld and his choice as Tanist, in Carlisle as King of Cumbria that same year.[9]

[edit] BerniciaThe first reliable report of Máel Coluim's reign is of an invasion of Bernicia in 1006, perhaps the customary crech ríg (literally royal prey, a raid by a new king made to demonstrate prowess in war), which involved a siege of Durham. This appears to have resulted in a heavy defeat by the Northumbrians, led by Uhtred of Bamburgh, later Earl of Bernicia, which is reported by the Annals of Ulster.[10]

A second war in Bernicia, probably in 1018, was more successful. The Battle of Carham, by the River Tweed, was a victory for the Scots led by Máel Coluim and the men of Strathclyde led by their king, Owen the Bald. By this time Earl Uchtred may have been dead, and Eiríkr Hákonarson was appointed Earl of Northumbria by his brother-in-law Cnut the Great, although his authority seems to have been limited to the south, the former kingdom of Deira, and he took no action against the Scots so far as is known.[11] The work De obsessione Dunelmi (The siege of Durham, associated with Symeon of Durham) claims that Uchtred's brother Eadwulf Cudel surrendered Lothian to Máel Coluim, presumably in the aftermath of the defeat at Carham. This is likely to have been the lands between Dunbar and the Tweed as other parts of Lothian had been under Scots control before this time. It has been suggested that Cnut received tribute from the Scots for Lothian, but as he had likely received none from the Bernician Earls this is not very probable.[12]

[edit] CnutCnut, reports the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, led an army into Scotland on his return from pilgrimage to Rome. The Chronicle dates this to 1031, but there are reasons to suppose that it should be dated to 1027.[13] Burgundian chronicler Rodulfus Glaber recounts the expedition soon afterwards, describing Máel Coluim as "powerful in resources and arms ... very Christian in faith and deed."[14] Ralph claims that peace was made between Máel Coluim and Cnut through the intervention of Richard, Duke of Normandy, brother of Cnut's wife Emma. Richard died in about 1027 and Rodulfus wrote close in time to the events.[15]

It has been suggested that the root of the quarrel between Cnut and Máel Coluim lies in Cnut's pilgrimage to Rome, and the coronation of Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II, where Cnut and Rudolph III, King of Burgundy had the place of honour. If Máel Coluim were present, and the repeated mentions of his piety in the annals make it quite possible that he made a pilgrimage to Rome, as did Mac Bethad mac Findláich ("Macbeth") in later times, then the coronation would have allowed Máel Coluim to publicly snub Cnut's claims to overlordship.[16]

Cnut obtained rather less than previous English kings, a promise of peace and friendship rather than the promise of aid on land and sea that Edgar and others had obtained. The sources say that Máel Coluim was accompanied by one or two other kings, certainly Mac Bethad, and perhaps Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Mann and the Isles, and of Galloway.[17] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle remarks of the submission "but he [Máel Coluim] adhered to that for only a little while".[18] Cnut was soon occupied in Norway against Olaf Haraldsson and appears to have had no further involvement with Scotland.

[edit] Orkney and MorayOlith a daughter of Máel Coluim, married Sigurd Hlodvisson, Earl of Orkney.[19] Their son Thorfinn Sigurdsson was said to be five years old when Sigurd was killed on 23 April 1014 in the Battle of Clontarf. The Orkneyinga Saga says that Thorfinn was raised at Máel Coluim's court and was given the Mormaerdom of Caithness by his grandfather. Thorfinn, says the Heimskringla, was the ally of the king of Scots, and counted on Máel Coluim's support to resist the "tyranny" of Norwegian King Olaf Haraldsson.[20] The chronology of Thorfinn's life is problematic, and he may have had a share in the Earldom of Orkney while still a child, if he was indeed only five in 1014.[21] Whatever the exact chronology, before Máel Coluim's death a client of the king of Scots was in control of Caithness and Orkney, although, as with all such relationships, it is unlikely to have lasted beyond his death.

If Máel Coluim exercised control over Moray, which is far from being generally accepted, then the annals record a number of events pointing to a struggle for power in the north. In 1020, Mac Bethad's father Findláech mac Ruaidrí was killed by the sons of his brother Máel Brigte.[22] It seems that Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti took control of Moray, for his death is reported in 1029.[23]

Despite the accounts of the Irish annals, English and Scandinavian writers appear to see Mac Bethad as the rightful king of Moray: this is clear from their descriptions of the meeting with Cnut in 1027, before the death of Máel Coluim mac Máil Brigti. Máel Coluim was followed as king or mormaer by his brother Gille Coemgáin, husband of Gruoch, a granddaughter of King Cináed III. It has been supposed that Mac Bethad was responsible for the killing of Gille Coemgáin in 1032, but if Mac Bethad had a cause for feud in the killing of his father in 1020, Máel Coluim too had reason to see Gille Coemgáin dead. Not only had Gille Coemgáin's ancestors killed many of Máel Coluim's kin, but Gille Coemgáin and his son Lulach might be rivals for the throne. Máel Coluim had no living sons, and the threat to his plans for the succession was obvious. As a result, the following year Gruoch's brother or nephew, who might have eventually become king, was killed by Máel Coluim.[24]

[edit] Strathclyde and the successionIt has traditionally been supposed that King Eógan the Bald of Strathclyde died at the Battle of Carham and that the kingdom passed into the hands of the Scots afterwards. This rests on some very weak evidence. It is far from certain that Eógan died at Carham, and it is reasonably certain that there were kings of Strathclyde as late as the 1054, when Edward the Confessor sent Earl Siward to install "Máel Coluim son of the king of the Cumbrians". The confusion is old, probably inspired by William of Malmesbury and embellished by John of Fordun, but there is no firm evidence that the kingdom of Strathclyde was a part of the kingdom of the Scots, rather than a loosely subjected kingdom, before the time of Máel Coluim II of Scotland's great-grandson Máel Coluim mac Donnchada.[25]

By the 1030s Máel Coluim's sons, if he had any, were dead. The only evidence that he did have a son or sons is in Rodulfus Glaber's chronicle where Cnut is said to have stood as godfather to a son of Máel Coluim.[26] His grandson Thorfinn would have been unlikely to accepted as king by the Scots, and he chose the sons of his other daughter, Bethóc, who was married to Crínán, lay abbot of Dunkeld, and perhaps Mormaer of Atholl. It may be no more than coincidence, but in 1027 the Irish annals had reported the burning of Dunkeld, although no mention is made of the circumstances.[27] Máel Coluim's chosen heir, and the first tánaise ríg certainly known in Scotland, was Donnchad mac Crínáin ("Duncan I").

It is possible that a third daughter of Máel Coluim married Findláech mac Ruaidrí and that Mac Bethad was thus his grandson, but this rests on relatively weak evidence.[28]

[edit] Death and posterity C19th engraving of "King Malcolm's grave stone" (Glamis no. 2) at GlamisMáel Coluim died in 1034, Marianus Scotus giving the date as 25 November 1034. The king lists say that he died at Glamis, variously describing him as a "most glorious" or "most victorious" king. The Annals of Tigernach report that "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, king of Scotland, the honour of all the west of Europe, died." The Prophecy of Berchán, perhaps the inspiration for John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun's accounts where Máel Coluim is killed fighting bandits, says that he died by violence, fighting "the parricides", suggested to be the sons of Máel Brigte of Moray.[29]

Perhaps the most notable feature of Máel Coluim's death is the account of Marianus, matched by the silence of the Irish annals, which tells us that Donnchad I became king and ruled for five years and nine months. Given that his death in 1040 is described as being "at an immature age" in the Annals of Tigernach, he must have been a young man in 1034. The absence of any opposition suggests that Máel Coluim had dealt thoroughly with any likely opposition in his own lifetime.[30]

Tradition, dating from Fordun's time if not earlier, knew the Pictish stone now called "Glamis 2" as "King Malcolm's grave stone". The stone is a Class II stone, apparently formed by re-using a Bronze Age standing stone. Its dating is uncertain, with dates from the 8th century onwards having been proposed. While an earlier date is favoured, an association with accounts of Máel Coluim's has been proposed on the basis of the iconography of the carvings.[31]

On the question of Máel Coluim's putative pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Rome, or other long-distance journeys, were far from unusual. Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Cnut and Mac Bethad have already been mentioned. Rognvald Kali Kolsson is known to have gone crusading in the Mediterranean in the 12th century. Nearer in time, Dyfnwal of Strathclyde died on pilgrimage to Rome in 975 as did Máel Ruanaid uá Máele Doraid, King of the Cenél Conaill, in 1025.

Not a great deal is known of Máel Coluim's activities beyond the wars and killings. The Book of Deer records that Máel Coluim "gave a king's dues in Biffie and in Pett Meic-Gobraig, and two davochs" to the monastery of Old Deer.[32] He was also probably not the founder of the Bishopric of Mortlach-Aberdeen. John of Fordun has a peculiar tale to tell, related to the supposed "Laws of Malcolm MacKenneth", saying that Máel Coluim gave away all of Scotland, except for the Moot Hill at Scone, which is unlikely to have any basis in fact.[33]

-------------------- Reign 25 Mar 1005-25 Nov 1034. Malcolm became king of Scots in 1005, after killing his cousin and predecessor Kenneth son of Dub in a battle. He led an attack on Durham, England in 1006, but was decisively defeated after the siege was broken. The most important event of his reign was probably the battle of Carham, which occurred in either 1016 or 1018. Malcolm led an invasion of Northumbria, and his victory pushed the Scottish realm well into traditional English territories. An important consequence of the battle was the death of Owen, the last native king of Strathclyde, which, from this point on, was part of the kingdom of the Scots.

A notable external event was Malcolm's meeting with King Canute of England in 1031.

Malcolm had no sons, but he apparently wanted his descendants to rule the Scots, so he tried to revolutionize succession practices by arranging to have one of his grandsons succeed him. To this end, he had competing claimants of the house of Alpin murdered in the early 1030's. Upon his death he was succeeded by his grandson Duncan. -------------------- Murdered. King of Alba, King of Strathclyde. Said to have married an Irishwoman King Of Scotland between 1005 and 1034

-------------------- Konge av Skotland 1005-34. -------------------- King of Alba


Reign 1005–1034

Predecessor Kenneth III

Successor Duncan I


Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (Modern Gaelic: Maol Chaluim mac Choinnich,[1] known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II; died 25 November 1034),[2] was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death.[3] He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".[4]

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the Kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the southeast.[5]

Issue

Bethóc

Donada
Olith 

House Alpin

Father Kenneth II, King of Alba

Born 5 October 954

Died 25 November 1034 Glamis

Burial Iona

-------------------- Máel Coluim mac Cináeda known in modern anglicized regnal lists as Malcolm II was King of the Scots from 1005 until his death. He was a son of Cináed mac Maíl Coluim; the Prophecy of Berchán says that his mother was a woman of Leinster and refers to him as Máel Coluim Forranach, "the destroyer".

To the Irish annals which recorded his death, Máel Coluim was ard rí Alban, High King of Scotland. In the same way that Brian Bóruma, High King of Ireland, was not the only king in Ireland, Máel Coluim was one of several kings within the geographical boundaries of modern Scotland: his fellow kings included the king of Strathclyde, who ruled much of the south-west, various Norse-Gael kings of the western coasts and the Hebrides and, nearest and most dangerous rivals, the kings or Mormaers of Moray. To the south, in the Kingdom of England, the Earls of Bernicia and Northumbria, whose predecessors as kings of Northumbria had once ruled most of southern Scotland, still controlled large parts of the southeast.

Máel Coluim died in 1034, Marianus Scotus giving the date as 25 November 1034. The king lists say that he died at Glamis, variously describing him as a "most glorious" or "most victorious" king. The Annals of Tigernach report that "Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, king of Scotland, the honour of all the west of Europe, died." The Prophecy of Berchán, perhaps the inspiration for John of Fordun and Andrew of Wyntoun's accounts where Máel Coluim is killed fighting bandits, says that he died by violence, fighting "the parricides", suggested to be the sons of Máel Brigte of Moray.

Perhaps the most notable feature of Máel Coluim's death is the account of Marianus, matched by the silence of the Irish annals, which tells us that Donnchad I became king and ruled for five years and nine months. Given that his death in 1040 is described as being "at an immature age" in the Annals of Tigernach, he must have been a young man in 1034. The absence of any opposition suggests that Máel Coluim had dealt thoroughly with any likely opposition in his own lifetime.

Tradition, dating from Fordun's time if not earlier, knew the Pictish stone now called "Glamis 2" as "King Malcolm's grave stone". The stone is a Class II stone, apparently formed by re-using a Bronze Age standing stone. Its dating is uncertain, with dates from the 8th century onwards having been proposed. While an earlier date is favoured, an association with accounts of Máel Coluim's has been proposed on the basis of the iconography of the carvings.

On the question of Máel Coluim's putative pilgrimage, pilgrimages to Rome, or other long-distance journeys, were far from unusual. Thorfinn Sigurdsson, Cnut and Mac Bethad have already been mentioned. Rognvald Kali Kolsson is known to have gone crusading in the Mediterranean in the 12th century. Nearer in time, Dyfnwal of Strathclyde died on pilgrimage to Rome in 975 as did Máel Ruanaid uá Máele Doraid, King of the Cenél Conaill, in 1025.

Not a great deal is known of Máel Coluim's activities beyond the wars and killings. The Book of Deer records that Máel Coluim "gave a king's dues in Biffie and in Pett Meic-Gobraig, and two davochs" to the monastery of Old Deer. He was also probably not the founder of the Bishopric of Mortlach-Aberdeen. John of Fordun has a peculiar tale to tell, related to the supposed "Laws of Malcolm MacKenneth", saying that Máel Coluim gave away all of Scotland, except for the Moot Hill at Scone, which is unlikely to have any basis in fact.

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Malcolm II "The Destroyer", King of Scots's Timeline

943
943
King of Alba
954
954
Dunkeld, Perthshire, Scotland
984
984
Age 30
Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
985
985
Age 31
Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
988
988
Age 34
Atholl, Perthshire, Scotland
995
995
Age 41
King of the Scots
1005
1005
- 1034
Age 51
1005
- 1034
Age 51
Scotland
1005
- 1034
Age 51
1008
1008
Age 54
Scotland