Manuel I 'o Afortunado' de Portugal, rei de Portugal (1469 - 1521) MP

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Nicknames: "Emmanuel Of /Portugal/", "Le Grand", "(English: Emmanuel I)", "the Fortunate (Port. o Venturoso)"
Birthplace: Alochete, Setubel, Portugal
Death: Died in Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
Occupation: duque de Beja (3rd, 1484-1495), duque de Viseu (4th, 1484-1495), King of Portugal and do Algarve (1495-1521), Roi du Portugal, Manuel I de Aviz, Rei de Portugal, King of Portugal and Algarves (17.10.1495-1521), sn de Guinee, Manuel I of Portugal, King
Managed by: Noah Gregory Tutak
Last Updated:

About Manuel I 'o Afortunado' de Portugal, rei de Portugal

Manuel I of Portugal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Manuel I (pronounced [mɐnuˈɛɫ]); Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. o Venturoso), 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves (Alcochete, May 31, 1469 – December 13, 1521 in Lisbon) was the son of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, Infanta Beatriz of Portugal. His mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal; his father was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal. Manuel succeeded his first cousin John II of Portugal, who was also his brother-in-law, in 1495.

Manuel grew up among the conspiracies of the aristocratic high nobility against king John II. He watched many people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diogo, the duke of Viseu, was murdered by the king himself. Thus, when receiving a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, Manuel had every reason to worry. Without reason: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne, after the death of his son, Prince Afonso, and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. As a result of this stroke of luck he was nicknamed the Fortunate.

Manuel would prove a worthy successor to John II, supporting the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and the development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following was achieved:

1498 — Vasco da Gama discovers the maritime route to India

1500 — Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil

1505 — Francisco de Almeida becomes the first viceroy of India

1503-1515 — Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, secures the monopoly of the Indian ocean and Persian Gulf maritime routes for Portugal

All these events made Portugal rich on foreign trade whilst formally establishing its empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the Manueline style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with China and the Persian Empire. The Pope received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign, designed to be a show of the newly acquired riches to all Europe.

In Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Cortes (assembly of the kingdom) only met three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights.

Manuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to sponsor missionaries in their journeys to the new colonies, such as Francisco Álvares, and the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade, against the Turks. His relationship with the Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of João II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (widow of his nephew Prince Afonso). Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492, and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence. In December 1496, it was decreed that any Jew who did not convert to Christianity would be expelled from the country. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who used force, coercion, and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country. This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later to extended to end in 1534. A popular riot in 1504 ended in the death of two thousand Jews; the leaders of this riot were executed by Manuel.

Isabella died in childbirth in 1498, putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had had since the reign of Fernando I (1367-1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 ended these ambitions. Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was also a Spanish princess, but not the oldest. This was Joanna of Castile, known as Joanna the Mad.

In 1506 the Pope Julius II gave Manuel II a Golden Rose.

The Monastery of Jerónimos in Lisbon houses Manuel's tomb. His son João succeeded him as king.

Spouse Isabella, Princess of Asturias

Maria of Aragon

Eleanor of Habsburg

among others... Issue

Miguel da Paz, Prince of Asturias and Portugal

John III of Portugal

Isabella, Holy Roman Empress

Beatrice, Duchess of Savoy

Infante Luís, Duke of Beja

Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso

Infante Cardinal Afonso

Henry of Portugal

Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães

Infanta Maria

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Portugal

Manuel I of Portugal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to:navigation, search

This article does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2009)

Manuel I

King of Portugal and the Algarves

of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc.

17th century painting of Manuel I

Reign October 25, 1495—December 13, 1521

Coronation October 27, 1495 in Alcácer do Sal

Predecessor John II

Successor John III

Spouse Isabella, Princess of Asturias

Maria of Aragon

Eleanor of Habsburg

among others...

Issue

Miguel da Paz, Prince of Asturias and Portugal

John III of Portugal

Isabella, Holy Roman Empress

Beatrice, Duchess of Savoy

Infante Luís, Duke of Beja

Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso

Infante Cardinal Afonso

Henry of Portugal

Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães

Infanta Maria

House House of Aviz-Beja

Father Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu

Mother Infanta Beatrice of Portugal

Born May 31, 1469(1469-05-31)

Alcochete, Kingdom of Portugal

Died December 13, 1521 (aged 52)

Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal

Burial Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon, District of Lisbon, Portugal

Coat of Arms of Manuel I, according to the Livro do Armeiro-Mor c. 1509

Manuel I of Portugal, by Henrique Ferreira, 1718

Portuguese royalty

House of Aviz-Beja

Flag Manuel I of Portugal.svg

Manuel I

Children include

  Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and of Asturias
  John III
  Isabella, Holy Roman Empress
  Beatrice, Duchess of Savoy
  Louis, Duke of Beja
  Ferdinand, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso
  Cardinal-Infante Afonso
  Henry
  Edward, Duke of Guimarães
  Maria, Lady of Viseu

Grandchildren include

  Anthony (illegitimate)
  Maria, Duchess of Parma and Piacenza
  Catherine, Duchess of Braganza

Great-Great-Grandchildren include

  John IV

John III

Children include

  Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal and of Asturias
  John Manuel, Prince of Portugal

Grandchildren include

  Sebastian

Sebastian

Henry

Anthony

Manuel I (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐnuˈɛɫ]; Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. o Venturoso), 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves (Alcochete, May 31, 1469 – December 13, 1521 in Lisbon) was the son of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu, (1433 - 1470), by his wife, Infanta Beatriz of Portugal.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Life
   * 2 Ancestry
   * 3 Marriages and descendants
   * 4 See also

[edit] Life

His mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal; his father, Prince Fernando, was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal, being thus the cadet brother of King Afonso V of Portugal. Manuel succeeded his first cousin King John II of Portugal, who was also his brother-in-law, in 1495.

Manuel grew up among the conspiracies of the aristocratic high nobility against king John II. He watched many people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diogo, the duke of Viseu, had been murdered in 1484 by the king himself.

Thus, when receiving a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, Manuel had every reason to worry. Without reason: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne, after the death of his son, Prince Afonso, and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. As a result of this stroke of luck he was nicknamed the Fortunate.

Manuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin King John II, supporting the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and the development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following was achieved:

   * 1498 — Vasco da Gama discovers the maritime route to India
   * 1500 — Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil
   * 1505 — Francisco de Almeida becomes the first viceroy of India
   * 1503-1515 — Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, secures the monopoly of the Indian ocean and Persian Gulf maritime routes for Portugal

All these events made Portugal rich on foreign trade whilst formally establishing its empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the Manueline style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with China and the Persian Empire. The Pope received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign, designed to be a show of the newly acquired riches to all Europe.

In Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Cortes (assembly of the kingdom) only met three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights.

Manuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to sponsor missionaries in their journeys to the new colonies, such as Francisco Álvares, and the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade, against the Turks.

His relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of João II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (widow of his nephew Prince Afonso). Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492, and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence.

In December 1496, it was decreed that any Jew who did not convert to Christianity would be expelled from the country. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who used force, coercion, and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country. This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later to extended to end in 1534.

A popular riot in 1504 ended in the death of two thousand Jews; the leaders of this riot were executed by Manuel. In recent years, Portugal attempted to atone for the expulsion of the Jews. In a ceremony, Justice Minister José Eduardo Vera Jardim called the expulsion of Portugal's Jews a black piece of our history. The state, he said, owes Jews moral reparation for centuries of brutal persecution.(New York Times, December 6, 1996).

Isabella died in childbirth in 1498, putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had had since the reign of Fernando I (1367-1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 ended these ambitions. Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was also a Spanish princess, but not the oldest. This was Joanna of Castile, known as Joanna the Mad.

In 1506 the Pope Julius II gave Manuel I a Golden Rose.

The Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon houses Manuel's tomb. His son João succeeded him as king.

Marriages and descendants

Negotiations for a marriage between Manuel and Elizabeth of York in 1485 were halted by the death of Richard III of England. He went on to marry three times: first to Isabella of Aragon, princess of Spain and widow of the previous Crown Prince of Portugal Afonso of Portugal; then he married another princess of Spain, Maria of Aragon (his first wife's sister); and then married Eleanor of Habsburg (niece of his first two wives) who after Manuel's death married again to Francis I of France.

Name Birth Death Notes

By Isabella of Asturias (October 2, 1470–August 28, 1498; married in 1497)

Prince Miguel da Paz August 24, 1498 July 19, 1500 Prince of Asturias, Prince of Portugal and heir to both Portugal and Spain.

By Maria of Aragon (June 19, 1482–March 7, 1517; married in 1501)

Prince João (John) June 6, 1502 June 11, 1557 Who succeeded him as John III, 15th King of Portugal.

Infanta Isabel (Elizabeth) October 24, 1503 May 1, 1539 Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice) December 31, 1504 January 8, 1538 Duchess of Savoy by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Savoy.

Infante Luís (Louis) March 3, 1506 November 27, 1555 Unmarried but had illegitimate descendants, one of them being António, Prior of Crato, a claimant of the throne of Portugal in 1580 (See: Struggle for the throne of Portugal).

Infante Fernando (Ferdinand) June 5, 1507 November 7, 1534 Duke of Guarda and Trancoso. Married Guiomar (Guyomare) Coutinho, 5th Countess of Marialva and 3rd Countess of Loulé (?-1534). No surviving issue.

Infante Afonso (Alphonse) April 23, 1509 April 21, 1540 Cardinal of the Kingdom.

Infanta Maria (Mary) 1513 1513

Infante Henrique (Henry) January 31, 1512 January 31, 1580 Cardinal of the Kingdom who succeeded his grandnephew, King Sebastian (Manuel I's great-grandson), as Cardinal Henry, 17th King of Portugal. His death triggered the struggle for the throne of Portugal.

Infante Duarte (Edward) October 7, 1515 September 20, 1540 Duke of Guimarães and great-grandfather of John IV of Portugal. Married Isabel of Braganza, daughter of Jaime, Duke of Braganza.

Infante António (Anthony) September 9, 1516 1516

By Eleanor of Habsburg (November 15, 1498–February 25, 1558; married in 1518)

Infante Carlos (Charles) February 18, 1520 April 14, 1521

Infanta Maria (Mary) June 18, 1521 October 10, 1577 Unmarried.

[edit] See also

   * Manueline, an architectural style

This page was last modified on 28 May 2010 at 23:40

--------------------

Manuel I of Portugal

Manuel I of Portugal

Manuel I, King of Portugal KG KGF (pron. IPA [m?nu'??]); Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. o Venturoso), 14th king of Portugal and Algarves (Alcochete, May 31, 1469 – December 13, 1521 in Lisbon) was the son of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu , by his wife, Beatrice of Aveiro, princess of Portugal. His mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal; his father was the second surviving son of King Duarte of Portugal. Manuel succeeded his first cousin John II of Portugal who was also his brother-in-law in 1495.

Manuel grew up among the conspiracies of the aristocratic high nobility against king John II. He watched many people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diego, the duke of Viseu, was murdered by the king himself. Thus, when receiving a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, Manuel had every reason to worry. Without reason: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne, after the death of his son, Afonso, Crown Prince of Portugal, and the failed attempts to legitimise George, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. As a result of this stroke of luck he was nicknamed the Fortunate.

Manuel would prove a worthy successor to John II, supporting the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and the development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following was achieved:

   * 1498 — Vasco da Gama discovers the maritime route to India
   * 1500 — Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil
   * 1505 — Francisco de Almeida becomes the first viceroy of India
   * 1503-1515 — Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, secures the monopoly of the Indian ocean and Persian Gulf maritime routes for Portugal

All these events made Portugal rich on foreign trade whilst formally establishing its empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the Manueline style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with China and the Persian Empire. The Pope received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign, designed to be a show of the newly acquired riches to all Europe.

Coat of Arms of Manuel I, according to the Livro do Armeiro-Mor c. 1509

Coat of Arms of Manuel I, according to the Livro do Armeiro-Mor c. 1509

In Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The cortes (parliament of the kingdom) only met three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights.

Manuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to sponsor missionaries in their journeys to the new colonies, such as Francisco Alvarez, and the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade, against the Turks. His relationship with the Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of João II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry princess Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (widow of his nephew Afonso, Crown Prince of Portugal). Ferdinand and Isabel had expelled the Jews in 1492, and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence. In December 1496, it was decreed that any Jew who did not convert to Christianity would be expelled from the country. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who used force, coercion, and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country. This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later to extended to end in 1534. A popular riot in 1504 would end in the death of two thousand Jews; the leaders of this riot were executed by Manuel.

Manuel I of Portugal, by Henrique Ferreira, 1718

Isabella died in childbirth in 1498, putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had had since the reign of Fernando I (1367-1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 ended these ambitions. Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was also a Spanish princess, but not the oldest. This was Joanna of Castile, known as Joanna the Mad.

The Monastery of Jerónimos in Lisbon houses Manuel's tomb. His son João succeeded him as king.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Portugal

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Portugal

Manuel I (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐnuˈɛɫ]; Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. o Venturoso), 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves (Alcochete, May 31, 1469 – December 13, 1521 in Lisbon) was the son of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu, (1433 - 1470), by his wife, Infanta Beatriz of Portugal.

His mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal; his father, Prince Fernando, was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal, being thus the cadet brother of King Afonso V of Portugal. Manuel succeeded his first cousin King John II of Portugal, who was also his brother-in-law, in 1495.

Manuel grew up among the conspiracies of the aristocratic high nobility against king John II. He watched many people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diogo, the duke of Viseu, had been murdered in 1484 by the king himself.

Thus, when receiving a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, Manuel had every reason to worry. Without reason: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne, after the death of his son, Prince Afonso, and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. As a result of this stroke of luck he was nicknamed the Fortunate.

Manuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin King John II, supporting the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and the development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following was achieved:

1498 — Vasco da Gama discovers the maritime route to India

1500 — Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil

1505 — Francisco de Almeida becomes the first viceroy of India

1503-1515 — Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, secures the monopoly of the Indian ocean and Persian Gulf maritime routes for Portugal

All these events made Portugal rich on foreign trade whilst formally establishing its empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the Manueline style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with China and the Persian Empire. The Pope received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign, designed to be a show of the newly acquired riches to all Europe.

In Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Cortes (assembly of the kingdom) only met three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights.

Manuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to sponsor missionaries in their journeys to the new colonies, such as Francisco Álvares, and the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade, against the Turks.

His relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of João II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (widow of his nephew Prince Afonso). Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492, and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence.

In December 1496, it was decreed that any Jew who did not convert to Christianity would be expelled from the country. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who used force, coercion, and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country. This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later to extended to end in 1534.

A popular riot in 1504 ended in the death of two thousand Jews; the leaders of this riot were executed by Manuel. In recent years, Portugal attempted to atone for the expulsion of the Jews. In a ceremony, Justice Minister José Eduardo Vera Jardim called the expulsion of Portugal's Jews a black piece of our history. The state, he said, owes Jews moral reparation for centuries of brutal persecution.(New York Times, December 6, 1996).

Isabella died in childbirth in 1498, putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had had since the reign of Fernando I (1367-1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 ended these ambitions. Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was also a Spanish princess, but not the oldest. This was Joanna of Castile, known as Joanna the Mad.

In 1506 the Pope Julius II gave Manuel I a Golden Rose.

The Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon houses Manuel's tomb. His son João succeeded him as king.

Marriages and descendants

Negotiations for a marriage between Manuel and Elizabeth of York in 1485 were halted by the death of Richard III of England. He went on to marry three times: first to Isabella of Aragon, princess of Spain and widow of the previous Crown Prince of Portugal Afonso of Portugal; then he married another princess of Spain, Maria of Aragon (his first wife's sister); and then married Eleanor of Habsburg (niece of his first two wives) who after Manuel's death married again to Francis I of France.

1. By Isabella of Asturias (October 2, 1470–August 28, 1498; married in 1497)

Prince Miguel da Paz August 24, 1498 July 19, 1500 Prince of Asturias, Prince of Portugal and heir to both Portugal and Spain.

2. By Maria of Aragon (June 19, 1482–March 7, 1517; married in 1501)

Prince João (John) June 6, 1502 June 11, 1557 Who succeeded him as John III, 15th King of Portugal.

Infanta Isabel (Elizabeth) October 24, 1503 May 1, 1539 Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice) December 31, 1504 January 8, 1538; Duchess of Savoy by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Savoy.

Infante Luís (Louis) March 3, 1506 November 27, 1555 Unmarried but had illegitimate descendants, one of them being António, Prior of Crato, a claimant of the throne of Portugal in 1580 (See: Struggle for the throne of Portugal).

Infante Fernando (Ferdinand) June 5, 1507 November 7, 1534 Duke of Guarda and Trancoso. Married Guiomar (Guyomare) Coutinho, 5th Countess of Marialva and 3rd Countess of Loulé (?-1534). No surviving issue.

Infante Afonso (Alphonse) April 23, 1509 April 21, 1540 Cardinal of the Kingdom.

Infanta Maria (Mary) 1513 1513

Infante Henrique (Henry) January 31, 1512 January 31, 1580 Cardinal of the Kingdom who succeeded his grandnephew, King Sebastian (Manuel I's great-grandson), as Cardinal Henry, 17th King of Portugal. His death triggered the struggle for the throne of Portugal.

Infante Duarte (Edward) October 7, 1515 September 20, 1540 Duke of Guimarães and great-grandfather of John IV of Portugal. Married Isabel of Braganza, daughter of Jaime, Duke of Braganza.

Infante António (Anthony) September 9, 1516 1516

3. By Eleanor of Habsburg (November 15, 1498–February 25, 1558; married in 1518)

Infante Carlos (Charles) February 18, 1520 April 14, 1521

Infanta Maria (Mary) June 18, 1521 October 10, 1577 Unmarried.

--------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Portugal

Manuel I of Portugal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

This article does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2009)

Manuel I

King of Portugal and the Algarves

of either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India, etc.

17th century painting of Manuel I

Reign October 25, 1495—December 13, 1521

Coronation October 27, 1495 in Alcácer do Sal

Predecessor John II

Successor John III

Spouse Isabella, Princess of Asturias

Maria of Aragon

Eleanor of Habsburg

among others...

Issue

Miguel da Paz, Prince of Asturias and Portugal

John III of Portugal

Isabella, Holy Roman Empress

Beatrice, Duchess of Savoy

Infante Luís, Duke of Beja

Infante Fernando, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso

Infante Cardinal Afonso

Henry of Portugal

Infante Duarte, Duke of Guimarães

Infanta Maria

House House of Aviz-Beja

Father Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu

Mother Infanta Beatrice of Portugal

Born May 31, 1469(1469-05-31)

Alcochete, Kingdom of Portugal

Died December 13, 1521 (aged 52)

Lisbon, Kingdom of Portugal

Burial Jerónimos Monastery, Lisbon, District of Lisbon, Portugal

Coat of Arms of Manuel I, according to the Livro do Armeiro-Mor c. 1509

Manuel I of Portugal, by Henrique Ferreira, 1718

Portuguese royalty

House of Aviz-Beja

Flag Manuel I of Portugal.svg

Manuel I

Children include

  Miguel da Paz, Prince of Portugal and of Asturias
  John III
  Isabella, Holy Roman Empress
  Beatrice, Duchess of Savoy
  Louis, Duke of Beja
  Ferdinand, Duke of Guarda and Trancoso
  Cardinal-Infante Afonso
  Henry
  Edward, Duke of Guimarães
  Maria, Lady of Viseu

Grandchildren include

  Anthony (illegitimate)
  Maria, Duchess of Parma and Piacenza
  Catherine, Duchess of Braganza

Great-Great-Grandchildren include

  John IV

John III

Children include

  Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal and of Asturias
  John Manuel, Prince of Portugal

Grandchildren include

  Sebastian

Sebastian

Henry

Anthony

Manuel I (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐnuˈɛɫ]; Archaic Portuguese: Manoel I, English: Emmanuel I), the Fortunate (Port. o Venturoso), 14th king of Portugal and the Algarves (Alcochete, May 31, 1469 – December 13, 1521 in Lisbon) was the son of Infante Fernando, Duke of Viseu, (1433 - 1470), by his wife, Infanta Beatriz of Portugal.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Life
   * 2 Ancestry
   * 3 Marriages and descendants
   * 4 See also

[edit] Life

His mother was the granddaughter of King John I of Portugal; his father, Prince Fernando, was the second surviving son of King Edward of Portugal, being thus the cadet brother of King Afonso V of Portugal. Manuel succeeded his first cousin King John II of Portugal, who was also his brother-in-law, in 1495.

Manuel grew up among the conspiracies of the aristocratic high nobility against king John II. He watched many people being killed and exiled. His older brother Diogo, the duke of Viseu, had been murdered in 1484 by the king himself.

Thus, when receiving a royal order in 1493 to present himself to the king, Manuel had every reason to worry. Without reason: John II wanted to name him heir to the throne, after the death of his son, Prince Afonso, and the failed attempts to legitimise Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son. As a result of this stroke of luck he was nicknamed the Fortunate.

Manuel would prove a worthy successor to his cousin King John II, supporting the Portuguese exploration of the Atlantic Ocean and the development of Portuguese commerce. During his reign, the following was achieved:

   * 1498 — Vasco da Gama discovers the maritime route to India
   * 1500 — Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil
   * 1505 — Francisco de Almeida becomes the first viceroy of India
   * 1503-1515 — Afonso de Albuquerque, an admiral, secures the monopoly of the Indian ocean and Persian Gulf maritime routes for Portugal

All these events made Portugal rich on foreign trade whilst formally establishing its empire. Manuel used the wealth to build a number of royal buildings (in the Manueline style) and to attract scientists and artists to his court. Commercial treaties and diplomatic alliances were forged with China and the Persian Empire. The Pope received a monumental embassy from Portugal during his reign, designed to be a show of the newly acquired riches to all Europe.

In Manuel's reign, royal absolutism was the method of government. The Cortes (assembly of the kingdom) only met three times during his reign, always in Lisbon, the king's seat. He reformed the courts of justice and the municipal charters with the crown, modernizing taxes and the concepts of tributes and rights.

Manuel was a very religious man and invested a large amount of Portuguese income to sponsor missionaries in their journeys to the new colonies, such as Francisco Álvares, and the construction of religious buildings, such as the Monastery of Jerónimos. Manuel also endeavoured to promote another crusade, against the Turks.

His relationship with the Portuguese Jews started out well. At the outset of his reign, he released all the Jews who had been made captive during the reign of João II. Unfortunately for the Jews, he decided that he wanted to marry Infanta Isabella of Aragon, then heiress of the future united crown of Spain (widow of his nephew Prince Afonso). Ferdinand and Isabella had expelled the Jews in 1492, and would never marry their daughter to the king of a country that still tolerated their presence.

In December 1496, it was decreed that any Jew who did not convert to Christianity would be expelled from the country. However, those expelled could only leave the country in ships specified by the king. When those who chose expulsion arrived at the port in Lisbon, they were met by clerics and soldiers who used force, coercion, and promises in order to baptize them and prevent them from leaving the country. This period of time technically ended the presence of Jews in Portugal. Afterwards, all converted Jews and their descendants would be referred to as "New Christians", and they were given a grace period of thirty years in which no inquiries into their faith would be allowed; this was later to extended to end in 1534.

A popular riot in 1504 ended in the death of two thousand Jews; the leaders of this riot were executed by Manuel. In recent years, Portugal attempted to atone for the expulsion of the Jews. In a ceremony, Justice Minister José Eduardo Vera Jardim called the expulsion of Portugal's Jews a black piece of our history. The state, he said, owes Jews moral reparation for centuries of brutal persecution.(New York Times, December 6, 1996).

Isabella died in childbirth in 1498, putting a damper on Portuguese ambitions to rule in Spain, which various rulers had had since the reign of Fernando I (1367-1383). Manuel and Isabella's young son Miguel was for a period the heir apparent of Castile and Aragon, but his death in 1500 ended these ambitions. Manuel's next wife, Maria of Aragon, was also a Spanish princess, but not the oldest. This was Joanna of Castile, known as Joanna the Mad.

In 1506 the Pope Julius II gave Manuel I a Golden Rose.

The Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon houses Manuel's tomb. His son João succeeded him as king.

Marriages and descendants

Negotiations for a marriage between Manuel and Elizabeth of York in 1485 were halted by the death of Richard III of England. He went on to marry three times: first to Isabella of Aragon, princess of Spain and widow of the previous Crown Prince of Portugal Afonso of Portugal; then he married another princess of Spain, Maria of Aragon (his first wife's sister); and then married Eleanor of Habsburg (niece of his first two wives) who after Manuel's death married again to Francis I of France.

Name Birth Death Notes

By Isabella of Asturias (October 2, 1470–August 28, 1498; married in 1497)

Prince Miguel da Paz August 24, 1498 July 19, 1500 Prince of Asturias, Prince of Portugal and heir to both Portugal and Spain.

By Maria of Aragon (June 19, 1482–March 7, 1517; married in 1501)

Prince João (John) June 6, 1502 June 11, 1557 Who succeeded him as John III, 15th King of Portugal.

Infanta Isabel (Elizabeth) October 24, 1503 May 1, 1539 Holy Roman Empress by marriage to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice) December 31, 1504 January 8, 1538 Duchess of Savoy by marriage to Charles III, Duke of Savoy.

Infante Luís (Louis) March 3, 1506 November 27, 1555 Unmarried but had illegitimate descendants, one of them being António, Prior of Crato, a claimant of the throne of Portugal in 1580 (See: Struggle for the throne of Portugal).

Infante Fernando (Ferdinand) June 5, 1507 November 7, 1534 Duke of Guarda and Trancoso. Married Guiomar (Guyomare) Coutinho, 5th Countess of Marialva and 3rd Countess of Loulé (?-1534). No surviving issue.

Infante Afonso (Alphonse) April 23, 1509 April 21, 1540 Cardinal of the Kingdom.

Infanta Maria (Mary) 1513 1513

Infante Henrique (Henry) January 31, 1512 January 31, 1580 Cardinal of the Kingdom who succeeded his grandnephew, King Sebastian (Manuel I's great-grandson), as Cardinal Henry, 17th King of Portugal. His death triggered the struggle for the throne of Portugal.

Infante Duarte (Edward) October 7, 1515 September 20, 1540 Duke of Guimarães and great-grandfather of John IV of Portugal. Married Isabel of Braganza, daughter of Jaime, Duke of Braganza.

Infante António (Anthony) September 9, 1516 1516

By Eleanor of Habsburg (November 15, 1498–February 25, 1558; married in 1518)

Infante Carlos (Charles) February 18, 1520 April 14, 1521

Infanta Maria (Mary) June 18, 1521 October 10, 1577 Unmarried.

[edit] See also

   * Manueline, an architectural style

This page was last modified on 1 August 2010 at 00:34.

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Manuel I o Venturoso, Rei de Portugal's Timeline

1469
June 1, 1469
Alochete, Setubel, Portugal
1497
October 1497
Age 28
Villa Valencia,D'Alcántara,Cáceres,Spain
1498
August 23, 1498
Age 29
Zaragoza, Spain
August 24, 1498
Age 29
1501
1501
Age 31
Portugal
1502
June 6, 1502
Age 33
Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
June 7, 1502
Age 33
Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
1503
October 24, 1503
Age 34
Lisboa, Portugal
1504
December 31, 1504
Age 35
Lisbon City, Lisbon, Portugal
December 31, 1504
Age 35
Lisbon, Lisboa, Portugal