Marcus Whitman, M.D.

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Marcus Whitman, M.D.

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Federal Hollow, Ontario, New York, USA
Death: Died in Oregon Territory
Immediate Family:

Son of Beza Whitman and Alice Whitman
Husband of Narcissa Whitman
Father of Perrin Beza Whitman and Alice Clarissa Whitman
Brother of Augustus Whitman; Henry Whitman; Samuel Whitman and Alice Meserole

Occupation: Physician; missionary
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Marcus Whitman, M.D.

Marcus Whitman arrived in the Oregon Territory in 1836.

He was the seventh generation of "descendents of John Whitman who arrived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony sometime prior to December 1638. It is believed that John Whitman came from Norfolk, England, where the family name was originally spelled Whiteman." (Drury, 1986; 61)

The legacy of Dr. Whitman lived on. Stories of his 1842 ride east to stop the ABCFM from closing some of the Oregon missions became a legend that "Whitman saved Oregon for the Americans", making it seem that Whitman promoted a manifest destiny for America. Cushing Eells, an associate of Whitman, built Whitman Seminary on the grounds of the old mission; it later moved to Walla Walla and became Whitman College. A statue of Dr. Whitman was erected in Statuary Hall in Washington D.C. And finally, the mission at Waiilatpu where he lived and died, is part of the National Park Service, preserved by the people of the United States since 1936. The memories of the Whitmans, as well as those of the Cayuse and the Oregon Trail emigrants, live on serving as a lesson in cultural understanding and tolerance today.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Whitman

Marcus Whitman (September 4, 1802 – November 29, 1847) was an American physician and Oregon missionary in the Oregon Country. Along with his wife Narcissa Whitman he started a mission in what is now southeastern Washington state in 1836, which would later become a stop along the Oregon Trail. Whitman would later lead the first large party of wagon trains along the Oregon Trail, establishing it as a viable route for the thousands of emigrants who used the trail in the following decade.

Early life

On September 4, 1802, Marcus Whitman was born in Federal Hollow, New York to Beza Whitman and Alice Whitman. The family's heritage dates to John Whitman who immigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony before 1639 from England. After his father's death, when Whitman was seven years old, he moved to Massachusetts to live with his uncle. He dreamed of becoming a minister but did not have the money for such a time-consuming curriculum. Instead, apprenticing himself, he studied medicine for two years with an experienced physician and received his degree from Fairfield Medical College.

Missionary

In 1834 Whitman applied to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. They initially denied him for health reasons, but he was later accepted as a missionary doctor. In 1835, he traveled with missionary Samuel Parker to present-day northwestern Montana and northern Idaho, to minister to the Native American bands of the Flathead and Nez Percé Nations. During this journey, Whitman treated several fur trappers during an outbreak of cholera. At the end of their stay, he promised the Nez Percé that he would return with other missionaries and teachers to live with them.

After his return Whitman attended a speech by Samuel Parker, now representing the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which called for missionaries. In 1836, Whitman married Narcissa Prentiss, a teacher of physics and chemistry. Narcissa had also been eager to travel west as a missionary, but she had been unable to do so as a single woman.

On May 25, 1836, the couple, and a group of other missionaries including Henry and Eliza Spalding, joined a caravan of fur traders and traveled west. The Fur Company caravan was led by mountain men Milton Sublette and Thomas Fitzpatrick. The fur traders had seven covered wagons, each pulled by six mules. An additional cart drawn by two mules carried Milton Sublette, who had lost a leg a year earlier and walked on a "cork" leg made by a friend. The combined group arrived at the fur-trader's rendezvous on July 6.

The group established several missions as well as Whitman's own mission settlement, Waiilatpu (Why-ee-lat-poo, the 't' is half silent), which means "place of the rye grass" in the Cayuse language. It was located just west of the northern end of the Blue Mountains, and 6 miles from the present day city of Walla Walla, Washington. The settlement was in the territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Percé tribes of Native Americans. Marcus farmed and provided medical care, while Narcissa set up a school for the Native American children. In 1843, Whitman travelled east, and on his return he helped lead the first large group of wagon trains west from Fort Hall, in eastern Idaho. Known as the "Great Emigration", it established the viability of the Oregon Trail for later the homesteaders.

On March 14, 1837, on her twenty-ninth birthday, Narcissa gave birth to the first white American born in Oregon Country. Marcus and Narcissa named their daughter Alice Clarissa after her two grandmothers, and she would be their only natural child. Alice drowned in the Walla Walla River on June 23, 1839. Unattended for only a few moments, she had gone down to the river bank to fill her cup with water and fell in. Though her body was found shortly after she had fallen in, all attempts to revive her failed.

Massacres

The influx of white settlers in the territory brought new diseases to the Indian tribes, including a severe epidemic of measles in 1847. The Native American's lack of immunity to new diseases and limited health practices led to a high mortality rate or massacre, with children dying in striking numbers. The zealous conversion attempts by the Whitmans, as well as the recovery of many white patients, fostered the belief among the Native Americans that Whitman was causing the death of his Indian patients.

The Indian tradition of holding medicine men personally responsible for the patient's recovery eventually resulted in violence and another massacre. In what became known as the Whitman Massacre, Cayuse tribal members killed the Whitmans in their home on November 29, 1847. Most of the buildings at Waiilatpu were destroyed. Twelve other white settlers in the community were also killed. For one month 53 women and children were held captive before negotiations led to them being released. This event triggered an ongoing conflict between the occupying white settlers and indigenous local people known as the Cayuse War.

According to some contemporaries, the situation was aggravated by ongoing animosity between the Protestant missionaries and local Catholic priests. Roman Catholic priest John Baptist Brouillet aided the survivors and helped bury the victims. However, the Rev. Henry H. Spalding later wrote a pamphlet stating forcefully that the Catholic priests, including Father Brouillet, had incited the massacre. "Spalding's version of the disaster was printed and reprinted, sometimes at taxpayer expense, for the next half-century. It was finally discredited in 1901 by Yale University historian Edward Gaylord Brown.

Legacy

Whitman is commemorated by Marcus Whitman Presbyterian Church in Des Moines, Washington, Marcus Whitman Junior High in Port Orchard, Washington, Marcus Whitman Middle School in Seattle, Washington Marcus Whitman Elementary in Richland, Washington, Marcus Whitman Central School in Rushville, New York, Whitman College, Whitman County, Washington, the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest, Mount Rainier's Whitman Glacier,[5] and the Marcus Whitman hotel in Walla Walla. In 1953, the state of Washington donated a statue of Whitman by Avard Fairbanks to the National Statuary Hall Collection. The Washington State Legislature has declared the fourth day of September as Marcus Whitman Day

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Whitman

Marcus Whitman (September 4, 1802 – November 29, 1847) was an American physician and missionary in the Oregon Country. Along with his wife Narcissa Whitman, he started a mission to the Cayuse in what is now southeastern Washington state in 1836. The area later developed as a trading post and stop along the Oregon Trail, and the city of Walla Walla, Washington developed near there.

In 1843 Whitman led the first large party of wagon trains along the Oregon Trail to the West, establishing it as a viable route for the hundreds of thousands of immigrants who used the trail in the following decade. Settlers encroached on the Cayuse near the Whitman mission. Following the deaths of all the Cayuse children and half their adults from a measles epidemic in 1847, in which the Cayuse suspected the Whitmans' responsibility, they killed the Whitmans and 12 other settlers in what became known as the Whitman Massacre. Continuing warfare by settlers reduced the Cayuse numbers further and they eventually joined the Nez Perce tribe to survive.

Early life

On September 4, 1802, Marcus Whitman was born in Federal Hollow, New York to Alice and Beza Whitman. The family's immigrant paternal ancestor was John Whitman, who immigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony before 1639 from England. After his father Beza's death when Whitman was seven years old, he was sent to Massachusetts to live with his uncle.

He dreamed of becoming a minister but did not have the money for such schooling. As a young man, he had returned to New York. He studied medicine for two years with an experienced physician under the form of apprenticeship approved then, and received his degree from Fairfield Medical College in New York. He practiced for a few years in Canada but was interested in going to the West.

Missionary

In 1834 Whitman applied to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. They initially denied him for health reasons, but he was later accepted as a missionary doctor. In 1835, he traveled with the missionary Samuel Parker to present-day northwestern Montana and northern Idaho, to minister to bands of the Flathead and Nez Percé nations. During this journey, Whitman treated several fur trappers during an outbreak of cholera. At the end of their stay, he promised the Nez Percé that he would return with other missionaries and teachers to live with them.

After his return to New York, Whitman attended a speech by Parker, who then represented the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. He called for missionaries for the West. Whitman volunteered again to go West.

Marriage and family

In 1836, Whitman married Narcissa Prentiss, a teacher of physics and chemistry. Narcissa had also been eager to travel west as a missionary, but she had been unable to do so as a single woman. They had one daughter, Alice Clarissa, born On March 14, 1837, the first Anglo-American child born in Oregon Country. She was named after her two grandmothers. She drowned in the Walla Walla River at age two.

As settlers came in increasing numbers, the Whitmans took in eleven orphaned children, adopting eight from one family whose parents had died. They also established a kind of boarding school for settlers' children at their mission.

The way west

On May 25, 1836, the couple, and a group of other missionaries including Henry and Eliza Spalding, joined a caravan of fur traders and traveled west. The fur company caravan was led by the mountain men Milton Sublette and Thomas Fitzpatrick. The fur traders had seven covered wagons, each pulled by six mules. An additional cart drawn by two mules carried Milton Sublette, who had lost a leg a year earlier and walked on a "cork" leg made by a friend. The combined group arrived at the fur-traders' annual rendezvous on July 6.

The group established several missions as well as Whitman's settlement at a Cayuse settlement called Waiilatpu (Why-ee-lat-poo, the 't' is half silent) in the Cayuse language, meaning "place of the rye grass". It was located just west of the northern end of the Blue Mountains. The present-day city of Walla Walla, Washington developed six miles to the east. The settlement was in the territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Percé tribes. Whitman farmed and provided medical care, while Narcissa set up a school for the Native American children.

In 1843, Whitman traveled east, and on his return he helped lead the first large group of wagon trains west from Fort Hall, in southeastern Idaho. Known as the "Great Emigration", it established the viability of the Oregon Trail for later homesteaders. Not having much success with converting the Cayuse, the Whitmans gave more attention to the settlers. They took in children to their own home and established a boarding school for settlers' children.

Massacre

The Cayuse resented the encroachment of European Americans. More significantly, the influx of white settlers in the territory brought new infectious diseases to the Indian tribes, including a severe epidemic of measles in 1847. The Native Americans lack of immunity to Eurasian diseases resulted in high death rates, with children dying in striking numbers. The Whitmans cared for both Cayuse and white settlers, but half of the Cayuse died and nearly all their children. Seeing that more whites survived, the Cayuse blamed the Whitmans for the devastating deaths among their people.

The Cayuse tradition held medicine men personally responsible for the patient's recovery. Their despair at the deaths, especially of their children, led the Cayuse under chief Tiloukaikt to kill the Whitmans in their home on November 29, 1847. Warriors destroyed most of the buildings at Waiilatpu and killed twelve other white settlers in the community. The events became known among European-American settlers as the Whitman Massacre. The Cayuse held another 53 women and children captive for a month before releasing them through negotiations. These events, and continued European-American encroachment, triggered a continuing conflict between the occupying white settlers and the Cayuse that became known as the Cayuse War. They were so reduced in number that survivors joined the Nez Percé tribe.

Historians have noted contemporary accounts of competition between the Protestant missionaries and Catholic priests, who had become established with Jesuit missions from Canada and St. Louis, Missouri, as contributing to the tensions. The Roman Catholic priest John Baptiste Brouillet aided the survivors and helped bury the victims. But, the Rev. Henry H. Spalding later wrote a pamphlet stating forcefully that the Catholic priests, including Father Brouillet, had incited the Cayuse to massacre.

"Spalding's version of the disaster was printed and reprinted, sometimes at taxpayer expense, for the next half-century. It was finally discredited in 1901 by Yale University historian Edward Gaylord Brown."

Legacy

Whitman is commemorated by Whitman College in Walla Walla, Whitman County, Washington, the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest, Mount Rainier's Whitman Glacier, and numerous schools, including Marcus Whitman Central School in Rushville, New York, his hometown. In 1953, the state of Washington donated a statue of Whitman by the sculptor Avard Fairbanks to the National Statuary Hall Collection in the United States Capitol. The Washington State Legislature has declared the fourth day of September as Marcus Whitman Day.

-------------------- Marcus Whitman was an American physician and missionary in the Oregon Country. Along with his wife Narcissa Whitman, he started a mission to the Cayuse in what is now southeastern Washington state in 1836. The area later developed as a trading post and stop along the Oregon Trail, and the city of Walla Walla, Washington developed near there.

In 1843 Whitman led the first large party of wagon trains along the Oregon Trail to the West, establishing it as a viable route for the hundreds of thousands of emigrants who used the trail in the following decade. Settlers encroached on the Cayuse near the Whitman mission. Following the deaths of all the Cayuse children and half their adults from a measles epidemic in 1847, in which the Cayuse suspected the Whitmans' responsibility, they killed the Whitmans and 12 other settlers in what became known as the Whitman Massacre.

The Washington State Legislature has declared the fourth day of September as Marcus Whitman Day. -------------------- Marcus Whitman arrived in the Oregon Territory in 1836.

He was the seventh generation of "descendents of John Whitman who arrived in the Massachusetts Bay Colony sometime prior to December 1638. It is believed that John Whitman came from Norfolk, England, where the family name was originally spelled Whiteman." (Drury, 1986; 61)

The legacy of Dr. Whitman lived on. Stories of his 1842 ride east to stop the ABCFM from closing some of the Oregon missions became a legend that "Whitman saved Oregon for the Americans", making it seem that Whitman promoted a manifest destiny for America. Cushing Eells, an associate of Whitman, built Whitman Seminary on the grounds of the old mission; it later moved to Walla Walla and became Whitman College. A statue of Dr. Whitman was erected in Statuary Hall in Washington D.C. And finally, the mission at Waiilatpu where he lived and died, is part of the National Park Service, preserved by the people of the United States since 1936. The memories of the Whitmans, as well as those of the Cayuse and the Oregon Trail emigrants, live on serving as a lesson in cultural understanding and tolerance today.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Whitman

Marcus Whitman (September 4, 1802 – November 29, 1847) was an American physician and Oregon missionary in the Oregon Country. Along with his wife Narcissa Whitman he started a mission in what is now southeastern Washington state in 1836, which would later become a stop along the Oregon Trail. Whitman would later lead the first large party of wagon trains along the Oregon Trail, establishing it as a viable route for the thousands of emigrants who used the trail in the following decade.

Early life

On September 4, 1802, Marcus Whitman was born in Federal Hollow, New York to Beza Whitman and Alice Whitman. The family's heritage dates to John Whitman who immigrated to the Massachusetts Bay Colony before 1639 from England. After his father's death, when Whitman was seven years old, he moved to Massachusetts to live with his uncle. He dreamed of becoming a minister but did not have the money for such a time-consuming curriculum. Instead, apprenticing himself, he studied medicine for two years with an experienced physician and received his degree from Fairfield Medical College.

Missionary

In 1834 Whitman applied to the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. They initially denied him for health reasons, but he was later accepted as a missionary doctor. In 1835, he traveled with missionary Samuel Parker to present-day northwestern Montana and northern Idaho, to minister to the Native American bands of the Flathead and Nez Percé Nations. During this journey, Whitman treated several fur trappers during an outbreak of cholera. At the end of their stay, he promised the Nez Percé that he would return with other missionaries and teachers to live with them.

After his return Whitman attended a speech by Samuel Parker, now representing the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which called for missionaries. In 1836, Whitman married Narcissa Prentiss, a teacher of physics and chemistry. Narcissa had also been eager to travel west as a missionary, but she had been unable to do so as a single woman.

On May 25, 1836, the couple, and a group of other missionaries including Henry and Eliza Spalding, joined a caravan of fur traders and traveled west. The Fur Company caravan was led by mountain men Milton Sublette and Thomas Fitzpatrick. The fur traders had seven covered wagons, each pulled by six mules. An additional cart drawn by two mules carried Milton Sublette, who had lost a leg a year earlier and walked on a "cork" leg made by a friend. The combined group arrived at the fur-trader's rendezvous on July 6.

The group established several missions as well as Whitman's own mission settlement, Waiilatpu (Why-ee-lat-poo, the 't' is half silent), which means "place of the rye grass" in the Cayuse language. It was located just west of the northern end of the Blue Mountains, and 6 miles from the present day city of Walla Walla, Washington. The settlement was in the territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Percé tribes of Native Americans. Marcus farmed and provided medical care, while Narcissa set up a school for the Native American children. In 1843, Whitman travelled east, and on his return he helped lead the first large group of wagon trains west from Fort Hall, in eastern Idaho. Known as the "Great Emigration", it established the viability of the Oregon Trail for later the homesteaders.

On March 14, 1837, on her twenty-ninth birthday, Narcissa gave birth to the first white American born in Oregon Country. Marcus and Narcissa named their daughter Alice Clarissa after her two grandmothers, and she would be their only natural child. Alice drowned in the Walla Walla River on June 23, 1839. Unattended for only a few moments, she had gone down to the river bank to fill her cup with water and fell in. Though her body was found shortly after she had fallen in, all attempts to revive her failed.

Massacres

The influx of white settlers in the territory brought new diseases to the Indian tribes, including a severe epidemic of measles in 1847. The Native American's lack of immunity to new diseases and limited health practices led to a high mortality rate or massacre, with children dying in striking numbers. The zealous conversion attempts by the Whitmans, as well as the recovery of many white patients, fostered the belief among the Native Americans that Whitman was causing the death of his Indian patients.

The Indian tradition of holding medicine men personally responsible for the patient's recovery eventually resulted in violence and another massacre. In what became known as the Whitman Massacre, Cayuse tribal members killed the Whitmans in their home on November 29, 1847. Most of the buildings at Waiilatpu were destroyed. Twelve other white settlers in the community were also killed. For one month 53 women and children were held captive before negotiations led to them being released. This event triggered an ongoing conflict between the occupying white settlers and indigenous local people known as the Cayuse War.

According to some contemporaries, the situation was aggravated by ongoing animosity between the Protestant missionaries and local Catholic priests. Roman Catholic priest John Baptist Brouillet aided the survivors and helped bury the victims. However, the Rev. Henry H. Spalding later wrote a pamphlet stating forcefully that the Catholic priests, including Father Brouillet, had incited the massacre. "Spalding's version of the disaster was printed and reprinted, sometimes at taxpayer expense, for the next half-century. It was finally discredited in 1901 by Yale University historian Edward Gaylord Brown.

Legacy

Whitman is commemorated by Marcus Whitman Presbyterian Church in Des Moines, Washington, Marcus Whitman Junior High in Port Orchard, Washington, Marcus Whitman Middle School in Seattle, Washington Marcus Whitman Elementary in Richland, Washington, Marcus Whitman Central School in Rushville, New York, Whitman College, Whitman County, Washington, the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest, Mount Rainier's Whitman Glacier,[5] and the Marcus Whitman hotel in Walla Walla. In 1953, the state of Washington donated a statue of Whitman by Avard Fairbanks to the National Statuary Hall Collection. The Washington State Legislature has declared the fourth day of September as Marcus Whitman Day

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Marcus Whitman, M.D.'s Timeline

1802
September 4, 1802
Federal Hollow, Ontario, New York, USA
1830
1830
Age 27
1836
1836
Age 33
Angelica, Allegany, NY, USA
1837
March 14, 1837
Age 34
Oregon Territory
1847
November 29, 1847
Age 45
Oregon Territory
2010
September 2010
- April 5, 2011
Age 45
Oregon city, Oregon, United States
????
- present
Fairfield Medical College