Margherita di Navarra, regina consorte di Sicilia

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Margarita de Navarra, reina consorte de Sicilia

Birthdate:
Death: Died in Palermo, Palermo, Sicily, Italy
Place of Burial: Monreale Cathedral, Italy
Immediate Family:

Daughter of García VI el Restaurador, rey de Navarra and Marguerite de l'Aigle
Wife of William I, King of Sicily
Mother of Roger IV, Duke of Apulia; Robert, Prince of Capua; William II, "the Good," King of Sicily and Henry, Prince of Capua
Sister of Sancho VI el Sabio, rey de Navarra and Blanca de Navarra, reina consorte de Castilla
Half sister of Rodrigo García; Vela Ladrone de Guevara and Sancha de Navarra, vizcondesa consorte de Narbona

Managed by: Marilyn Jeanne Haslem
Last Updated:

About Margherita di Navarra, regina consorte di Sicilia

Margarita de Navarra

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margarita_de_Navarra

Margarita de Navarra (1128 – 1183) fue reina consorte del Reino de Sicilia durante el reinado de Guillermo I (1154–1166) y la regente durante la minoría de edad del hijo de ambos, Guillermo II.

Fue hija del matrimonio entre el rey García Ramírez de Navarra y su primera esposa, la normanda Margarita de L'Aigle. Se casó de niña con Guillermo cuando éste era todavía un príncipe de Sicilia más, el cuarto hijo de Rogelio II de Sicilia. Según el historiador italiano Isidoro La Lumia ella fue, a edad avanzada, bella ancora, superba, leggiera (todavía hermosa, orgullosa, ligera).

Durante el reinado de su marido, fue a menudo ignorada por el rey, por la que particularmente no sintió amistad, ni ciertamente la amó. Sin embargo, ella tenía una personalidad más fuerte que la de él y varias veces lo convenció para que actuara cuando el rey quería ser pasivo. Ella tuvo un enamoriscamiento, quizás mutuo, con Mayón de Bari, el ammiratus ammiratorum (almirante de almirantes) del rey, y ambos se aliaron a menudo para intentar derribar a los opositores del rey, aunque uno de ellos, Mateo Bonello asesinó a Mayón de Bari y secuestró a Margarita con dos de sus hijos durante la rebelión de 1160.

A Guillermo I el Malo, Margarita de Navarra le dio un total de cuatro hijos:

  1. el mayor Rogelio IV, duque de Apulia (º 1152 – † 1161) murió antes que su padre, al igual que
  2. el segundo hijo Roberto III, príncipe de Capua (º 1153 – † 1158),
  3. Guillermo II (º 1155 – † 1189) el sucesor con Margarita como reina regente,
  4. y el último Enrique, príncipe de Capua (º 1158 – † 1172).

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Margaret of Navarre (French: Marguerite, Spanish: Margarita, Italian: Margherita) (1128 – 1183) was the queen consort of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I (1154-1166) and the regent during the minority of her son, William II.

She was a daughter of King García Ramírez of Navarre and Margaret de l'Aigle. She was married at a young age to William, while he was still a prince, the fourth son of Roger II of Sicily. According to the Italian historian La Lumia, she was, at old age, bella ancora, superba, leggiera ("still beautiful, proud, light").

Contents

1 Queen consort

2 Regent

3 Legacy

4 Sources


Queen consort

During the reign of her husband, Margaret was often ignored by the king, who did not particularly like her and certainly did not love her. However, she was a stronger person than he and several times convinced him to act where he was wont to be passive. She had an infatuation, perhaps mutual, with Maio of Bari, the king's ammiratus ammiratorum, and they were often allied in trying to subvert the opponents of the king, though she was once detained with two of her sons by Matthew Bonnellus during a revolt.

To William she gave a total of four sons: the eldest Roger, Duke of Apulia, predeceased his father; Robert, also predeceased his father; William, the successor; and Henry, Prince of Capua.

Regent

It was William's will that his eldest son succeed him and his second son receive the principality of Capua. This was done and, on the day of William II's coronation, Margaret declared a general amnesty throughout the realm. The new regent also revoked her late husband's least popular act: the imposition of redemption money on rebellious cities. Margaret's first order of business was to appoint a strong hand to the vacant position of admiral (Maio having died). She promoted the caïd Peter, a Moslem convert and a eunuch, much to the annoyance of many a highborn nobleman or palace intimate.

The queen was distrustful of the native-born aristocracy and wrote a letter to her cousin, Rothrud, Archbishop of Rouen, asking him to send one of her French relatives, on her mother's side, to help her govern. Her cousin Gilbert, Count of Gravina, already present in the south, was an enemy of Peter's and, according to Hugo Falcandus, strongly opposed to his cousin's government.

It was in this breakdown of relations between court and nobility that Peter defected to Tunisia and reconverted to Islam. With this, Margaret was forced to declare her traitorous cousin Gilbert catapan of Apulia and Campania and send him to the peninsula to prepare for the coming invasion of Frederick Barbarossa. At this juncture, the queen mother's popularity, secured by such populist early acts as mentioned above, had abated considerably and she was known in the street as "the Spanish woman."

After the departure of Gilbert to Apulia, Margaret's brother Rodrigo arrived in Palermo. Rodrigo, whom bade change his name to Henry, was commonly thought to be a bastard son of Margaret de l'Aigle and King García never recognised him. He was destined to be a divisive and dangerous figure in the future of his nephew's reign. For now, however, Margaret moved him off to Apulia with the title of Count of Montescaglioso. Happily for her, a more favourable familial arrival occurred nearly simultaneously. Rothrude of Rouen had sent word of her plea to Stephen du Perche, another cousin. Stephen was then setting off on Crusade with a retinue of thirty seven knights. He decided to stop off in Palermo first. There he was persuaded to remain and was appointed chancellor in November 1166.

In 1167, Margaret did her best to send aid (in the form of money) to the besieged Pope Alexander III in Rome, then opposing their common enemy, the Emperor Barbarossa. In Autumn of that year, however, she made a horrible blunder. She appointed Stephen to the vacant archbishopric of Palermo. With that, not only the nobility, but also the clergy, now despised the queen regent, beloved nevertheless of the populace. Her brother Henry arrived in Sicily at the same time and bred new trouble by accusing the queen of being under the spell of her lover Richard, Count of Molise. The allegations, concocted by his friends, were, unsurprisingly, completely false. His friends soon convinced him to point the finger at the incestuous Stephen du Perche, equally innocent as Richard of Molise. Around Henry arose a great conspiracy, but Stephen was too quick and the danger was diffused and Margaret eventually convinced (i.e. bribed) Henry to leave Sicily for Spain.

In 1168, events concerning the rebellious vassals who opposed the Navarrese and French courtiers came to a head. Stephen du Perche was forced to go. Then Gilbert of Gravina was banished as well. Margaret was now left without any familial relations save her son and ward in Sicily: the government had been torn from her hands. She protested her cousin's deposition from the archdiocese and sent letters to the pope and to Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, to beg their assistance in reinstating her favourite, but she received none from Alexander and little of actual value from Thomas. Her de facto regency ends here, though she was regent de jure until he son's coming of age in 1171.

Legacy

She lived on until 1183, endowing as her legacy a Benedictine abbey at the site of Santa Maria di Maniaca, constructed by Giorgio Maniace over a century prior, and a church at San Marco d'Alunzio, Robert Guiscard's first castle in Sicily. She is buried in Monreale Cathedral in Palermo.

Interesting is her correspondence with the saintly Thomas Becket. Thomas wrote to her "we owe you a debt of gratitude" for her support of him against King Henry II of England. Thomas also wrote to Richard Palmer, bishop of Syracuse, petitioning him, an opponent of any other candidate for the Palermitan see besides himself, to work for the cause of the queen and Stephen. More interesting than either of these interchanges, however, is the golden pendant of Thomas now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, New York. It bears the inscription ISTUD REGINE MARGARETE SICULORUM TRANSMITTIT PRESUL RAINAUDUS BATONIORUS and an effigy of her highness and a prelate (either Thomas or Rainaud).

Finally, her abilities as regent are debatable. John Julius Norwich speaks of her "total unfitness to govern," but the success of Stephen during his short tenure is undeniable and she is primarily blamed for her refusal to see the disaffection her relatives caused the local nobility.

Sources

Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194. Longman: London, 1970.

Preceded by

Beatrix of Rethel Queen Consort of Sicily

26 February 1154 – 7 May 1166 Succeeded by

Joan of England

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_of_Navarre,_Queen_of_Sicily"

Marguerite de Sicile, aussi appelée Marguerite de Navarre (1128 - 1183) fut reine consorte du royaume normand de Sicile au cours du règne de son époux Guillaume le Mauvais, et régente du royaume pendant la minorité de leur fils Guillaume.

Biographie

Fille du roi Garcia V de Navarre et de Marguerite de l'Aigle, elle épouse Guillaume, quatrième fils de Roger II de Sicile au début des années 1150.

On la soupçonna en 1167 d'entretenir une relation avec un baron normand, Richard de Mandra, qu'elle avait nommé chancelier du royaume.

--------------------

Margaret of Navarre, Queen of Sicily

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Margaret of Navarre (French: Marguerite, Spanish: Margarita) (1128 – 1183) was the queen consort of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I (1154-1166) and the regent during the minority of her son, William II.

She was a daughter of King García Ramírez of Navarre and Margaret de l'Aigle. She was married at a young age to William, while he was still a prince, the fourth son of Roger II of Sicily. According to the Italian historian La Lumia, she was, at old age, bella ancora, superba, leggiera ("still beautiful, proud, light").

Queen consort

During the reign of her husband, Margaret was often ignored by the king, who did not particularly like her and certainly did not love her. However, she was a stronger person than he and several times convinced him to act where he was wont to be passive. She had an infatuation, perhaps mutual, with Maio of Bari, the king's ammiratus ammiratorum, and they were often allied in trying to subvert the opponents of the king, though she was once detained with two of her sons by Matthew Bonnellus during a revolt.

To William she gave a total of four sons: the eldest Roger, Duke of Apulia, predeceased his father; Robert, also predeceased his father; William, the successor; and Henry, Prince of Capua.

[edit]Regent

It was William's will that his eldest son succeed him and his second son receive the principality of Capua. This was done and, on the day of William II's coronation, Margaret declared a general amnesty throughout the realm. The new regent also revoked her late husband's least popular act: the imposition of redemption money on rebellious cities. Margaret's first order of business was to appoint a strong hand to the vacant position of admiral (Maio having died). She promoted the caïd Peter, a Moslem convert and a eunuch, much to the annoyance of many a highborn nobleman or palace intimate.

The queen was distrustful of the native-born aristocracy and wrote a letter to her cousin, Rothrud, Archbishop of Rouen, asking him to send one of her French relatives, on her mother's side, to help her govern. Her cousin Gilbert, Count of Gravina, already present in the south, was an enemy of Peter's and, according to Hugo Falcandus, strongly opposed to his cousin's government.

It was in this breakdown of relations between court and nobility that Peter defected to Tunisia and reconverted to Islam. With this, Margaret was forced to declare her traitorous cousin Gilbert catapan of Apulia and Campania and send him to the peninsula to prepare for the coming invasion of Frederick Barbarossa. At this juncture, the queen mother's popularity, secured by such populist early acts as mentioned above, had abated considerably and she was known in the street as "the Spanish woman."

After the departure of Gilbert to Apulia, Margaret's brother Rodrigo arrived in Palermo. Rodrigo, whom bade change his name to Henry, was commonly thought to be a bastard son of Margaret de l'Aigle and King García never recognised him. He was destined to be a divisive and dangerous figure in the future of his nephew's reign. For now, however, Margaret moved him off to Apulia with the title of Count of Montescaglioso. Happily for her, a more favourable familial arrival occurred nearly simultaneously. Rothrude of Rouen had sent word of her plea to Stephen du Perche, another cousin. Stephen was then setting off on Crusade with a retinue of thirty seven knights. He decided to stop off in Palermo first. There he was persuaded to remain and was appointed chancellor in November 1166.

In 1167, Margaret did her best to send aid (in the form of money) to the besieged Pope Alexander III in Rome, then opposing their common enemy, the Emperor Barbarossa. In Autumn of that year, however, she made a horrible blunder. She appointed Stephen to the vacant archbishopric of Palermo. With that, not only the nobility, but also the clergy, now despised the queen regent, beloved nevertheless of the populace. Her brother Henry arrived in Sicily at the same time and bred new trouble by accusing the queen of being under the spell of her lover Richard, Count of Molise. The allegations, concocted by his friends, were, unsurprisingly, completely false. His friends soon convinced him to point the finger at the incestuous Stephen du Perche, equally innocent as Richard of Molise. Around Henry arose a great conspiracy, but Stephen was too quick and the danger was diffused and Margaret eventually convinced (i.e. bribed) Henry to leave Sicily for Spain.

In 1168, events concerning the rebellious vassals who opposed the Navarrese and French courtiers came to a head. Stephen du Perche was forced to go. Then Gilbert of Gravina was banished as well. Margaret was now left without any familial relations save her son and ward in Sicily: the government had been torn from her hands. She protested her cousin's deposition from the archdiocese and sent letters to the pope and to Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, to beg their assistance in reinstating her favourite, but she received none from Alexander and little of actual value from Thomas. Her de facto regency ends here, though she was regent de jure until he son's coming of age in 1171.

[edit]Legacy

She lived on until 1183, endowing as her legacy a Benedictine abbey at the site of Santa Maria di Maniaca, constructed by Giorgio Maniace over a century prior, and a church at San Marco d'Alunzio, Robert Guiscard's first castle in Sicily. She is buried in Monreale Cathedral in Palermo.

Interesting is her correspondence with the saintly Thomas Becket. Thomas wrote to her "we owe you a debt of gratitude" for her support of him against King Henry II of England. Thomas also wrote to Richard Palmer, bishop of Syracuse, petitioning him, an opponent of any other candidate for the Palermitan see besides himself, to work for the cause of the queen and Stephen. More interesting than either of these interchanges, however, is the golden pendant of Thomas now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, New York. It bears the inscription ISTUD REGINE MARGARETE SICULORUM TRANSMITTIT PRESUL RAINAUDUS BATONIORUS and an effigy of her highness and a prelate (either Thomas or Rainaud).

Finally, her abilities as regent are debatable. John Julius Norwich speaks of her "total unfitness to govern," but the success of Stephen during his short tenure is undeniable and she is primarily blamed for her refusal to see the disaffection her relatives caused the local nobility.

[edit]Sources

Norwich, John Julius. The Kingdom in the Sun 1130-1194. Longman: London, 1970.

--------------------

Margaret of Navarre (French : Marguerite, Spanish : Margarita, Italian : Margherita) (c. 1128 - 12 August 1183) was the queen consort of the Kingdom of Sicily during the reign of William I (1154–1166) and the regent during the minority of her son, William II .

She was a daughter of King García Ramírez of Navarre and Marguerite de l'Aigle . She was married at a young age to William, while he was still a prince, the fourth son of Roger II of Sicily . According to the Italian historian La Lumia, she was, at old age, bella ancora, superba, leggiera ("still beautiful, proud, light").

Queen consort

During the reign of her husband, Margaret was often ignored by the king, who did not particularly like her and certainly did not love her. However, she was a stronger person than he and several times convinced him to act where he was wont to be passive. She had an infatuation, perhaps mutual, with Maio of Bari , the king's ammiratus ammiratorum , and they were often allied in trying to subvert the opponents of the king, though she was once detained with two of her sons by Matthew Bonnellus during a revolt.

To William she gave a total of four sons: the eldest Roger, Duke of Apulia, predeceased his father; Robert, also predeceased his father; William, the successor; and Henry, Prince of Capua .

Regent

It was William's will that his eldest son succeed him and his second son receive the principality of Capua . This was done and, on the day of William II's coronation, Margaret declared a general amnesty throughout the realm. The new regent also revoked her late husband's least popular act: the imposition of redemption money on rebellious cities. Margaret's first order of business was to appoint a strong hand to the vacant position of admiral (Maio having died). She promoted the caïd Peter, a Moslem convert and a eunuch, much to the annoyance of many a highborn nobleman or palace intimate.

The queen was distrustful of the native-born aristocracy and wrote a letter to her cousin, Rothrud, Archbishop of Rouen , asking him to send one of her French relatives, on her mother's side, to help her govern. Her cousin Gilbert, Count of Gravina , already present in the south, was an enemy of Peter's and, according to Hugo Falcandus , strongly opposed to his cousin's government.

It was in this breakdown of relations between court and nobility that Peter defected to Tunisia and reconverted to Islam. With this, Margaret was forced to declare her traitorous cousin Gilbert catapan of Apulia and Campania and send him to the peninsula to prepare for the coming invasion of Frederick Barbarossa . At this juncture, the queen mother's popularity, secured by such populist early acts as mentioned above, had abated considerably and she was known in the street as "the Spanish woman."

After the departure of Gilbert to Apulia, Margaret's brother Rodrigo arrived in Palermo . Rodrigo, whom bade change his name to Henry, was commonly thought to be a bastard son of Margaret de l'Aigle and King García never recognised him. He was destined to be a divisive and dangerous figure in the future of his nephew's reign. For now, however, Margaret moved him off to Apulia with the title of Count of Montescaglioso . Happily for her, a more favourable familial arrival occurred nearly simultaneously. Rothrude of Rouen had sent word of her plea to Stephen du Perche , another cousin. Stephen was then setting off on Crusade with a retinue of thirty seven knights. He decided to stop off in Palermo first. There he was persuaded to remain and was appointed chancellor in November 1166.

In 1167, Margaret did her best to send aid (in the form of money) to the besieged Pope Alexander III in Rome , then opposing their common enemy, the Emperor Barbarossa. In Autumn of that year, however, she made a horrible blunder. She appointed Stephen to the vacant archbishopric of Palermo . With that, not only the nobility, but also the clergy, now despised the queen regent, beloved nevertheless of the populace. Her brother Henry arrived in Sicily at the same time and bred new trouble by accusing the queen of being under the spell of her lover Richard, Count of Molise . The allegations, concocted by his friends, were, unsurprisingly, completely false. His friends soon convinced him to point the finger at the incestuous Stephen du Perche, equally innocent as Richard of Molise. Around Henry arose a great conspiracy, but Stephen was too quick and the danger was diffused and Margaret eventually convinced (i.e. bribed) Henry to leave Sicily for Spain.

In 1168, events concerning the rebellious vassals who opposed the Navarrese and French courtiers came to a head. Stephen du Perche was forced to go. Then Gilbert of Gravina was banished as well. Margaret was now left without any familial relations save her son and ward in Sicily: the government had been torn from her hands. She protested her cousin's deposition from the archdiocese and sent letters to the pope and to Thomas Becket , Archbishop of Canterbury , to beg their assistance in reinstating her favourite , but she received none from Alexander and little of actual value from Thomas. Her de facto regency ends here, though she was regent de jure until her son's coming of age in 1171.

Legacy

She lived on until 1183, endowing as her legacy a Benedictine abbey at the site of Santa Maria di Maniaca, constructed by Giorgio Maniace over a century prior, and a church at San Marco d'Alunzio , Robert Guiscard 's first castle in Sicily. She is buried in Monreale Cathedral in Palermo.

Interesting is her correspondence with the saintly Thomas Becket. Thomas wrote to her "we owe you a debt of gratitude" for her support of him against King Henry II of England . Thomas also wrote to Richard Palmer bishop of Syracuse , petitioning him, an opponent of any other candidate for the Palermitan see besides himself, to work for the cause of the queen and Stephen. More interesting than either of these interchanges, however, is the golden pendant of Thomas now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, New York . It bears the inscription ISTUD REGINE MARGARETE SICULORUM TRANSMITTIT PRESUL RAINAUDUS BATONIORUS and an effigy of her highness and a prelate (either Thomas or Rainaud).

Finally, her abilities as regent are debatable. John Julius Norwich speaks of her "total unfitness to govern," but the success of Stephen during his short tenure is undeniable and she is primarily blamed for her refusal to see the disaffection her relatives caused the local nobility.

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Margherita di Navarra, regina consorte di Sicilia's Timeline

1150
1150
1152
1152
1153
1153
1155
May 7, 1155
Palermo, Palermo, Sicilia, Italy
1158
1158
1182
1182
Palermo, Palermo, Sicily, Italy
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Monreale Cathedral, Italy