Mary Beatrice Eleanor Anne Margaret Isabel Princess of Modena (d'Este), Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland (1658 - 1718)

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Place of Burial: England
Birthplace: Modena, Modena e Reggio
Death: Died in St Germain-en-Laye, Île-de-France, France
Occupation: Queen Consort of England
Managed by: Hanne
Last Updated:

About Mary Beatrice Eleanor Anne Margaret Isabel Princess of Modena (d'Este), Queen Consort of England, Scotland and Ireland

Mary Beatrice Eleanor Anne Margaret Isabel d'Este Princess of Modena

By marriage Queen Mary of England, Scotland and Ireland; 5 October 1658 – 7 May 1718.


She was a daughter of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena and his wife, the former Laura Martinozzi.

The marriage had urgent dynastic and political aspects. James had two Protestant daughters, Mary and Anne, from his first marriage to Anne Hyde. A son by James's second marriage would be king one day, a Roman Catholic king. Though Mary was beautiful and charming — Charles II quickly came round to her — the people of England disliked her for her Roman Catholicism. She was lampooned in broadsheets under the name "Madame East." Rumours spread that she was an agent of the pope, Clement X, who had pressed her case as a suitable bride. During the "Popish Plot" (1678), in which her secretary, Coleman, was involved, she and James discreetly went abroad.

Their first male child was stillborn (1674), and numerous others died in infancy or early childhood. Following James's accession to the throne in 1685, the question of whether Mary would ever bear a son became more significant, because such a child would be brought up in the Roman Catholic faith and would be heir to the throne.

In 1688, Mary finally gave birth to a living son, James. The event caused much speculation. It was suggested that the child had been born dead and a changeling smuggled into the room in a warming pan in order to conceal the death, or that the Queen had never actually been with child. Broadsheets depicting the queen stuffing pillows into her gown or cuckolding her husband with her confessor were common. For political reasons, a royal birth was a very public event, and many people would have had to be privy to this unlikely conspiracy. Nevertheless the rumours were disquieting enough that James called two extraordinary sessions of his Privy Council to hear testimony proving that the young Prince of Wales was his son by the Queen, though James's daughters disputed the child's legitimacy.

Within a few months of the heir's birth, the Glorious Revolution erupted. Mary consented to escape to France (10 December 1688) with her son. James's elder daughter, Mary, with her husband, William III of Orange, had been invited by the Whigs to take the throne.

In exile, as guests and dependents of Louis XIV at the Chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Mary gave birth to one more child, Princess Louisa Maria, who died of smallpox at the age of nineteen.

When James died on 6 September 1701, Mary succeeded in inducing Louis to recognize her son as king of England and Scotland, an act that accelerated English participation in the War of the Spanish Succession. She supported Jacobite exiles to the best of her ability.

Queen Mary died in Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris of breast cancer. Her tomb, in the abbey of Chaillot, was destroyed during the French Revolution.

--------------------

Mary of Modena (Mary Beatrice Eleanor Anne Margaret Isabel; born Este; later Queen Mary of England, Scotland and Ireland; 5 October 1658 – 7 May 1718) was queen consort to James II of England.

Contents [hide]

1 Early life

2 Marriage

3 Revolution

4 Later life

5 Legacy

6 Titles, styles, honours and arms

6.1 Titles and styles

7 Issue

8 Ancestry

9 Notes and sources


[edit] Early life

She was a daughter of Alfonso IV, Duke of Modena and his wife, the former Laura Martinozzi.

[edit] Marriage

The marriage had urgent dynastic and political aspects. James had two Protestant daughters, Mary and Anne, from his first marriage to Anne Hyde. A son by James's second marriage would be king one day, a Roman Catholic king. Though Mary was beautiful and charming — Charles II quickly came round to her — the people of England disliked her for her Roman Catholicism. She was lampooned in broadsheets under the name "Madame East." Rumours spread that she was an agent of the pope, Clement X, who had pressed her case as a suitable bride. During the "Popish Plot" (1678), in which her secretary, Coleman, was involved, she and James discreetly went abroad.

Their first male child was stillborn (1674), and numerous others died in infancy or early childhood. Following James's accession to the throne in 1685, the question of whether Mary would ever bear a son became more significant, because such a child would be brought up in the Roman Catholic faith and would be heir to the throne.

In 1688, Mary finally gave birth to a living son, James. The event caused much speculation. It was suggested that the child had been born dead and a changeling smuggled into the room in a warming pan in order to conceal the death, or that the Queen had never actually been with child. Broadsheets depicting the queen stuffing pillows into her gown or cuckolding her husband with her confessor were common. For political reasons, a royal birth was a very public event, and many people would have had to be privy to this unlikely conspiracy. Nevertheless the rumours were disquieting enough that James called two extraordinary sessions of his Privy Council to hear testimony proving that the young Prince of Wales was his son by the Queen, though James's daughters disputed the child's legitimacy.

[edit] Revolution

Within a few months of the heir's birth, the Glorious Revolution erupted. Mary consented to escape to France (10 December 1688) with her son. James's elder daughter, Mary, with her husband, William III of Orange, had been invited by the Whigs to take the throne.

In exile, as guests and dependents of Louis XIV at the Chateau of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Mary gave birth to one more child, Princess Louisa Maria, who died of smallpox at the age of nineteen.

[edit] Later life

When James died on 6 September 1701, Mary succeeded in inducing Louis to recognize her son as king of England and Scotland, an act that accelerated English participation in the War of the Spanish Succession. She supported Jacobite exiles to the best of her ability.

Queen Mary died in Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris of breast cancer. Her tomb, in the abbey of Chaillot, was destroyed during the French Revolution.

[edit] Legacy

Dutchess County, New York was named in her honour while she was Duchess of York.

[edit] Titles, styles, honours and arms

Royal styles of

Mary of Modena

Queen Consort of England



Reference style Her Majesty

Spoken style Your Majesty

Alternative style Ma'am

[edit] Titles and styles

5 October 1658–30 September 1673: Princess Mary of Modena

30 September 1673–6 February 1685: Princess Mary, Duchess of York

6 February 1685–11 December 1688: Her Majesty The Queen

11 December 1688–7 May 1718: Her Majesty Queen Mary

Jacobite: Her Majesty The Queen

Mary's full style during James's reign was: "Her Majesty Mary, by the Grace of God, Queen of England, Scotland, France and Ireland"

[edit] Issue

Name Birth Death Notes

Catherine Laura 10 January 1675 3 October 1676 died of convulsions.[1]

Isabel 28 August 1676 2 March 1681

Charles, Duke of Cambridge 7 November 1677 12 December 1677 died of smallpox[2]

Elizabeth 1678 c. 1678

Charlotte Maria 16 August 1682 16 October 1682 died of convulsions[3]

James, Prince of Wales Old Pretender 10 June 1688 1 January 1766 married 1719, Maria Klementyna Sobieska; had issue

Louise 28 June 1692 20 April 1712 died of smallpox

-------------------- Her uncle was Duke Rinaldo d'Este who ruled Modena at one point. Will was dated Aug. 12, 1702. She was buried among her beloved nuns.

Sources:

The book, 'Louis 14th, An Informal Portrait'

The book, 'The Oxford History of Ireland'

The book, 'Bonnie Prince Charlie'

(plus many more)

view all 13

Mary of Modena's Timeline

1658
September 25, 1658
Modena, Modena e Reggio
1673
November 21, 1673
Age 15
Dover, England

Marriage was done in proxy on Sept. 30, 1673 at Modena.

1675
January 10, 1675
Age 16
St. James Palace, London, England
1676
August 18, 1676
Age 17
Saint James Palace, London, Middlesex, England
1677
November 7, 1677
Age 19
St. James Palace, London, England
1678
1678
Age 19
London, Middlesex, UK
1682
August 16, 1682
Age 23
St. James Palace, London, England
1686
1686
Age 27
London, Middlesex, UK
1688
June 10, 1688
Age 29
London, Greater London, United Kingdom
June 10, 1688
Age 29
St. James Palace, London, England