About Menawa, War Chief
Menawa (ca. 1765–1836) was a principal leader of the Red Sticks during the Creek Wars
Menawa, was born about 1765 at the village of Oakfuskee located on or near the Tallapoosa River, the site is now covered by the lower part of Lake Martin. He was also known as Great Warrior and was a military leader of the Creek (Muscogee) people. Like many of the Creek leaders of his era, he was of mixed Scottish and American Indian ancestry.
During the Creek War, he was one of the principal leaders of the "Red Sticks" or Upper Creeks, who went to war against the United States. Menawa was second in command at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend at the end of the Creek War. He was wounded seven times during the battle, but he escaped and survived his wounds.
After the war, Menawa continued to oppose the encroachment on Creek lands. On April 30, 1825, he led the party that assassinated William McIntosh, who had signed Treaty of Indian Springs.
Menawa was a member of the Creek National Council led by Opothleyahola that went to Washington D.C., in 1826, to oppose the Treaty of Indian Springs. The Creek leaders signed the Treaty of Washington (1826), which nullified the Treaty of Indian Springs. In this new treaty, the Creek ceded land to Georgia—in compensation, they received an immediate payment of $217,660 and a perpetual annuity of $20,000.
Menawa died during the general removal of the Creek. His burial place is unknown.