Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland

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Mieszko II Lambert King of Poland (z Poland), książę "King"

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Poznań, Wielkopolskie, Poland
Death: Died in Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
Immediate Family:

Son of Bolesław I 'Chrobry - the Brave', King of Poland and Emnilda słowiańska, Princess
Husband of Mathildes von Schwaben and Blessed Richeza of Lotharingia
Father of Casimir I av Polen; Richeza-Adelaide - Rixa LAMBERT, lengyel hercegnő, magyar királyné/ Queen of Hungary; Bolesław, książę; Gertruda Mieszkówna / Гертруда Польская, Prinzessin von Polen and Sofía of Poland
Brother of Reglindis; Unknown daughter of Bolesław I, of Poland and Otton, książę
Half brother of Bezprym, książę and Mathilde - Matylda Piast

Occupation: Konge, Kung av Polen
Managed by: Private User
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About Mieszko II Lambert King of Poland (z Poland), książę "King"

Mieszko II Lambert - książę z dynastii Piastów, król Polski w latach 1025–1031, książę Polski w latach 1032–1034. Opuścił kraj w 1031 (po wyprawie na ziemie polskie Konrada II oraz ataku książąt ruskich Jarosława Mądrego i Mścisława, którzy osadzili w Polsce jego brata Bezpryma), władzę odzyskał w 1032 jako książę jednej z trzech dzielnic. Wikipedia PL

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_II_Lambert http://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_II_Lambert_av_Polen -------------------- Furste .d.1034 -------------------- Puolan kuningas 1025-1034. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Mieszko-II-of-Poland -------------------- Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland (1) M, #152262, d. 1034 Last Edited=30 Jul 2005

    Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland was the son of Boleslaw I, King of Poland. (1) 

He died in 1034. (1)

    Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland was a member of the House of Piast. (1) He succeeded to the title of King Mieszko II of Poland in 1025. (1)

Child of Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland -1. Casimir I, Duke of Poland+ b. 1016, d. 1058 (1)

Forrás / Source: http://thepeerage.com/p15227.htm#i152262

II. Mieszko Lambert (lengyelül: Mieszko II Lambert), (* 990.; † 1034. május 10.) – lengyel király 1025-1031., lengyel fejedelem 1032-1034. a Piast dinasztiából, Vitéz Boleszláv második fia.

Családja / Family

Ősei / Ancestors

.............................4. I. Mieszko †992. május 25. ............................(apai nagyapa-grandfather from father) ...............2. Vitéz Boleszláv †1025. június 17. (apa-father) ............................5. Cseh Dobrawa †977 ........................... (apai nagyanya-grandmother from father) 1. II. Mieszko Lambert †1034. május 10. ............................6. Dobromir Słowiański (anyai nagyapa- grandfather from mother) ...............3. Emnilda Słowiańska †1017 (anya-mother) ............................7. ismeretlen-unknown (anyai nagyanya-.grandmother from mother)

 
Felesége / his wife

1013-ban kötött házasságot Merseburgban Lotaringiai Rychenza-val (sz. 989. – †1063. III. 21.) – Ezzo, Lotaringia grófjának (994-1034) lányával, 1047 után benedek rendi apáca volt Brauweilerban.

Gyermekei / Children

-1. Megújító Kázmér, akit hibásan Szerzetesnek hívnak, (sz. 1016. VII. 25. – †1058. XI. 28.) – Lengyelország hercege (1038-1058) -2. Richeza lengyel hercegnő(?) (†1052 után) – I. Béla, magyar király (1060-1063) felesége -3. Gertruda (sz. 1025 körül – †1108. I. 4.]) – Izjaszlav felesége, aki Turov fejedelme, Novgorod fejedelme (1052-1054), a Kijevi Rusz nagyhercege (1054-1068, 1069-1073, 1077-1078)

Forrás / Source: http://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/II._Mieszko_Lambert_lengyel_fejedelem -------------------------------------- Mieszko II Lambert From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about a Polish king. See also Duke Mieszko II the Fat. Mieszko II Lambert (b. ca. 990 - d. 10/11 May 1034), was King of Poland during 1025-1031, and Duke from 1032 until his death. Reign King: 1025 - 1031 Duke: 1032 - 1034 Coronation December 25, 1025 Gniezno Cathedral, Poland. Born c. 990 Birthplace Poland Died 10 or 11 May 1034 Place of death Poznań (?) Buried Cathedral Basilica of St. Peter and St. Paul, Poznań, Poland Predecessor Bolesław I the Brave Successor Casimir I the Restorer Wife Richeza of Lotharingia Offspring With Richeza : -1. Casimir I the Restorer -2. Ryksa, Queen of Hungary -3. Gertruda, Grand Princess of Kiev Dynasty Piast dynasty Father Bolesław I the Brave Mother Emnilda of Lusatia

He was the second son of Bolesław I the Brave, but the eldest born from his third wife Enmilda, daughter of Dobromir, possible ruler of Lusatia. He was named probably after his paternal grandfather, Mieszko I. His second name, Lambert, sometimes erroneously considered to be a nickname, was given to him as a manifestation of the cult to Saint Lambert. Also, is probable that this name was chosen after Bolesław I's half-brother Lambert. It's expected that the choice of this name for his son was an expression of warming relations between Bolesław I and his stepmother Oda.[1] ... Death Mieszko II died suddenly between 10 and 11 July 1034, probably in Poznań. The Polish chronicles clearly stated that he died of natural causes; the information that he was murdered by a swordfish, given by the chronicles of Gottfried of Viterbo, refers to Bezprym. However, the historians now think that he was killed in a plot hatched by the aristocracy. He was buried in the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul. ... Marriage and issue In Merseburg ca. 1013, Mieszko II married with Richeza (b. bef. 1000 - d. Saalfeld, 21 March 1063), daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia. They had three children:

-1. Casimir I the Restorer (b. 25 July 1016 - d. 19 March 1058). -2. Ryksa (b. ca. 1018 - d. aft. 1060), married by 1039/42 to King Béla I of Hungary. -3. Gertruda (b. 1025 - d. Kiev, 4 January 1108), married by 1043 to Grand Prince Iziaslav I of Kiev.

Forrás / Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_II_Lambert

-------------------- Mieszko II La´mbert [mj3´Skc] , 990–1034, kung av Polen från 1025, son till Boleslav I. M. tvingades försvara sig mot såväl andra tronpretendenter som mot Kievrus och Tysk–romerska riket. Polen inträdde i en svaghetsperiod och splittrades. -------------------- Links: The Peerage: http://thepeerage.com/p15227.htm

Geneall: http://geneall.net/W/per_page.php?id=232659

Predecessor Bolesław I the Brave: Successor Casimir I the Restorer:

Wikiprdia: English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_II_Lambert Polski: http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_II_Lambert -------------------- Mieszko II Lambert (990-1034), also spelled Miezko II, was the duke and short-term king of Poland. He was the son of Bolesław I the Brave and Enmilda, daughter of Dobromir, Duke of Lusatia. Mieszko II was married to Richensa of Lotharingia (Rixa), the granddaughter of Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor. Their children were Casimir I of Poland, Rixa of Poland, and Gertrude of Poland.

Mieszko II was very well educated for the period. He was able to read and write, and knew both Greek and Latin. He is unjustly known as Mieszko Gnuśny (the "Lazy," "Stagnant" or "Slothful"). He received that epithet due to the unfortunate way his reign ended; but at the beginning he acted as a skillful and talented ruler. Before he became king in 1025, he probably served as his father's governor in Kraków, most likely from 1013, and reputedly built many churches. -------------------- Mieszko II Lambert From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Mieszko II Lambert (990-1034), also spelled Miezko II, was the duke and short-term king of Poland. He was the son of Bolesław I the Brave and Enmilda, daughter of Dobromir, Duke of Lusatia. Mieszko II was married to Richensa of Lotharingia (Rixa), the granddaughter of Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor. Their children were Casimir I of Poland, Rixa of Poland, and Gertrude of Poland. Mieszko II was very well educated for the period. He was able to read and write, and knew both Greek and Latin. He is unjustly known as Mieszko Gnuśny (the "Lazy," "Stagnant" or "Slothful"). He received that epithet due to the unfortunate way his reign ended; but at the beginning he acted as a skillful and talented ruler. Before he became king in 1025, he probably served as his father's governor in Cracow, most likely from 1013, and reputedly built many churches.

Beginning in 1028, he successfully waged war against Germany: he was able to repel the German army, and later even invaded Saxony. He allied Poland with Hungary, resulting in a temporary Hungarian occupation of Vienna. This war was probably prompted by family connections of Mieszko's in Germany who opposed Emperor Conrad II. An understanding of what happened later requires an understanding of Mieszko's family. His older brother Bezprym was the son of an unknown Hungarian wife of Bolesław's and was later expelled by Mieszko. He also had a younger brother, Otton. By Slavic custom, a father should divide his legacy among all his sons. However, since a kingdom cannot be divided, Mieszko's brothers received nothing from their father's legacy. As Bezprym was the oldest son, many probably felt that he should have succeeded his father as king. Bezprym had, however, always been disliked by his father, as indicated by his name (the Piasts tended to give names such as Bolesław, Mieszko and later Kazimierz, Władysław and emperors' names such as Otto, Conrad and Heinrich: Bezprym was a commoner's name, which implied that Bolesław did not wish Bezprym to succeed him). He was packed off to a monastery. Mieszko's two brothers escaped abroad: Otton to Germany, Bezprym to Kievan Rus. Soon after, the German emperor and the grand duke of Kiev, Yaroslav I the Wise, made alliance and simultaneously invaded Poland. Facing two enemies, Germany on the west and Rus on the east, Mieszko escaped to Bohemia.Bezprym began his reign by sending his crown and regalia to Germany. Mieszko soon returned, but was forced to pledge fealty to the German Emperor, and Poland was divided among him, his brothers Otton and Bezprym, and a certain Thiedric (probably a nephew or cousin). Otton was killed by one of his own men, and Mieszko was able to reunite Poland. What happened next is a mystery. Historians now think that Mieszko was killed (1034) in a plot hatched by the aristocracy. After Mieszko's death, Poland's peasants revolted in a "pagan reaction." The exact reasons and date are unknown. Mieszko's son, Casimir I, was either expelled by this insurrection, or the insurrection was caused by the aristocracy's expulsion of him. Some modern historians argue that the insurrection was caused more by economic than by religious issues, such as new taxes for the Church and the militarization of the early Polish polity. Priests, monks and knights were killed; cities, churches and monasteries were burned. The chaos became still greater when unexpectedly the Czechs invaded from the south. The land became divided among local rulers, one of whom is known by name: Masław, ruler of Masovia. Greater Poland was so devastated that it ceased to be the core of the Polish kingdom. The capital was moved to Cracow in Lesser Poland.

-------------------- Mieszko II Lambert (b. ca. 990 - d. 10/11 May 1034), was King of Poland during 1025-1031, and Duke from 1032 until his death.

He was the second son of Bolesław I the Brave, but the eldest born from his third wife Enmilda, daughter of Dobromir, possible ruler of Lusatia. He was named probably after his paternal grandfather, Mieszko I. His second name, Lambert, sometimes erroneously considered to be a nickname, was given to him as a manifestation of the cult to Saint Lambert. Also, is probable that this name was chosen after Bolesław I's half-brother Lambert. It's expected that the choice of this name for his son was an expression of warming relations between Bolesław I and his stepmother Oda.

He organized two devastating invasions to Saxony in 1028 and 1030. Then ran a defensive war against Germany, Bohemia and the Kievan princes. Mieszko II was forced to escape from the country in 1031 after an attack of Yaroslav I the Wise, who put on the Polish throne to his older half-brother Bezprym. Mieszko took refuge in Bohemia, where he was imprisoned by the Duke Oldrich. In 1032 he regained the power in one of the three districts. United country, but he managed to play the stable structures of power. In this time, dropped from the Polish territorial acquisitions of his father: Milsko, Lusatia, Red Ruthenia, Moravia and Slovakia.

Mieszko II was very well educated for the period. He was able to read and write, and knew both Greek and Latin. He is unjustly known as Mieszko II Gnuśny (the "Lazy," "Stagnant" or "Slothful"). He received that epithet due to the unfortunate way his reign ended; but at the beginning he acted as a skillful and talented ruler.

Life Early years Mieszko II was politically active before his father's death, so Bolesław I the Brave appointed him to his successor. He participated mainly in German politics, both as a representative of his father and the commander of the Polish troops.

In 1013 Mieszko II went to Magdeburg, where he paid homage to the Emperor Henry II. A few months later Bolesław I the Brave paid homage in person. It's unclear the real purprose of Mieszko II's visit to Germany, especially since it soon after his father made by himself the homage to the Holy Roman Empire. Presumably, the young prince paid homage for Milsko or Moravia and Lusatia. It also stated that it was only a personal tribute, not entailing any legal obligations. Another hypothesis assumes that the territories were transferred by Bolesław I to him, and in consecuence made Mieszko a vassal of the Empire.

The position of the young prince at the both Polish and Imperial courts, increased strongly in 1013 when he married with Richeza (Ryksa),[2] daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia and niece of Emperor Otto III. Ezzo was a prince of a considerable influence as a great leader of the opposition against Henry II. Through the marriage with his daughter Mieszko II entered in the circle of the Imperial family and became an item equal to, if not higher than the Emperor himself. Probably after the wedding, and in accordance with prevailing custom, Bolesław I give a separated district to Mieszko II: Kraków. One of his towns, Wawel, was chose by the prince as his residence.

In the year 1014 Mieszko II was sent by his father to Bohemia as an emissary. He had to persuade Duke Oldrich to made an alliance against the Emperor Henry II. The mission failed, and Oldrich imprisoned Mieszko II. He was released only after the intervention of the Emperor, who, despite the planned betrayal of Bolesław I he loyally acted on behalf of his vassal. As a result, Mieszko II was sent to the Imperial courtt in Merseburg as a hostage. Henry II probably wanted to force the presence of Bolesław I in Merseburg and made to him an explanation for his actions. This plan failed because, under pressure from his relatives, the Emperor agreed to released Mieszko II.

A year later, Mieszko II stood at the head of Polish troops in the next war against the Emperor. The campaign wasn't favorable to Henry II. His army was needed over the month to reach the line of the Oder River, and once there his troops encountered strong resistance led by Mieszko II and his father. Henry II sent a delegation to the Polish rulers, in an effort to induce them to conclude a peace settlement. Mieszko II refused, and after the Emperor's failure to break his troops, he decided to started the retreat to Dziadoszyce. The Polish prince went on chasing after him, and caused big losses in the German army. When the Polish army advanced to Meissen, Mieszko II unsuccessfully tried to besiege the castle of his brother-in-law, Margrave Herman I (husband of his sister Regelinda). The fighting stopped in autumn and was resumed only in 1017 after the failure of peace talks. Imperial forces near Krosno Odrzańskie bypassed the main site and were launched in Niemcza. At the same time, at the head of 10 legions Mieszko II went to Moravia and planned an allied attack with Bohemia against the Emperor. This action forced the Emperor to surrender from any frontal attack. A year later, was made the Peace of Bautzen (30 January 1018), who was extremely favorable to the Polish side.

Beginning in 1028, he successfully waged war against the Holy Roman Empire: he was able to repel the its invading army, and later even invaded Saxony. He allied Poland with Hungary, resulting in a temporary Hungarian occupation of Vienna. This war was probably prompted by family connections of Mieszko's in Germany who opposed Emperor Conrad II.

Due to the death of Thietmar of Merseburg, the principal chronicler of that period, there are little information about Mieszko II's life from 1018 until 1025, when he finally took over the government of Poland. Only Gallus Anonymus mentions the then Prince on occasion of the description of his father's trip to Rus in 1018: "due to the fact that his son (...) Mieszko wasn't considered yet capable of took the government by himself, he established a regent among his family during his trip to Rus". This statement was probably the result of the complete ignorance of the chronicler, since 1018 Mieszko II was 28 years old and was already fully able to exercise the power by himself.

King of Poland Coronation and Inheritance Bolesław I the Brave died on 17 June 1025. Six months later, on Christmas Day, Mieszko II was crowned King of Poland by the Archbishop of Gniezno, Hipolit, in the Gniezno Cathedral. According to German chroniclers he made this arbitrarily, as in the then political situation could be somewhat true. After his father's death Mieszko II inherited a vast territory, comprising not only Western Pomerania, but also Milsko, Lusatia, Red Ruthenia, Moravia and Slovakia. As an important Central European ruler, he now held extensive affinity for the Holy Roman Empire once began his sole government.

The explanation of what happened later requires an understanding of Mieszko II's family. His older half-brother Bezprym was the son of the Hungarian princess Judith, Bolesław I's second wife. Miezsko II also had a younger full-brother, Otto. By Slavic custom, a father should divide his legacy among all his sons. However, since a Kingdom cannot be divided, Mieszko II's brothers received nothing from their father's legacy.

As Bezprym was the oldest son, many probably felt that he should have succeeded Bolesław I as King. Bezprym had, however, always been disliked by his father, as indicated by his name (the Piasts tended to give names such as Bolesław, Mieszko and later Kazimierz, Władysław and emperors' names such as Otto, Conrad and Heinrich: Bezprym was a commoner's name, which implied that Bolesław I did not wish Bezprym to succeed him). He was packed off to a monastery.

According to some chroniclers, Mieszko II either expelled or forced to flee his two brothers from the country. Otto took refuge in Germany and Bezprym escaped to Kievan Rus.

Support to German opposition


In 1026 the German King Conrad II, went to Italy for his Imperial coronation. His absence has increased the activity of the opposition centered around the Dukes Ernest II of Swabia and Frederick II of Upper Lorraine. Conrad II's opponents has agreed to acquire the favor of the significant King of Poland. Trace of these efforts was the Prayer Book sent to Mieszko II by the Duchess Matilda of Swabia around 1027. The volume is entitled: officiorum Liber quem ordinem Romanum apellant. In a miniature was showed when the Duchess princess presents the Book to Mieszko II was sit on a throne. The gift was accompanied by a letter, where Matilda named him a distinguished King, father of the model on the spread of Christianity. Also, were praised the merits of Mieszko II in the building of new churches, as well his knowledge of Latin, who was an extremely rare case in that times were the Greek was more popular. In this book were found the earliest record of the Kingdom of Poland: neume at the margins of the sequence Ad célèbres rex celica. The gift caused the expected effect, and Mieszko II promised to take military action. The preparations for the war began in the autumn of 1027. In the middle of that year, Conrad II returned to the country and started to fight against the rebels. Soon he defeated Duke Ernest II and deprived from his sovereignty. It was only when the fight was almost lost by the rebels, when Mieszko II appears in their help. In 1028 Polish troops invaded Saxony and took a number of prisoners. The devastation would be so great that, according to Saxon sources where Mieszko II's troops put their feets never grow grass. The Emperor accused to the Polish ruler for his illegal coronation as King and declared him an ussurper. The invasion was related with the lands of the Veleti tribe. In October 1028 the opportunity came when the district of Pöhlde asked the Emperor to defend against the attacks of Mieszko II and promising support in the fight against the Polish ruler.

Retaliatory expeditions Despite the treaty who secured the peace between Poland and Germany, soon the Emperor armed a retaliatory expedition against Mieszko II. Conrad II's army arrived to Lusation in the autumn of 1029 and began the siege of Bautzen; but the German troops don't received the promised support of the Veleti tribe and the expedition failed, as threatened by the Hungarians, the Emperor was forced to retreat.

In 1030 Mieszko II secured an alliance with Hungary and once again invaded Saxony. In the meanwhile, his southern ally attacked Bavaria temporarily occupied Vienna.

In response, the Emperor organized another expedition against the Polish King, this time by organizing a coalition against Mieszko II. Already in 1030 Yaroslav I the Wise began the offensive and conquered Red Ruthenia and some Bełz castles.

Probably in 1031 the son of Oldrich, Bretislaus I, attacked and took Moravia (in the literature appears different dates for the conquest of Moravia: 1017, 1020, 1021, 1029 and 1030). It noted, however, by the Bohemian historiography that the Piast dynasty began to losing Moravia since the Bolesław I the Brave during 1018-1020.

The Emperor in 1031 concluded a peace with the Kingdom of Hungary. Probably in exchange for his support, Conrad II give to the King Stephen I the territories between the Leitha and Fischa Rivers were ceded to Hungary. Not the Emperor wasn't worried about an attack from the south and in the autumn of 1031 and went on the offensive against Poland and besieged Milsko. The offensive ended with a complete success, and Mieszko II was forced to surrendered some lands. As a result, the Polish King dropped from part of the lands taken by his father Bolesław I, who caused many wars with the Emperor Henry II.

The situation in Poland Historians estimate that the reason for the rapid capitulation of Mieszko II was the bad internal situation in the country. Bolesław I the Brave leave to his son a unstable Kingdom, who had to defended his autonomy and position among the neighbors rulers. Otherwise, the costs of an extensive war caused that Mieszko II's popularity declined among his subjects, despite the fact that on the invasion of Saxony the King only defended their territory. Furthermore, the final lost of the war against the Holy Roman Empire weakened the position of the King, who had to faced several rebellions among the opposition, who claimed that the previous war didn't produce the expected benefits. An additional problem was a dynastic crisis: Mieszko II's brothers continue their attempts to regain power with the help of foreign forces.

Attack of Yaroslav I the Wise. Deposition Probably the brother who caused the first problems to Mieszko II was Bezprym, who allegedly with the support of Otto won the alliance of Kiev in order to take the power. When Mieszko II was busy defending Lusatia from the troops of Conrad II, the Kievan expedition started from the east with Yaroslav I the Wise as a leader. In 1031 Poland was complete invaded and then Bezprym was settled in the throne. Mieszko II and his family were forced to flee the country. Queen Richeza and her children found refuge in Germany. The King couldn't escape to Hungary, because during his way he was stopped by Rus' troops, and King Stephen I wasn't favorable to accepted him in his country. Without alternatives, Mieszko II went to Bohemia. Duke Oldrich once again imprisoned him, but that this time the King wasn't count with the Imperial support. Mieszko II was not only imprisoned but also castrated, which was to be a punishment to Bolesław I the Brave, who blinded Duke Boleslaus III the Red (Oldrich's brother) thirty years before. Mieszko II and his wife never reunited again; according to some sources they were either officially divorced or only separated.

Death of Bezprym and restoration of Mieszko II The new Duke Bezprym probably made bloody persecutions against the followers of Mieszko II. At the time the power was exercised to the mutiny and the people known as the "Pagan Reaction". Have degraded the structure of power, the Duke's authority collapsed, and he was forced to sent to the Emperor the Royal crown and regalia. After only one year of reign, Bezprym was murdered (1032), probably thanks to the instigations of his brothers.

After the death of Bezprym, the Polish throne remained vacant. Mieszko II was still imprisoned in Bohemia and Otto probably in Germany. German sources report that the Emperor has organized an expedition in order to invade Poland. It is unknown what happened after this, but certainly Mieszko II was released by Duke Oldrich and he could return to the country. After his recent opponent could regain the power, the Emperor immediately reacted and began the preparations for the expedition against Poland. Mieszko II wasn't prepared for the confrontation, so he used his influence in the German court in order to resolve the conflict.

On 7 July 1032, in Merseburg a meeting took place between Conrad II and the surviving heirs of the Piast dynasty. Without alternatives, Mieszko II was forced to surrendered the Royal crown and agreed to the division of Poland between him and the other two competitors: his brother Otto and certain Dytryk (German: Thiedric) —cousin, grandson of Duke Mieszko I and his third wife Oda—.

Mieszko II probably received Lesser Poland and Mazovia, Otto obtained Silesia, and Dytryk took Greater Poland. Another proposal involves that Mieszko II received Greater Poland, and other neighborhoods were given to Otto and Dytryk.

Although the distribution was uncertain, this division was short-lived: in 1033 Otto was killed by one of his own men, and Mieszko II took his domains. Shortly after, he could have expelled Dytryk and thus was able to reunited the whole country in his hands.

Mieszko II regained the full power, but he still had to fight against the nobility and his own subjects. It should be noted that in Poland his renunciation to the Royal crown wasn't count, and after 1032, in the chronicles he was still called King.

Death Mieszko II died suddenly between 10 and 11 July 1034, probably in Poznań. The Polish chronicles clearly stated that he died of natural causes; the information that he was murdered by a swordfish, given by the chronicles of Gottfried of Viterbo, refers to Bezprym. However, the historians now think that he was killed in a plot hatched by the aristocracy. He was buried in the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul.

After Mieszko II's death, Poland's peasants revolted in a "pagan reaction." The exact reasons and date are unknown. Mieszko II's only son and heir, Casimir I, was either expelled by this insurrection, or the insurrection was caused by the aristocracy's expulsion of him.

Some modern historians argue that the insurrection was caused more by economic than by religious issues, such as new taxes for the Church and the militarization of the early Polish polity. Priests, monks and knights were killed; cities, churches and monasteries were burned.

The chaos became still greater when unexpectedly the Czechs invaded from the south. The land became divided among local rulers, one of whom is known by name: Miecław, ruler of Masovia. Greater Poland was so devastated that it ceased to be the core of Polish Kingdom. The capital was moved to Kraków in Lesser Poland.

Marriage and issue In Merseburg ca. 1013, Mieszko II married with Richeza (b. bef. 1000 - d. Saalfeld, 21 March 1063), daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia. They had three children:

Casimir I the Restorer (b. 25 July 1016 - d. 19 March 1058). Ryksa (b. ca. 1018 - d. aft. 1060), married by 1039/42 to King Béla I of Hungary. Gertruda (b. 1025 - d. Kiev, 4 January 1108), married by 1043 to Grand Prince Iziaslav I of Kiev.

-------------------- Mieszko II Lambert (b. ca. 990 - d. 10/11 May 1034), was King of Poland during 1025-1031, and Duke from 1032 until his death.

He was the second son of Bolesław I the Brave, but the eldest born from his third wife Enmilda, daughter of Dobromir, possible ruler of Lusatia. He was named probably after his paternal grandfather, Mieszko I. His second name, Lambert, sometimes erroneously considered to be a nickname, was given to him as a manifestation of the cult to Saint Lambert. Also, is probable that this name was chosen after Bolesław I's half-brother Lambert. It's expected that the choice of this name for his son was an expression of warming relations between Bolesław I and his stepmother Oda.[1]

He organized two devastating invasions to Saxony in 1028 and 1030. Then ran a defensive war against Germany, Bohemia and the Kievan princes. Mieszko II was forced to escape from the country in 1031 after an attack of Yaroslav I the Wise, who put on the Polish throne to his older half-brother Bezprym. Mieszko took refuge in Bohemia, where he was imprisoned by the Duke Oldrich. In 1032 he regained the power in one of the three districts. United country, but he managed to play the stable structures of power. In this time, dropped from the Polish territorial acquisitions of his father: Milsko, Lusatia, Red Ruthenia, Moravia and Slovakia.

Mieszko II was very well educated for the period. He was able to read and write, and knew both Greek and Latin. He is unjustly known as Mieszko II Gnuśny (the "Lazy," "Stagnant" or "Slothful"). He received that epithet due to the unfortunate way his reign ended; but at the beginning he acted as a skillful and talented ruler.

King of Poland

Coronation and Inheritance Bolesław I the Brave died on 17 June 1025. Six months later, on Christmas Day, Mieszko II was crowned King of Poland by the Archbishop of Gniezno, Hipolit, in the Gniezno Cathedral. According to German chroniclers he made this arbitrarily, as in the then political situation could be somewhat true. After his father's death Mieszko II inherited a vast territory, comprising not only Western Pomerania, but also Milsko, Lusatia, Red Ruthenia, Moravia and Slovakia. As an important Central European ruler, he now held extensive affinity for the Holy Roman Empire once began his sole government.

The explanation of what happened later requires an understanding of Mieszko II's family. His older half-brother Bezprym was the son of the Hungarian princess Judith, Bolesław I's second wife. Miezsko II also had a younger full-brother, Otto. By Slavic custom, a father should divide his legacy among all his sons. However, since a Kingdom cannot be divided, Mieszko II's brothers received nothing from their father's legacy.

As Bezprym was the oldest son, many probably felt that he should have succeeded Bolesław I as King. Bezprym had, however, always been disliked by his father, as indicated by his name (the Piasts tended to give names such as Bolesław, Mieszko and later Kazimierz, Władysław and emperors' names such as Otto, Conrad and Heinrich: Bezprym was a commoner's name, which implied that Bolesław I did not wish Bezprym to succeed him). He was packed off to a monastery.

According to some chroniclers, Mieszko II either expelled or forced to flee his two brothers from the country. Otto took refuge in Germany and Bezprym escaped to Kievan Rus.

Support to German opposition Mieszko and Duchess Matilda of Swabia. Earliest known contemporary depiction of a Polish ruler.In 1026 the German King Conrad II, went to Italy for his Imperial coronation. His absence has increased the activity of the opposition centered around the Dukes Ernest II of Swabia and Frederick II of Upper Lorraine. Conrad II's opponents has agreed to acquire the favor of the significant King of Poland. Trace of these efforts was the Prayer Book sent to Mieszko II by the Duchess Matilda of Swabia around 1027. The volume is entitled: officiorum Liber quem ordinem Romanum apellant. In a miniature was showed when the Duchess princess presents the Book to Mieszko II was sit on a throne. The gift was accompanied by a letter, where Matilda named him a distinguished King, father of the model on the spread of Christianity. Also, were praised the merits of Mieszko II in the building of new churches, as well his knowledge of Latin, who was an extremely rare case in that times were the Greek was more popular. In this book were found the earliest record of the Kingdom of Poland: neume at the margins of the sequence Ad célèbres rex celica. The gift caused the expected effect, and Mieszko II promised to take military action. The preparations for the war began in the autumn of 1027. In the middle of that year, Conrad II returned to the country and started to fight against the rebels. Soon he defeated Duke Ernest II and deprived from his sovereignty. It was only when the fight was almost lost by the rebels, when Mieszko II appears in their help. In 1028 Polish troops invaded Saxony and took a number of prisoners. The devastation would be so great that, according to Saxon sources where Mieszko II's troops put their feets never grow grass. The Emperor accused to the Polish ruler for his illegal coronation as King and declared him an ussurper. The invasion was related with the lands of the Veleti tribe. In October 1028 the opportunity came when the district of Pöhlde asked the Emperor to defend against the attacks of Mieszko II and promising support in the fight against the Polish ruler.

Retaliatory expeditions Despite the treaty who secured the peace between Poland and Germany, soon the Emperor armed a retaliatory expedition against Mieszko II. Conrad II's army arrived to Lusation in the autumn of 1029 and began the siege of Bautzen; but the German troops don't received the promised support of the Veleti tribe and the expedition failed, as threatened by the Hungarians, the Emperor was forced to retreat.

In 1030 Mieszko II secured an alliance with Hungary and once again invaded Saxony. In the meanwhile, his southern ally attacked Bavaria temporarily occupied Vienna.

In response, the Emperor organized another expedition against the Polish King, this time by organizing a coalition against Mieszko II. Already in 1030 Yaroslav I the Wise began the offensive and conquered Red Ruthenia and some Bełz castles.

Probably in 1031 the son of Oldrich, Bretislaus I, attacked and took Moravia (in the literature appears different dates for the conquest of Moravia: 1017,[3] 1020,[4] 1021, 1029[5] and 1030). It noted, however, by the Bohemian historiography that the Piast dynasty began to losing Moravia since the Bolesław I the Brave during 1018-1020.

The Emperor in 1031 concluded a peace with the Kingdom of Hungary. Probably in exchange for his support, Conrad II give to the King Stephen I the territories between the Leitha and Fischa Rivers were ceded to Hungary. Not the Emperor wasn't worried about an attack from the south and in the autumn of 1031 and went on the offensive against Poland and besieged Milsko. The offensive ended with a complete success, and Mieszko II was forced to surrendered some lands. As a result, the Polish King dropped from part of the lands taken by his father Bolesław I, who caused many wars with the Emperor Henry II.

The situation in Poland Historians estimate that the reason for the rapid capitulation of Mieszko II was the bad internal situation in the country. Bolesław I the Brave leave to his son a unstable Kingdom, who had to defended his autonomy and position among the neighbors rulers. Otherwise, the costs of an extensive war caused that Mieszko II's popularity declined among his subjects, despite the fact that on the invasion of Saxony the King only defended their territory. Furthermore, the final lost of the war against the Holy Roman Empire weakened the position of the King, who had to faced several rebellions among the opposition, who claimed that the previous war didn't produce the expected benefits. An additional problem was a dynastic crisis: Mieszko II's brothers continue their attempts to regain power with the help of foreign forces.

Attack of Yaroslav I the Wise. Deposition Probably the brother who caused the first problems to Mieszko II was Bezprym, who allegedly with the support of Otto won the alliance of Kiev in order to take the power. When Mieszko II was busy defending Lusatia from the troops of Conrad II, the Kievan expedition started from the east with Yaroslav I the Wise as a leader. In 1031 Poland was complete invaded and then Bezprym was settled in the throne. Mieszko II and his family were forced to flee the country. Queen Richeza and her children found refuge in Germany. The King couldn't escape to Hungary, because during his way he was stopped by Rus' troops, and King Stephen I wasn't favorable to accepted him in his country. Without alternatives, Mieszko II went to Bohemia. Duke Oldrich once again imprisoned him, but that this time the King wasn't count with the Imperial support. Mieszko II was not only imprisoned but also castrated, which was to be a punishment to Bolesław I the Brave, who blinded Duke Boleslaus III the Red (Oldrich's brother) thirty years before. Mieszko II and his wife never reunited again; according to some sources they were either officially divorced or only separated.

Death of Bezprym and restoration of Mieszko II The new Duke Bezprym probably made bloody persecutions against the followers of Mieszko II. At the time the power was exercised to the mutiny and the people known as the "Pagan Reaction". Have degraded the structure of power, the Duke's authority collapsed, and he was forced to sent to the Emperor the Royal crown and regalia. After only one year of reign, Bezprym was murdered (1032), probably thanks to the instigations of his brothers.

After the death of Bezprym, the Polish throne remained vacant. Mieszko II was still imprisoned in Bohemia and Otto probably in Germany. German sources report that the Emperor has organized an expedition in order to invade Poland. It is unknown what happened after this, but certainly Mieszko II was released by Duke Oldrich and he could return to the country. After his recent opponent could regain the power, the Emperor immediately reacted and began the preparations for the expedition against Poland. Mieszko II wasn't prepared for the confrontation, so he used his influence in the German court in order to resolve the conflict.

On 7 July 1032, in Merseburg a meeting took place between Conrad II and the surviving heirs of the Piast dynasty. Without alternatives, Mieszko II was forced to surrendered the Royal crown and agreed to the division of Poland between him and the other two competitors: his brother Otto and certain Dytryk (German: Thiedric) —cousin, grandson of Duke Mieszko I and his third wife Oda—.

Mieszko II probably received Lesser Poland and Mazovia, Otto obtained Silesia, and Dytryk took Greater Poland.[6] Another proposal involves that Mieszko II received Greater Poland, and other neighborhoods were given to Otto and Dytryk.[7]

Although the distribution was uncertain, this division was short-lived: in 1033 Otto was killed by one of his own men, and Mieszko II took his domains. Shortly after, he could have expelled Dytryk and thus was able to reunited the whole country in his hands.

Mieszko II regained the full power, but he still had to fight against the nobility and his own subjects. It should be noted that in Poland his renunciation to the Royal crown wasn't count, and after 1032, in the chronicles he was still called King.

Death Mieszko II died suddenly between 10 and 11 July 1034, probably in Poznań. The Polish chronicles clearly stated that he died of natural causes; the information that he was murdered by a swordfish, given by the chronicles of Gottfried of Viterbo, refers to Bezprym. However, the historians now think that he was killed in a plot hatched by the aristocracy. He was buried in the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul.

After Mieszko II's death, Poland's peasants revolted in a "pagan reaction." The exact reasons and date are unknown. Mieszko II's only son and heir, Casimir I, was either expelled by this insurrection, or the insurrection was caused by the aristocracy's expulsion of him.

Some modern historians argue that the insurrection was caused more by economic than by religious issues, such as new taxes for the Church and the militarization of the early Polish polity. Priests, monks and knights were killed; cities, churches and monasteries were burned.

The chaos became still greater when unexpectedly the Czechs invaded from the south. The land became divided among local rulers, one of whom is known by name: Miecław, ruler of Masovia. Greater Poland was so devastated that it ceased to be the core of Polish Kingdom. The capital was moved to Kraków in Lesser Poland.

Marriage and issue In Merseburg ca. 1013, Mieszko II married with Richeza (b. bef. 1000 - d. Saalfeld, 21 March 1063), daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia. They had three

children:

Casimir I the Restorer (b. 25 July 1016 - d. 19 March 1058). Ryksa (b. ca. 1018 - d. aft. 1060), married by 1039/42 to King Béla I of Hungary. Gertruda (b. 1025 - d. Kiev, 4 January 1108), married by 1043 to Grand Prince Iziaslav I of Kiev.

-------------------- Mieszko II Lambert (b. ca. 990 - d. 10/11 May 1034 ), was King of Poland during 1025-1031, and Duke from 1032 until his death. He was the second son of Boleslaw I the Brave , but the eldest born from his third wife Enmilda , daughter of Dobromir , possible ruler of Lusatia . He was named probably after his paternal grandfather, Mieszko I . His second name, Lambert, sometimes erroneously considered to be a nickname, was given to him as a manifestation of the cult to Saint Lambert . Also, is probable that this name was chosen after Bolesław I's half-brother Lambert . It's expected that the choice of this name for his son was an expression of warming relations between Bolesław I and his stepmother Oda. He organized two devastating invasions to Saxony in 1028 and 1030. Then ran a defensive war against Germany, Bohemia and the Kievan princes. Mieszko II was forced to escape from the country in 1031 after an attack of Yaroslav I the Wise , who put on the Polish throne to his older half-brother Bezprym . He took refuge in Bohemia, where he was imprisoned by the Duke Oldrich . In 1032 he regained the power in one of the three districts. United country, but he managed to play the stable structures of power. In this time, dropped from the Polish territorial acquisitions of his father: Milsko , Lusatia , Red Ruthenia , Moravia </wiki/Moravia> and Slovakia . Mieszko II was very well educated for the period. He was able to read and write, and knew both Greek and Latin. He is unjustly known as Mieszko II Gnuśny (the "Lazy," "Stagnant" or "Slothful"). He received that epithet due to the unfortunate way his reign ended; but at the beginning he acted as a skillful and talented ruler. Early Years Mieszko II was politically active before his father's death, so Bolesław I the Brave appointed him to his successor. He participated mainly in German politics, both as a representative of his father and the commander of the Polish troops. In 1013 Mieszko II went to Magdeburg , where he paid homage to the Emperor Henry II . A few months later Bolesław I the Brave paid homage in person. It's unclear the real purprose of Mieszko II's visit to Germany, especially since it soon after his father made by himself the homage to the Holy Roman Empire. Presumably, the young prince paid homage for Milsko or Moravia and Lusatia . It also stated that it was only a personal tribute, not entailing any legal obligations. Another hypothesis assumes that the territories were transferred by Bolesław I to him, and in consecuence made Mieszko a vassal of the Empire. The position of the young prince at the both Polish and Imperial courts, increased strongly in 1013 when he married with Richeza, daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia and niece of Emperor Otto III . Ezzo was a prince of a considerable influence as a great leader of the opposition against Henry II. Through the marriage with his daughter Mieszko II entered in the circle of the Imperial family and became an item equal to, if not higher than the Emperor himself. Probably after the wedding, and in accordance with prevailing custom, Bolesław I give a separated district to Mieszko II: Kraków . One of his towns, Wawel , was chose by the prince as his residence. In the year 1014 Mieszko II was sent by his father to Bohemia as an emissary. He had to persuade Duke Oldrich to made an alliance against the Emperor Henry II. The mission failed, and Oldrich imprisoned Mieszko II. He was released only after the intervention of the Emperor, who, despite the planned betrayal of Bolesław I he loyally acted on behalf of his vassal. As a result, Mieszko II was sent to the Imperial court in Merseburg as a hostage. Henry II probably wanted to force the presence of Bolesław I in Merseburg and made to him an explanation for his actions. This plan failed because, under pressure from his relatives, the Emperor agreed to released Mieszko II. A year later, Mieszko II stood at the head of Polish troops in the next war against the Emperor. The campaign wasn't favorable to Henry II. His army was needed over the month to reach the line of the Oder River , and once there his troops encountered strong resistance led by Mieszko II and his father. Henry II sent a delegation to the Polish rulers, in an effort to induce them to conclude a peace settlement. Mieszko II refused, and after the Emperor's failure to break his troops, he decided to started the retreat to Dziadoszyce . The Polish prince went on chasing after him, and caused big losses in the German army. When the Polish army advanced to Meissen , Mieszko II unsuccessfully tried to besiege the castle of his brother-in-law, Margrave Herman I (husband of his sister Regelinda). The fighting stopped in autumn and was resumed only in 1017 after the failure of peace talks. Imperial forces near Krosno Odrzanskie bypassed the main site and were launched in Niemcza . At the same time, at the head of 10 legions Mieszko II went to Moravia and planned an allied attack with Bohemia against the Emperor. This action forced the Emperor to surrender from any frontal attack. A year later, was made the Peace of Bautzen </wiki/Peace_of_Bautzen> (30 January, 1018 ), who was extremely favorable to the Polish side. Beginning in 1028, he successfully waged war against the Holy Roman Empire: he was able to repel the its invading army, and later even invaded Saxony . He allied Poland with Hungary , resulting in a temporary Hungarian occupation of Vienna . This war was probably prompted by family connections of Mieszko's in Germany who opposed Emperor Conrad II. Due to the death of Thietmar of Merseburg , the principal chronicler of that period, there are little information about Mieszko II's life from 1018 until 1025, when he finally took over the government of Poland. Only Gallus Anonymus mentions the then Prince on occasion of the description of his father's trip to Rus in 1018: "due to the fact that his son (...) Mieszko wasn't considered yet capable of took the government by himself, he established a regent among his family during his trip to Rus". This statement was probably the result of the complete ignorance of the chronicler, since 1018 Mieszko II was 28 years old and was already fully able to exercise the power by himself. King of Poland Coronation and Inheritance Bolesław I the Brave died on 17 June 1025 . Six months later, on Christmas Day , Mieszko II was crowned King of Poland by the Archbishop of Gniezno , Hipolit , in the Gniezno Cathedral . According to German chroniclers he made this arbitrarily, as in the then political situation could be somewhat true. After his father's death Mieszko II inherited a vast territory, comprising not only Western Pomerania , but also Milsko , Lusatia , Red Ruthenia, Moravia and Slovakia . As an important Central European ruler, he now held extensive affinity for the Holy Roman Empire once began his sole government. The explanation of what happened later requires an understanding of Mieszko II's family. His older half-brother Bezprym was the son of the Hungarian princess Judith, Bolesław I's second wife. Miezsko II also had a younger full-brother, Otto. By Slavic custom, a father should divide his legacy among all his sons. However, since a Kingdom cannot be divided, Mieszko II's brothers received nothing from their father's legacy. As Bezprym was the oldest son, many probably felt that he should have succeeded Bolesław I as King. Bezprym had, however, always been disliked by his father, as indicated by his name (the Piasts tended to give names such as Bolesław, Mieszko and later Kazimierz, Władysław and emperors' names such as Otto, Conrad and Heinrich: Bezprym was a commoner's name, which implied that Bolesław I did not wish Bezprym to succeed him). He was packed off to a monastery. According to some chroniclers, Mieszko II either expelled or forced to flee his two brothers from the country. Otto took refuge in Germany and Bezprym escaped to Kievan Rus . Support to German opposition In 1026 the German King Conrad II , went to Italy for his Imperial coronation. His absence has increased the activity of the opposition centered around the Dukes Ernest II of Swabia and Frederick II of Upper Lorraine . Conrad II's opponents has agreed to acquire the favor of the significant King of Poland. Trace of these efforts was the Prayer Book sent to Mieszko II by the Duchess Matilda of Swabia around 1027. The volume is entitled: officiorum Liber quem ordinem Romanum apellant. In a miniature was showed when the Duchess princess presents the Book to Mieszko II was sit on a throne. The gift was accompanied by a letter, where Matilda named him a distinguished King, father of the model on the spread of Christianity . Also, were praised the merits of Mieszko II in the building of new churches, as well his knowledge of Latin , who was an extremely rare case in that times were the Greek was more popular. In this book were found the earliest record of the Kingdom of Poland: neume at the margins of the sequence Ad célèbres rex celica. The gift caused the expected effect, and Mieszko II promised to take military action. The preparations for the war began in the autumn of 1027. In the middle of that year, Conrad II returned to the country and started to fight against the rebels. Soon he defeated Duke Ernest II and deprived from his sovereignty. It was only when the fight was almost lost by the rebels, when Mieszko II appears in their help. In 1028 Polish troops invaded Saxony and took a number of prisoners. The devastation would be so great that, according to Saxon sources where Mieszko II's troops put their feets never grow grass. The Emperor accused to the Polish ruler for his illegal coronation as King and declared him an ussurper. The invasion was related with the lands of the Veleti tribe. In October 1028 the opportunity came when the district of Pöhlde asked the Emperor to defend against the attacks of Mieszko II and promising support in the fight against the Polish ruler. Retaliatory expeditions Despite the treaty who secured the peace between Poland and Germany, soon the Emperor armed a retaliatory expedition against Mieszko II. Conrad II's army arrived to Lusation in the autumn of 1029 and began the siege of Bautzen ; but the German troops don't received the promised support of the Veleti tribe and the expedition failed, as threatened by the Hungarians, the Emperor was forced to retreat. In 1030 Mieszko II secured an alliance with Hungary and once again invaded Saxony . In the meanwhile, his southern ally attacked Bavaria temporarily occupied Vienna . In response, the Emperor organized another expedition against the Polish King, this time by organizing a coalition against Mieszko II. Already in 1030 Yaroslav I the Wise began the offensive and conquered Red Ruthenia and some Belz castles. Probably in 1031 the son of Oldrich, Bretislaus I , attacked and took Moravia (in the literature appears different dates for the conquest of Moravia: 1017, 1020, 1021, 1029 and 1030). It noted, however, by the Bohemian historiography that the Piast dynasty began to losing Moravia since the Bolesław I the Brave during 1018-1020. The Emperor in 1031 concluded a peace with the Kingdom of Hungary. Probably in exchange for his support, Conrad II give to the King Stephen I the territories between the Leitha and Fischa Rivers were ceded to Hungary. Not the Emperor wasn't worried about an attack from the south and in the autumn of 1031 and went on the offensive against Poland and besieged Milsko. The offensive ended with a complete success, and Mieszko II was forced to surrendered some lands. As a result, the Polish King dropped from part of the lands taken by his father Bolesław I, who caused many wars with the Emperor Henry II. The situation in Poland Historians estimate that the reason for the rapid capitulation of Mieszko II was the bad internal situation in the country. Bolesław I the Brave leave to his son a unstable Kingdom, who had to defended his autonomy and position among the neighbors rulers. Otherwise, the costs of an extensive war caused that Mieszko II's popularity declined among his subjects, despite the fact that on the invasion of Saxony the King only defended their territory. Furthermore, the final lost of the war against the Holy Roman Empire weakened the position of the King, who had to faced several rebellions among the opposition, who claimed that the previous war didn't produce the expected benefits. An additional problem was a dynastic crisis: Mieszko II's brothers continue their attempts to regain power with the help of foreign forces. Attack of Yaroslav I the Wise. Deposition Probably the brother who caused the first problems to Mieszko II was Bezprym, who allegedly with the support of Otto won the alliance of the Russian rulers in order to take the power. When Mieszko II was busy defending Lusatia from the troops of Conrad II, the Kievan expedition started from the east with Yaroslav I the Wise as a leader. In 1031 Poland was complete invaded and then Bezprym was settled in the throne. Mieszko II and his family were forced to flee the country. Queen Richeza and her children found refuge in Germany. The King couldn't escape to Hungary, because during his way he was stopped by Russian troops, and King Stephen I wasn't favorable to accepted him in his country. Without alternatives, Mieszko II went to Bohemia . Duke Oldrich once again imprisoned him, but that this time the King wasn't count with the Imperial support. Mieszko II was not only imprisoned but also castrated, which was to be a punishment to Bolesław I the Brave, who blinded Duke Boleslaus III the Red (Oldrich's brother) thirty years before. Mieszko II and his wife never reunited again; according to some sources they were either officially divorced or only separated. Death of Bezprym and restoration of Mieszko II The new Duke Bezprym probably made bloody persecutions against the followers of Mieszko II. At the time the power was exercised to the mutiny and the people known as the "Pagan Reaction". Have degraded the structure of power, the Duke's authority collapsed, and he was forced to sent to the Emperor the Royal crown and regalia . After only one year of reign, Bezprym was murdered (1032), probably thanks to the instigations of his brothers. After the death of Bezprym, the Polish throne remained vacant. Mieszko II was still imprisoned in Bohemia and Otto probably in Germany. German sources reports that the Emperor has organized an expedition in order to invaded Poland. Is unknown what happened after this, but certainly Mieszko II was released by Duke Oldrich and he could return to the country. After his recent opponent could regained the power, the Emperor immediately reacted and began the preparations for the expedition against Poland. Mieszko II wasn't prepared for the confrontation, so he used his influence in the German court in order to resolve the conflict. On 7 July 1032 , in Merseburg took place a meeting between Conrad II and the surviving heirs of the Piast dynasty . Without alternatives, Mieszko II was forced to surrendered the Royal crown and agreed to the division of Poland between him and the other two competitors: his brother Otto and certain Dytryk (German : Thiedric) —cousin, grandson of Duke Mieszko I and his third wife Oda —. Mieszko II probably received Lesser Poland and Mazovia , Otto obtain Silesia , and Dytryk took Greater Poland . Another proposal involves that Mieszko II received Greater Poland, and other neighborhoods were given to Otto and Dytryk. Although the distribution was uncertain, this division was short-lived: in 1033 Otto was killed by one of his own men, and Mieszko II took his domains. Shortly after, he could expelled Dytryk and thus was able to reunited the whole country in his hands. Mieszko II regained now the full power, but he still had to fight against the nobility and his own subjects. It should be noted that in Poland his renunciation to the Royal crown wasn't count, and after 1032, in the chronicles he was still called King. Death Mieszko II died suddenly between 10 and 11 July 1034, probably in Poznan . The Polish chronicles clearly stated that he died of natural causes; the information that he was murdered by a swordfish, given by the chronicles of Gottfried of Viterbo, refers to Bezprym. However, the historians now think that he was killed in a plot hatched by the aristocracy. He was buried in the Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul . After Mieszko II's death, Poland's peasants revolted in a "pagan reaction." The exact reasons and date are unknown. Mieszko II's only son and heir, Casimir I , was either expelled by this insurrection, or the insurrection was caused by the aristocracy's expulsion of him. Some modern historians argue that the insurrection was caused more by economic than by religious issues, such as new taxes for the Church and the militarization of the early Polish polity. Priests, monks and knights were killed; cities, churches and monasteries were burned. The chaos became still greater when unexpectedly the Czechs invaded from the south. The land became divided among local rulers, one of whom is known by name: Mieclaw , ruler of Masovia . Greater Poland was so devastated that it ceased to be the core of Polish Kingdom. The capital was moved to Kraków in Lesser Poland.

Marriage and Issue

In Merseburg ca. 1013, Mieszko II married with Richeza (b. bef. 1000 - d. Saalfeld, 21 March 1063 ), daughter of Count Palatine Ezzo of Lotharingia . They had three children: Casimir I the Restorer (b. 25 July 1016 - d. 19 March 1058 ). Ryksa (b. ca. 1018 - d. aft. 1060), married by 1039/42 to King Béla I of Hungary . Gertruda (b. 1025 - d. Kiev, 4 January 1108 ), married by 1043 to Grand Prince Iziaslav I of Kiev . -------------------- Wikipedia: Mieszko II Lambert, född omkring 990, död den 10/11 maj 1034), var en polsk regent, son till Boleslav Chrobry.

Mieszko regerade 1025-34 och antog konungatitel, men förlorade nästan alla faderns erövringar och erkände tyske kejsarens överhöghet. Han efterträddes av sonen Kasimir I.

   Small Sketch of Owl.png Denna artikel är helt eller delvis baserad på material från Nordisk familjebok, 1904–1926. 

-------------------- Efterträdde fadern men kunde inte behålla alla hans erövringar som Kievriket och Mohren. Landet indelades i palatinat ender denna tid

Mieszko II or Mieczyslaw II, 990–1034, king of Poland (1025–34), son and successor of Boleslaus I. His reign was marked by internal and external strife. Moravia was lost to Bohemia, Lusatia to Germany, and sections of Ruthenia to Kiev. The kingdom was in chaos when it passed to his son, Casimir I. -------------------- Mieszko (Mieszislaus) var konge av Polen 1025 - 1034. Under Mieszkos tid falt riket sammen. Hans forbigåtte brødre fikk hjelp av keiser Konrad II, av russere og tsjekkere. Ungarerne erobret Slovakien og danskene tok Pommern. Også i øst og vest mistet han provinser, og han måtte anerkjenne keiserens lensrett.

Tekst: Tore Nygaard

Kilder: Mogens Bugge: Våre forfedre, nr. 19. Bent og Vidar Billing Hansen: Rosensverdslektens forfedre, side 79. Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Copyright (c) 2000. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mieszko_II_of_Poland -------------------- Mieszko II Lambert (990-1034), also spelled Miezko II, was the duke and short-term king of Poland. He was the son of Bolesław I the Brave and Enmilda, daughter of Dobromir, Duke of Lusatia. Mieszko II was married to Richensa of Lotharingia (Rixa), the granddaughter of Otto II, Holy Roman Emperor. Their children were Casimir I of Poland, Rixa of Poland, and Gertrude of Poland.

Mieszko II was very well educated for the period. He was able to read and write, and knew both Greek and Latin. He is unjustly known as Mieszko Gnuśny (the "Lazy," "Stagnant" or "Slothful"). He received that epithet due to the unfortunate way his reign ended; but at the beginning he acted as a skillful and talented ruler. Before he became king in 1025, he probably served as his father's governor in Kraków, most likely from 1013, and reputedly built many churches. -------------------- Król Polski od 1025r.

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Mieszko II Lambert, King of Poland's Timeline

990
990
Poznań, Wielkopolskie, Poland
1013
September 22, 1013
Age 23
Krakow, Kraków County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
1013
- 1025
Age 23
Kraków, Poland
1015
1015
Age 25
1016
July 25, 1016
Age 26
Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
1025
1025
Age 35
Kraków, Poland
1025
- 1034
Age 35
Poland
1034
May 10, 1034
Age 44
Kraków, Małopolskie, Poland
May 11, 1034
Age 44
2009
October 31, 2009
Age 44
Ierland

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