Mindaugas - Mindovg I King of Lithuania

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Mindaugas - Mindovg I Mandolphum of Lithuania, King

Also Known As: "король Миндовг", "Mindaugas", "Миндаугас", "Міндоўг", "Мидогъ", "Миндовгъ", "Міндовг", "Mendog", "Мендольф"
Birthplace: Lithuania? aka Mendog or Mindove
Death: Died in Agluona, Lithuania
Cause of death: Assassinated by Treniota
Place of Burial: Agluona, Lithuania
Immediate Family:

Son of Ringaudas 1st Grand Duke of Lithuania and N1170 Ringaudienė
Husband of N Vismantienė; Agna of Šiauliai Daumantienė ? and Morta of Šiauliai Mindaugienė
Father of Vaišelga Vaišvilkas Mindaugaitis, Grand Duke of Lithuania; Ramūnė Mindaugaitė; Ruklys Mindaugaitis; Rupeikis Mindaugaitis; Replys and 1 other
Brother of Dausprungas of Lithuania; Sister of Mindaugas and Викинт Палемонович

Occupation: Grand Duke, later King, of Lithuania
Managed by: FARKAS Mihály László
Last Updated:

About Mindaugas - Mindovg I King of Lithuania



wikipedia - Mindaugas (ca. 1203 – fall 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania and the only King of Lithuania. Little is known of his origins, early life, or rise to power; he is mentioned in a 1219 treaty as an elder duke, and in 1236 as the leader of all the Lithuanians. The contemporary and modern sources discussing his ascent mention strategic marriages along with banishment or murder of his rivals. He extended his domain into regions southeast of Lithuania proper during the 1230s and 1240s. In 1250 or 1251, during the course of internal power struggles, he was baptised as a Roman Catholic; this action enabled him to establish an alliance with the Livonian Order, a long-standing antagonist of the Lithuanians. During the summer of 1253 he was crowned King of Lithuania, ruling between 300,000 and 400,000 subjects.[1]

While his ten-year reign was marked by various state-building accomplishments, Mindaugas's conflicts with relatives and other dukes continued, and Samogitia (western Lithuania) strongly resisted the alliance's rule. His gains in the southeast were challenged by the Tatars. He broke peace with the Livonian Order in 1261, possibly renouncing Christianity, and was assassinated in 1263 by his nephew Treniota and another rival, Duke Daumantas. His three immediate successors were assassinated as well. The disorder was not resolved until Traidenis gained the title of Grand Duke ca. 1270.

Although his reputation was unsettled during the following centuries and his descendants were not notable, he gained standing during the 19th and 20th centuries. Mindaugas was the only King of Lithuania;[2] while most of the Lithuanian Grand Dukes from Jogaila onward also reigned as Kings of Poland, the titles remained separate. Now generally considered the founder of the Lithuanian state, he is also now credited with stopping the advance of the Tatars towards the Baltic Sea, establishing international recognition of Lithuania, and turning it towards Western civilization.[2][3] In the 1990s the historian Edvardas Gudavičius published research supporting an exact coronation date – 6 July 1253. This day is now an official national holiday, Statehood Day.

Sources, family, and name: - (Main article: House of Mindaugas) Contemporary written sources about Mindaugas are very scarce. Much what is known about his reign is obtained from the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle and the Hypatian Codex. Both of these chronicles were produced by enemies of Lithuania and thus have anti-Lithuanian bias, particularly the Hypatian Codex.[4] They are also incomplete: both of them lack dates and locations even for the most important events. For example, the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle devoted 125 poetry lines to Mindaugas' coronation, but failed to mention either the date or the location.[5] Other important sources are the papal bulls regarding baptism and coronation of Mindaugas. The Lithuanians did not produce any surviving records themselves, except for a series of acts granting lands to the Livonian Order, but their authenticity is disputed. Due to lack of sources, some important questions regarding Mindaugas and his reign cannot be answered.[4]

Because written sources covering the era are scarce, Mindaugas' origins and family tree have not been conclusively established. The Bychowiec Chronicles, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, have been discredited in this regard, since they assert an ancestry from the Palemonids, a noble family said to have originated within the Roman Empire.[6] His year of birth, sometimes given as ca. 1200, is at other times left as a question mark.[7][8] His father is mentioned in the Livonian Rhymed Chronicle as a powerful duke (ein kunic grôß), but is not named; later chronicles give his name as Ryngold.[9][10] Dausprungas, mentioned in the text of a 1219 treaty, is presumed to have been his brother, and Dausprungas' sons Tautvilas and Gedvydas his nephews. He is thought to have had two sisters, one married to Vykintas and another to Daniel of Halych. Vykintas and his son Treniota played major roles in later power struggles. Mindaugas had at least two wives, Morta and Morta's sister, whose name is unknown, and possibly an earlier wife; her existence is presumed because two children – a son named Vaišvilkas and an unnamed daughter married to Svarn in 1255 – were already leading independent lives when Morta's children were still young. In addition to Vaišvilkas and his sister, two sons, Ruklys and Rupeikis, are mentioned in written sources. The latter two were assassinated along with Mindaugas. Information on his sons is limited and historians continue to discuss their number. He may have had two other sons whose names were later conflated by scribes into Ruklys and Rupeikis.[9]

In the 13th century Lithuania had little contact with foreign lands. Lithuanian names sounded obscure and unfamiliar to various chroniclers, who altered them to sound more like names in their native language.[11] Mindaugas' name in historic texts was recorded in various distorted forms:[12] Mindowe in Latin; Mindouwe, Myndow, Myndawe, and Mindaw in German; Mendog, Mondog, Mendoch, and Mindovg in Polish; and Mindovg, Mindog, and Mindowh in Russian, among others.[11] Since Russian sources provide the most information about Mindaugas' life, they were judged the most reliable by linguists reconstructing his original Lithuanian name. The most popular Russian rendition was Mindovg, which can quite easily and naturally be reconstructed as Mindaugas or Mindaugis.[11] In 1909 the Lithuanian linguist Kazimieras Būga published a research paper supporting the suffix -as, which has since been widely accepted. Mindaugas is an archaic disyllabic Lithuanian name, used before the Christianization of Lithuania, and consists of two components: min and daug.[12] Its etymology may be traced to "daug menąs" (much wisdom) or "daugio minimas" (much fame).[11]

Rise to power:

Lithuania was ruled during the early 13th century by a number of dukes and princes presiding over various fiefdoms and tribes.[13] They were loosely bonded by commonalities of religion and tradition, trade, kinship, joint military campaigns, and the presence of captured prisoners from neighboring areas.[8][14] Western merchants and missionaries began seeking control of the area during the 12th century, establishing the city of Riga, Latvia in 1201. Their efforts in Lithuania were temporarily halted by defeat at the Battle of Saule in 1236, but armed Christian orders continued to pose a threat.[15] The country had also undergone incursions by the Mongol Empire.[16]

A treaty with Galicia–Volhynia, signed in 1219, is usually considered the first conclusive evidence that the Baltic tribes in the area were uniting in response to these threats.[17] The treaty's signatories include twenty Lithuanian dukes and one dowager duchess; it specifies that five of these were elder and thus took precedence over the remaining sixteen.[18] Mindaugas, despite his youth, as well as his brother Dausprungas are listed among the elder dukes, implying that they had inherited their titles.[19] The Livonian Rhymed Chronicle describes him as the ruler of all Lithuania in 1236.[20][21] His path to this title is not clear. Ruthenian chronicles mention that he murdered or expelled several other dukes, including his relatives.[3][17] Historian S.C. Rowell has described his rise to power as taking place through "the familiar processes of marriage, murder and military conquest."[22]

During the 1230s and 1240s, Mindaugas strengthened and established his power in various Baltic and Slavic lands.[9] Warfare in the region intensified; he battled German forces in Kurland, while the Mongols destroyed Kiev in 1240 and entered Poland in 1241, defeating two Polish armies and burning Kraków.[14] The Lithuanian victory in the Battle of Saule temporarily stabilized the northern front, but the Christian orders continued to make gains along the Baltic coast, founding the city of Klaipėda (Memel). Constrained in the north and west, Mindaugas moved to the east and southeast, conquering Navahrudak, Hrodna, Vawkavysk, and the Principality of Polotsk.[23] In about 1239 he appointed his son Vaišvilkas to govern these areas, then known as Black Ruthenia.[20] In 1248, he sent his nephews Tautvilas and Edivydas, the sons of his brother Dausprungas, along with Vykintas, the Duke of Samogitia, to conquer Smolensk, but they were unsuccessful. His attempts to consolidate his rule in Lithuania met with mixed success; in 1249, an internal war erupted when he sought to seize his nephews' and Vykintas' lands.[20].........


Mindaugas held a dubious position in Lithuanian historiography until the Lithuanian national revival of the 19th century.[2] While pagan sympathizers held him in disregard for betraying his religion, Christians saw his support as lukewarm.[2] He received only passing references from Grand Duke Gediminas and was not mentioned at all by Vytautas the Great.[2] His known family relations end with his children; no historic records note any connections between his descendants and the Gediminids dynasty that ruled Lithuania and Poland until 1572.[45] A 17th-century rector of Vilnius University held him responsible for the troubles then being experienced by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth ("the seed of internal discord among the Lithuanians had been sown".)[2] A 20th-century historian charged him with the "destruction of the organization of the Lithuanian state".[2] The first academic study of his life by a Lithuanian scholar, Jonas Totoraitis (Die Litauer unter dem König Mindowe bis zum Jahre 1263) was not published until 1905.[2] In the 1990s historian Edvardas Gudavičius published his findings[2] pinpointing a coronation date, which became a national holiday. The 750th anniversary of his coronation was marked in 2003 by the dedication of the Mindaugas Bridge in Vilnius, numerous festivals and concerts, and visits from other heads of state.[46][47][48].....


http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/LITHUANIA.htm --------------------

http://www.rulex.ru/01130752.htm http://militera.lib.ru/common/solovyev1/03_03.html http://vokurat.ru/1250-1300.html

О {profile::pre} (Русский)

1263 г - Создатель Литовского государства - король Миндовг - убит в результате заговора феодальной знати


ок. 1203? рождение: рождение ребёнка: ♂ Репек [House of Poleman] ум. 1263 рождение ребёнка: ♂ Rukel (Ruschel) ? (Міндовговичі) [House of Poleman] ум. 1263 брак: ♂ # Марта [?] ум. 1262 с по 1263 титул: Великий Князь Литовский, король Литвы 1223 рождение ребёнка: ♂ # Василько Войшелк Миндовгович [Палемоновичи] р. 1223 ум. между 1267 - 1268 1263 смерть: Заметки

засновник Литовської держави. Перший Великий князь Литовський, король Литви. Протягом 1230-1240 рр. об'єднав під своєю владою землі Жемайтіську, Нальшанську, Делтувську та ін. Заключив договор з Лівонським Орденом, хрестився і був вінчаний на царство короною, присланною папою Іннокентієм IV. Вісьмома грамотами передав Ордену частину своїх земель. В 1260 р. вибухнуло повстання проти Ордену, Міндовг відрікся від християнства і став на чолі повстанців, але був убитий. Його син Войшелк заключив договір з Данилом Галицьким, за яким уся Чорна Русь (Новгород Литовський, Волковиськ, Слонім та інші) передавались Роману Даниловичу, який визнав верховенство Міндовга. До сих пор литовцы, подобно соплеменникам своим пруссам, были разъединены, повиновались многим князьям; такое разъединение, не препятствуя литовцам собираться многочисленными толпами и опустошать соседние страны, препятствовало единству, постоянству в движениях, не могло сообщать этим движениям завоевательного, прочного характера. Для этого нужно было единовластие; и вот в то время, как пруссы гибнут от меча немецких рыцарей или теряют свою народность вследствие разъединения, среди литовцев, значительно усиленных, без сомнения, беглецами прусскими, являются князья, которые начинают стремиться к единовластию; самым замечательным из них был Миндовг. Характер Миндовга ручался за успех дела в обществе варварском: этот князь был жесток, хитр, не разбирал средств для достижения цели, никакое злодейство не могло остановить его; но где нельзя было действовать силою, там он сыпал золото, употреблял обман. Из рассказа Плано-Карпини мы видели, что литовцы после нашествия Батыева безнаказанно опустошали русские области; но в 1246 году, возвращаясь с набега на окрестности Пересопницы, они были настигнуты у Пинска обоими Романовичами и поражены наголову; в следующем году встречаем известие о новом поражении их от князей — галицкого и волынского. В 1252 году Миндовг отправил дядю своего Выкынта и двоих племянников — Тевтивила и Едивида — воевать к Смоленску; он сказал им: «Что кто возьмет, тот пусть и держит при себе». Но этот поход был хитростию со стороны Миндовга: он воспользовался отсутствием родичей, чтоб захватить их волости и богатство, после чего отправил войско, чтоб нагнать и убить их самих. Князья, однако, вовремя узнали о намерениях Миндовга и убежали к Даниилу, за которым была сестра Тевтивила и Едивида. Миндовг послал сказать Даниилу, чтоб тот не вступался за изгнанников, но Даниил не послушался сколько по родству с последними, столько же и потому, что хотел воспользоваться этим обстоятельством для обессиления Литвы: посоветовавшись с братом, он послал сказать князьям польским: «Время теперь христианам идти на поганых, потому что у лих встали усобицы». Поляки обещались идти с ним вместе на войну и не исполнили обещания. Тогда Романовичи стали искать против Миндовга других союзников и отправили Выкынта к ятвягам, в Жмудь, и к немцам, в Ригу; Выкынту удалось серебром и дарами уговорить ятвягов и половину Жмуди подняться на Миндовга; немцы также прислали сказать Даниилу: «Для тебя помирились мы с Выкынтом, хотя он погубил много нашей братьи» — и обещались также идти на помощь к изгнанникам. Обнадеженные этим, Романовичи выступили в поход: Даниил послал брата на Волковыйск, сына на Слоним, а сам пошел к Здитову, побрали много городов и возвратились Домой; потом отправил Даниил Тевтивила с русью и половцами воевать Миндовгову землю; но немцы не двигались, и Тевтивил сам отправился в Ригу, где принял крещение; это подействовало, и Орден стал готовиться к войне. 1263 г - Создатель Литовского государства - король Миндовг - убит в результате заговора феодальной знати

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