Murchad O'Brien, II (985 - 1014) MP

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Birthplace: Munster - son of Brian Boru
Death: Died in battle of Clontarf
Occupation: 176th Monarch of Ireland, King of Munster, KING OF MUNSTER
Managed by: Bjørn P. Brox
Last Updated:

About Murchad O'Brien, II

Brian's first wife was Mór, daughter of the king of Uí Fiachrach Aidne of Connacht. She is said to have been the mother of his sons Murchad, Conchobar and Flann. Later genealogies claimed that these sons left no descendants, although in fact Murchad's son Tadc is recorded as being killed at Clontarf along with his father and grandfather.[10]

Echrad daughter of the king of Uí Áeda Odba, an obscure branch of the southern Uí Néill, was the mother of Tadc, whose son Toirdelbach and grandson Muirchertach rivalled Brian in power and fame.[11] Brian's most famous marriage was with Gormflaith, sister of Máel Mórda of Leinster. Donnchad, who had his half-brother Tadc killed in 1023 and ruled Munster for forty years thereafter, was the result of this union.[12]

Brian had a sixth son, Domnall. Although he predeceased his father, Domnall apparently had at least one surviving child, a son whose name is not recorded. Domnall may perhaps have been the son of Brian's fourth known wife, Dub Choblaig, who died in 1009. She was a daughter of King Cathal mac Conchobar mac Taidg of Connacht.[13]

Brian had at least three daughters but their mothers are not recorded.

  • Sadb, whose death in 1048 is recorded by the Annals of Innisfallen, was married to Cian, son of Máel Muad mac Brian.
  • Bé Binn was married to the northern Uí Néill king Flaithbertach Ua Néill.
  • A third daughter, Sláni, was married to Brian's stepson Sitric of Dublin.[14]

According to Njal's Saga, he had a foster-son named Kerthialfad.[15]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brian_Boru -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donnchad_mac_Briain -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donnchad_mac_Briain -------------------- Donnchad mac Briain

King of Munster

Book shrine for the Stowe Missal; the top panel reads: Pray for Donnchad mac Brian, [Pray] for the King of Ireland

Died 1064

Place of death Rome

Buried Santo Stefano al Monte Celio, Rome

Predecessor Brian Bóruma

Successor Toirdelbach Ua Briain

Wives Gormflaith ingen Murchada

Cacht ingen Ragnaill

Offspring Lorcán, Murchad, Derbforgaill, others

Dynasty Dál gCais

Father Brian Bóruma

Mother Gormflaith

Donnchad mac Briain (died 1064), formerly anglicised as Donough O'Brian, son of Brian Bóruma and Gormflaith, was King of Munster.

Contents [hide]

1 Background

2 Life

3 Pilgrimage, death and legends

4 Notes

5 References

[edit]Background

Regional overkingdoms and major kingdoms in Ireland, circa 1014 AD

Brian Bóruma was the first man to establish himself as High King of Ireland by force of arms alone in many centuries. Previous men reckoned High King had belonged to the great Uí Néill kindred, that large group of families who traced their descent from Niall of the Nine Hostages, which dominated much of central and northern Ireland from the 7th century onwards. No king from the south, where Brian's kindred, the hitherto rather obscure Dál gCais of the region of Thomond, had come close to dominating Ireland since the time of Feidlimid mac Crimthainn in the early 9th century, and none had been included in the more widely accepted lists of High Kings in historic times. The last High King of Ireland from Munster before Brian Bóruma was the semi-mythological Crimthann mac Fidaig, over six hundred years before.

Brian, building on his own resources, and those of the Viking towns of the south such as Limerick and Cork first took control of Munster, overthrowing the domination of the Eóganachta, a kindred which had dominated the kingship of Munster as effectively as the Uí Néill had dominated the High Kingship, and for just as long. With the Uí Néill disunited, and the resources of Munster, Brian first brought the Uí Néill High King Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill to recognise him as an equal, and then as the master of Ireland. Brian met his death at the Battle of Clontarf on 23 April 1014, Good Friday, fighting against the King of Leinster and his allies. In myth and medieval pseudohistory this battle would become the last and greatest between the Irish and the Vikings and Brian the greatest of all Irish kings.

[edit]Life

Brian's son Murchad, Donnchad's half-brother, died with his father at Clontarf. Another brother or half-brother, Domnall, had died in 1011. Two other half-brothers, Conchobar and Flann, are mentioned in some sources but leave no trace in the Irish annals. So, of Brian's sons, only Donnchad and his half-brother Tadc are known to have survived their father. According to Geoffrey Keating's account in Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, an account which is not backed by any annalistic evidence, Donnchad, leading the survivors of the Dál gCais back from Clontarf faced armies from Osraige and Munster which were faced down.

The Munster king lists have Brian followed by Dúngal Ua Donnchada of the Cashel branch of the Eóganachta rather than by one of his sons. Dúngal did not die until 1025, at about the time that Donnchad started to make his presence felt outside Munster. His half-brother Tadc was assassinated in 1023—the Annals of Tigernach add that this was done on Donnchad's order—while he had himself lost his right hand in what may have been a failed assassination attempt in 1019.

Donnchad arranged an alliance with Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Man and the Isles, or at least of the Hebrides, enemy of his half-brother Sitric Silkbeard, King of Dublin. This was sealed by the marriage of his sister Caech to Echmarcach in 1032. Another ally was Echmarcach's cousin, Donnchad mac Gilla Pátaric, King of Osraige and, from 1036, King of Leinster.

[edit]Pilgrimage, death and legends

Beginning in the late 1050s, Donnchad came under attack from his neighbours. His nephew, Tadc's son Toirdelbach Ua Briain, may have been the force behind these attacks.[1]

Donnchad's main rivals were Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó, King of Leinster from 1042, and Áed in Gaí Bernaig, King of Connacht from 1046. Diarmait in particular was a serious threat; allied with Niall mac Eochada, King of Ulster, he installed his son Murchad as ruler of Dublin in 1052, driving out Donnchad's brother-in-law and ally Echmarcach mac Ragnaill. Toirdelbach first joined with Áed in the early 1050s, raiding into Tuadmumu in 1052 and inflicting a heavy defeat on Donnchad's son Murchad in Corco Mruad, the north-west of modern County Clare in 1055. By 1058 Toirdelbach had gained Diarmait's support, for he was present when Diarmait, the Leinstermen and the Osraige drove Donnchad from Limerick, which he burned so that it would not fall into the hands of his enemies, and defeated him at Sliabh gCrot in the Galtee Mountains.[2]

Santo Stefano on the Caelian Hill, painted by Ettore Roesler Franz

Donnchad was finally deposed in 1063 and went on pilgrimage to Rome. He died there the following year and was buried in the basilica of Santo Stefano al Monte Celio.[3]

Geoffrey Keating's Foras Feasa ar Éirinn (Volume III, Chapter XXXIII) recounts that Donnchad granted the crown of Ireland to the Pope—Pope Urban II according to Keating, who places these events in 1092—and asked for papal aid to return him to power. This story is repeated in many 19th century and earlier works of popular history and is given as an explanation of how the English Pope Adrian IV came to issue the papal bull Laudabiliter granting rule of Ireland to King Henry II of England. Elsewhere (Volume III, Chapter XXVII) Keating is more skeptical regarding cother stories associated with Donnchad's time in Rome. He disbelieves claims that Donnchad took up with a daughter of a Holy Roman Emperor and had at least two sons from whom some later Old English families were descended. Keating writes that "this story cannot be true, for before setting out on that expedition [Donnchad] was a very old decrepit man of over eighty years of age, and it is not likely that an emperor's daughter would covet intercourse with such a veteran".

[edit]Notes

^ Bracken, "Donnchad", writes that "it is likely that [the] concerted attacks on Munster about 1054 were the result of Toirdelbach Ua Briain's intrigues".

^ Bracken, "Donnchad"; Hudson, "Diarmait"; Annals of Innisfallen, AI 1051.7, AI 1053.2, AI 1055.3, AI 1057.5 & AI 1058.4; Annals of Loch Cé, ALC 1052.1, ALC 1055.3 & ALC 1058.3. Bracken suggests that "it is likely that [the] concerted attacks on Munster about 1054 were the result of Toirdelbach Ua Briain's intrigues".

^ Bracken, "Donnchad".

[edit]References

Bracken, Damian (2004), "Mac Briain, Donnchad (d. 1064)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, retrieved 2008-03-06

Bracken, Damian (2004), "Ua Briain, Toirdelbach [Turlough O'Brien] (1009–1086)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, retrieved 2008-03-06

Byrne, Francis John (2005), "Ireland and her neighbours c.1014–c.1072", in Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí, Prehistoric and Early Ireland, A New History of Ireland, I, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 862–898, ISBN 0-19-922665-8

Byrne, Francis John (1973), Irish Kings and High-Kings, London: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-5882-8

Hudson, Benjamin (2004), "Diarmait mac Máel na mBó (d. 1072)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, retrieved 2008-03-06

Hudson, Benjamin (2005), Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion and Empire in the North Atlantic, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-516237-4

Ní Mhaonaigh, Máire (2007), Brian Boru: Ireland's Greatest King?, Stroud: Tempus, ISBN 0-7524-2921-2

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh (1972), Ireland before the Normans, The Gill History of Ireland, 2, Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, ISBN 0-7171-0559-8

Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí (1995), Early Medieval Ireland: 400–1200, The Longman History of Ireland, London: Longman, ISBN 0-582-01565-0

Todd, J. H., ed. (1867), Cogadh Gaedhel Re Gallaibh: The War of the Gaedhil with The Gaill, Rolls Series, London: Longmans

Categories: 1064 deaths | Kings of Munster | 11th-century Irish people | 11th-century rulers in Europe

-------------------- Donnchad mac Briain, formerly anglicized as Donough O'Brian, was King of Munster.

According to Geoffrey Keating's account in Foras Feasa ar Éirinn, an account which is not backed by any annalistic evidence, Donnchad, leading the survivors of the Dál gCais back from the terrible defeat at Clontarf (where his father and half-brother had been killed) in 1014, faced armies from Osraige and Munster which were faced down.

In about 1025, Donnchad started to make his presence felt outside Munster. His half-brother Tadc was assassinated in 1023—the Annals of Tigernach add that this was done on Donnchad's order—while he had himself lost his right hand in what may have been a failed assassination attempt in 1019.

Donnchad arranged an alliance with Echmarcach mac Ragnaill, King of Man and the Isles, or at least of the Hebrides, enemy of his half-brother Sitric Silkbeard, King of Dublin. This was sealed by the marriage of his sister Caech to Echmarcach in 1032. Another ally was Echmarcach's cousin, Donnchad mac Gilla Pátaric, King of Osraige and, from 1036, King of Leinster.

Among Donnchad's wives were Gormflaith ingen Murchada and Cacht ingen Ragnaill. We are not sure which of these was our ancestor, the mother of our ancestor Dervogilla. Since one of these "wives" has exactly the same name as Donnchad's mother, there may be a need for some serious disambiguation.

Beginning in the late 1050s, Donnchad came under attack from his neighbors. His nephew, Tadc's son Toirdelbach Ua Briain, may have been the force behind these attacks. Donnchad's main rivals were Diarmait mac Maíl na mBó, King of Leinster from 1042, and Áed in Gaí Bernaig, King of Connacht from 1046. Diarmait in particular was a serious threat; allied with Niall mac Eochada, King of Ulster, he installed his son Murchad as ruler of Dublin in 1052, driving out Donnchad's brother-in-law and ally Echmarcach mac Ragnaill. Toirdelbach first joined with Áed in the early 1050s, raiding into Tuadmumu in 1052 and inflicting a heavy defeat on Donnchad's son Murchad in Corco Mruad, the north-west of modern County Clare in 1055. By 1058 Toirdelbach had gained Diarmait's support, for he was present when Diarmait, the Leinstermen and the Osraige drove Donnchad from Limerick, which he burned so that it would not fall into the hands of his enemies, and defeated him at Sliabh gCrot in the Galtee Mountains.

Donnchad was finally deposed in 1063 and went on pilgrimage to Rome. He died there the following year and was buried in the basilica of Santo Stefano al Monte Celio.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donnchad_mac_Briain for more information.

-------------------- ◦His wife was Druella, daughter of Godwin, Earl of Kent and sister of King Harold. -------------

The O'Brien/O'Brian dynasty (Irish: Uí Briain or Ua Briain; Modern: Ó Briain) are a royal and noble house founded in the 10th century by Brian Boru of the Dál gCais or Dalcassians. After becoming King of Munster, through conquest he established himself as High King of Ireland. Brian's descendants thus carried the name O'Brien, continuing to rule the Kingdom of Munster until the 12th century where their territory had shrunk to the Kingdom of Thomond which they would hold for just under five centuries.


In total, four O'Briens ruled in Munster, and two held the High Kingship of Ireland (with opposition). After the partition of Munster into Thomond and the MacCarthy Kingdom of Desmond by Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair in the 12th century, the dynasty would go on to provide around thirty monarchs of Thomond until 1542. During part of this period in the late 13th century they had a rivalry with the Norman de Clare house, disputing the throne of Thomond. The last O'Brien to reign in Thomond was Murrough O'Brien who surrendered his sovereignty to the new Kingdom of Ireland under Henry VIII of the House of Tudor, becoming instead Earl of Thomond and maintaining a role in governance. Today the head carries the title of Prince of Thomond, and depending on succession sometimes also Baron Inchiquin.


Throughout the time that the O'Briens ruled in medieval Ireland, the system of tanistry was used to decide succession, rather than primogeniture used by much of feudal Europe. The system in effect was a dynastic monarchy but family-elected and aristocratic, in the sense that the royal family chose the most suitable male candidate from close paternal relations—roydammna (those of kingly material) rather than the crown automatically passing to the eldest son. This sometimes led to bitter quarrels and in-family warring. Since 1542, the head of the O'Brien house adopted primogeniture to decide succession of noble titles instead.

Background


The O'Briens emerged as chiefs of the Dalcassian race from the south-west of Ireland — a cohesive set of septs, related by blood, all claiming descent in tradition from a common ancestor of Cormac Cas.[1] In the Annals of the Four Masters, the father of Cormac Cas was said to be Oilioll Olum, who was according to tradition King of Munster and King of Leinster in the 3rd century.[1] Such a connection would have meant that the race held kinship with the Eoghanachta who had dominated Munster since the earliest times.[2] While founder mythologies were very common in antiquity and the medieval world, such a connection is generally regarded as fanciful and politically motivated in the context of the rise to prominence of the Dalcassians.[2]


Instead, academic histories generally accept the Dalcassians as being the Déisi Tuisceart, after adopting a new name — first recorded under their newly adopted name under the year 934 in the Annals of Inisfallen.[2] The Déisi, a people whose name means literally vassals, were originally located where today is Waterford, south Tipperary and Limerick;[3] the O'Rahilly's historical model counts them as ethnically Érainn; the sept split into the Déisi Muman who continued to hold territory in Waterford and Tipperary, while the west Déisi controlled areas either side of the River Shannon.[3] During the 8th century, the latter was further divided into the Déisi Deiscirt and the Déisi Tuisceart who would become the Dalcassians.[2][4] Prehistoric ancestors of the Déisi Tuisceart and Dál gCais may have been a once prominent Érainn people called the Mairtine.[5]


It was during this century that the race annexed to Munster the area today known as Clare and made it their home. Taken from the weakened Uí Fiachrach Aidhne it had previously been part of Connacht but was renamed Thomond (Tuamhain, meaning North Munster). After gaining influence over other tribes in the area such as the Corcu Mruad and Corcu Baiscinn, the Dalcassians were able to crown Cennétig mac Lorcáin as King of Thomond, he died in 951.[4] His son Mathgamain mac Cennétig was to expand their territory further according to the Annals of Ulster; capturing the Rock of Cashel capital of the Eoghanachta, the Dalcassians became Kings of Cashel and Munster over their previous overlords for the first time in history.[2]


Mathgamain along with his younger brother Brian Boru began military campaigns such as the Battle of Sulcoit, against the Norse Vikings of the settlement Limerick, ruled by Ivar. The Dalcassians were successful, plundering spoils of jewels, gold and silver, saddles, finding "soft, youthful, bright girls, booming silk-clad women and active well-formed boys".[2][6] The males fit for war were executed at Saingel, while the rest were taken as slaves.[6] Through much of his reign Mathgamain was competing with his Eoghanachta rival Máel Muad mac Brain.[4] Mathgamain was only defeated in the end by a piece of treachery; he believed he was attending a friendly meeting, but was betrayed at Donnubán mac Cathail's house, handed over to his enemies and executed in 976.[7] The crown of Munster was briefly back in the hands of the Eoghanachta for two years until Brian Boru had thoroughly avenged his brother,[8] with the defeat and slaying of Máel Muad in the Battle of Belach Lechta.

The Rise of Brian Boru The following year Brian came to blows with the Norsemen of Limerick at Scattery Island where a monastery was located. Whilst all parties were Christians, when their king Ivar and his sons took refuge in the monastery, Brian desecrated it and killed them in the sanctuary; the Vikings of Limerick had earlier killed Brian's mother.[9] Following this the Dalcassians came into conflict with those responsible for the death of Mathgamain, the Eoghanachta represented by Donovan and Molloy. A message was sent to Molloy, where Boru's son Murrough would challenge him in single combat; eventually the Battle of Belach Lechta took place where Molloy along with 1200 of his soldiers were slain. Donovan was destroyed together with Aralt, his brother-in-law and Ivar's remaining son, newly elected king of the Danes and Foreigners of Munster, in Donovan's fortress of Cathair Cuan, which Brian razed. With this Brian Boru was now the King of Munster.[6]


Brian's rise did not go unnoticed, however; Máel Sechnaill II from the Clann Cholmáin sept of the Uí Néill, as reigning king of Mide and High King of Ireland marched an army down to Munster to send a warning to the Dalcassians. His army cut down the tree of Magh Adhair, which was sacred to the Dalcassians as it was used as their site of royal inaugurations.

Dynasts

Donnchad mac Briain, King of Munster
Tadc mac Briain, assassinated by Donnchad in 1023
Toirdelbach Ua Briain, King of Munster and High King of Ireland
Muirchertach Ua Briain, King of Munster and High King of Ireland
Diarmait Ua Briain, King of Munster
Blathmin Ua Briain, Queen Consort of Norway
Carson Mór Ua Briain, King of Thomond and King of Munster

Earls of Thomond

Murrough O'Brien, 1st Earl of Thomond
Connor O'Brien, 3rd Earl of Thomond
Donogh O'Brien, 4th Earl of Thomond
Barnabas O'Brien, 6th Earl of Thomond

Earls of Inchiquin

Murrough O'Brien, 1st Earl of Inchiquin
William O'Brien, 4th Earl of Inchiquin

Marquesses of Thomond

Murrough O'Brien, 1st Marquess of Thomond
James O'Brien, 3rd Marquess of Thomond

Early Barons Inchiquin

Barons Inchiquin

Viscounts Clare

Daniel O'Brien, 1st Viscount Clare
Daniel O'Brien, 3rd Viscount Clare

O'Brien's of Aran

Mahon mac Turlough Mantach Ó Briain

[edit] See also

Irish nobility
Irish Royal Families
List of people named O'Brien

[edit] References


[edit] Footnotes


1.^ a b O'Dugan, The Kings of the Race of Eibhear, 9.

2.^ a b c d e f Duffy, Medieval Ireland, 121.
3.^ a b Fitzpatrick, Royal Inauguration in Gaelic Ireland C. 1100-1600, 36.
4.^ a b c Koch, Celtic Culture, 554.
5.^ Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, "Ireland, 400-800", in Dáibhí Ó Cróinín (ed.), A New History of Ireland (Volume 1): Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford University Press. 2005. p. 222
6.^ a b c Frances Cusack, Ireland, 294.
7.^ Corbishley, The Young Oxford History of Britain & Ireland, 82.
8.^ Lydon, The Making of Ireland, 31.
9.^ Fitzroy Foster, The Oxford History of Ireland, 37.

[edit] Bibliography


Cusack, Mary Fraces (1868). Ireland. Plain Label Books. ISBN 160303630X.

Corbishley, Mike (1998). The Young Oxford History of Britain & Ireland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199104662.
Lydon, James F (1998). The Making of Ireland. Routledge. ISBN 0415013488.
O'Dugan, John (1999). The Kings of the Race of Eibhear. Gryfons Publishers & Distributors. ISBN 0965422062.
Fitzroy Foster, Robert (2001). The Oxford History of Ireland. Oxford University Press. ISBN 019280202X.
Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth (2004). Royal Inauguration in Gaelic Ireland C. 1100-1600. Boydell Press. ISBN 1843830906.
Duffy, Seán (2005). Medieval Ireland. CRC Press. ISBN 0415940524.
Koch, John T (2006). Celtic Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851094407.

External links

The O'Brien Clan

Source: wikipedia

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Morough O'Brien, King of Leinster's Timeline

985
985
Munster - son of Brian Boru
999
999
Age 14
Ireland
1000
1000
Age 15
Leinster
1008
1008
Age 23
Ireland
1014
April 23, 1014
Age 29
battle of Clontarf

Died during a pilgrimage to Rome. Buried at Santo Stefano al Monte Celio.

1023
1023
Age 29
King of Munster
1064
1064
Age 29
San Stefano, Rotundo Church Rome Italy
1994
July 15, 1994
Age 29
1995
January 27, 1995
Age 29
February 23, 1995
Age 29