Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi (1942 - 2011) MP

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Nicknames: "Muammar Gaddafi", "مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي"
Birthplace: Surt, Libya
Death: Died in Sirte, Libya
Cause of death: Killed in civil war
Managed by: Jason Wills
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About Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi

Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi Arabic: مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي‎

7 June 1942 – 20 October 2011

Colonel Gaddafi, was the autocratic ruler of Libya, from 1969 when he seized power in a military coup, until 2011 when his government was overthrown by a NATO-backed rebel force in a civil war. His 42-year rule prior to the uprising made him the fourth longest-ruling non-royal leader since 1900, as well as the longest-ruling Arab leader. He variously styled himself as 'the Brother Leader', 'Guide of the Revolution', and the 'King of Kings'

After seizing power in 1969, he abolished the Libyan Constitution of 1951 and imposed laws based on the political ideology he had formulated, called the Third International Theory and published in The Green Book. Gaddafi and his relatives took over much of the economy. Gaddafi started several wars, and acquired chemical weapons. Gaddafi also supplied weapons to the Irish Republican Army, a listed terrorist organisation in the United Kingdom and other countries. The United Nations called Libya under Gaddafi a pariah state. In the 1980s, countries around the world imposed sanctions against Gaddafi. Six days after the capture of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein by United States troops, Gaddafi renounced Tripoli’s weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programs and welcomed international inspections to verify that he would follow through on the commitment. A leading advocate for a United States of Africa, he served as Chairperson of the African Union (AU) from 2 February 2009 to 31 January 2010.

During Gaddafi's period of rule many of Libya's human development indicators improved significantly. By 2010, Libya had the highest GDP per capita, Education Index, and Human Development Index in Africa as well as some of the best health indicators in the continent.

In February 2011, following revolutions in neighbouring Egypt and Tunisia, protests against Gaddafi's rule began. These escalated into an uprising that spread across the country, with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing a government based in Benghazi named the National Transitional Council(NTC). This led to the 2011 Libyan Civil War, which included a NATO-controlled international military intervention to enforce a UN Security Council resolution calling for a no-fly zone in Libya. The assets of Gaddafi and his family were frozen, and both Interpol and the International Criminal Court issued arrest warrants on 27 June for Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam, and his brother-in-law Abdullah al-Senussi, concerning crimes against humanity. Gaddafi and his forces lost the Battle of Tripoli in August, and on 16 September 2011 the NTC took Libya's seat at the UN, replacing Gaddafi. Gaddafi retained control over parts of Libya, most notably the city of Sirte, to which it was presumed that he had fled. Although Gaddafi's forces initially held out against the NTC's advances, Gaddafi was killed as Sirte fell to the rebel forces on 20 October 2011.

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Muammar al-Gaddafi's Timeline

June 7, 1942
Surt, Libya
June 25, 1972
Age 30
Age 33
Tripoli, Tarabulus, Libya
Age 34
May 27, 1983
Age 40
October 20, 2011
Age 69
Sirte, Libya