About Musa ibn Nuseir al-Bekir, Governor of Ifriqiya and al-Andalus
Musa Ibn Nusair
Musa bin Nusair also Musa ben Nusair or Musa Ibn Nusayr (Arabic: موسى بن نصير; 640—716) was a Azdi of Asir in Yemen, current-day south west Saudi Arabia Muslim who served as a governor and general under the Umayad caliph Al-Walid I. He had ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya), and directed the islamic opening of the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania.
- Governor of Ifriqiya located in al-Qayrawan 703–715
- Governor of Al-Andalus located in Seville (Ar. Ishbīliya) 712–714
Abu Abd ar-Rahman Musa ibn Nusayr ibn Abd ar-Rahman Zayd al-Lajmi (en árabe,أبوعبد الرحمن موسى بن نصير بن عبد الرحمن زيد اللخمي), llamado Muza en la tradición española, fue un caudillo militar musulmán yemení, gobernador y general de los Omeyas (640–716) en el norte de África. A la edad de 71 años participó en la invasión musulmana de la Península, según la historiografía tradicionalmente admitida, basada en crónicas bereberes de los siglos X y XI.
2 Otros enfoques
3 Véase también
En 698 se convirtió en virrey del Norte de África, y fue el encargado de poner fin a una rebelión bereber. Tuvo que combatir los ataques de la armada bizantina y construyó una fuerza naval que conquistaría las islas de Ibiza, Mallorca y Menorca.
En Hispania los visigodos se hallaban inmersos en una lucha interna disputando por el trono que pretendían Agila II (el hijo del anterior rey, Witiza) y Rodrigo. Éste fue electo gracias al apoyo de la mayor parte de la aristocracia visigoda, por lo que los partidarios de Agila solicitaron la ayuda de Musa ibn Nusair, a través de Don Julián, gobernador de Ceuta o quizás (menos probable) de Tánger, para oponerse por las armas a este hecho. Musa envió a Tariq Ibn Ziyad, que desembarcó en Gibraltar el 30 de abril de 711, al frente de 7.000 hombres. Tariq derrotó a Rodrigo en la Batalla de Guadalete y avanzó rápidamente por el territorio peninsular.
En 712 Musa, acompañado por su hijo Abd al-Aziz ibn Mussa y con un ejército de 18.000 hombres, cruzó el Estrecho y procedió a la conquista del resto del territorio visigodo. Ocupó Medina-Sidonia, Carmona y Sevilla y, seguidamente, atacó Mérida poniendo sitio a la ciudad que resistió un año (30 de junio del 713). Desde Mérida, Musa, se dirigió a Toledo.
En 714 Musa y Tariq tomaron Zaragoza y avanzaron hacia Lérida. Llamados a Damasco, ambos invasores se separaron y Musa se dirigió a Asturias para tomar León, Astorga y Zamora y llegar hasta Lugo.
A su regreso a Sevilla, Musa fue llamado a Damasco por el nuevo califa Suleimán I para rendir cuentas. Antes de partir, como si de bienes propios se tratasen en vez de ser de la comunidad islámica, Musa repartió el gobierno de los diferentes territorios que administraba entre sus hijos: Abd al-Aziz como gobernador de al-Ándalus; Abd al-Malik (también llamado Marwan), de Ceuta y Abd Allah, que era el mayor, de Ifriquiya.
Ya en Damasco, Suleiman condenó a muerte a Musa por el delito reincidente de malversación. La pena se le conmutó por el pago de una considerable suma, pero no se le permitió regresar a al-Ándalus. Poco después fue asesinado en una mezquita de Damasco, hacia el año 716, algunas fuentes afirman que hacia el 718.
[editar] Otros enfoques
Ignacio Olagüe Videla, en su obra La Revolución islámica en Occidente (1974), plantea dos hipótesis sobre este personaje: o bien es fabuloso y jamás existió, o se trata de uno de los primeros propagandistas del Islam en la Península.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Mūsā b. Nuṣayr bin ʿabd al-rāḥmān b. zayd al-lak̲h̲mī (or al-bakrī) abū ʿabd al-raḥmān,
conqueror of the western Mag̲h̲rib and of Spain. He was born in 19/640; his father had been in the immediate entourage of Muʿāwiya [q.v.]. Mūsā was at first appointed by the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik to collect the k̲h̲arād̲j̲ at al-Baṣra, but having been suspected of embezzlement, he fled and took refuge with the caliph’s brother, the governor of Egypt ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān; the latter took Mūsā to Syria to the caliph, who fined him 100,000 dīnārs. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz provided half of this sum for Mūsā and brought him to Egypt, where he gave him the governorship of Ifrīḳiya which had been previously held by Hassan b. al-Nuʿmān. The various chroniclers are not agreed as to the date of his appointment to the office, but it possibly took place in 79/698 or the following year.
Mūsā and his troops thereupon entered on a career of successful conquest which ended in the consolidation of Muslim power in Ifrīḳiya and in the conquest of the rest of North Africa and of Spain. Here we give only the most essential details. Assisted by his sons ʿAbd Allāh and Marwān he sent successful expeditions against Zag̲h̲wān and Sad̲j̲ūma (?) and reduced the Hawwāra, the Zanāta and the Kutāma [q.vv.]. The Berbers taking refuge in the west of the Mag̲h̲rib. Mūsā decided to bring them to subjection; confirmed in his office by ʿAbd al-Malik’s successor al-Walīd, he continued his advance to Tangier and the Sūs [q.v.] and returned to Ifrīḳiya, leaving as his deputy in the Mag̲h̲rib his freedman Ṭāriḳ [q.v.]. The latter in 92/710-11 invaded Spain, and Mūsā, anxious about and at the same time jealous of the progress made by his lieutenant, himself crossed in the following year, leaving his son ʿAbd Allāh as governor of Ifrīḳiya. Landing at Algeciras in Ramaḍān 93/June-July 712 with his other son ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, he refused to take the same route as Ṭāriḳ and taking the towns of Sidona (S̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna [q.v.]), Carmona, Seville and Merida, he was on his way to Toledo when Ṭāriḳ came to meet him and was bitterly reproached by his master. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr then continued his march and completely subjugated the north of Spain from Saragossa to Navarre. In 95/713-14 he left Spain with immense booty, leaving his son ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz as governor; he reached Ḳayrawān at the end of the year and continued by land to Syria in a triumphal procession of Arab chiefs and Berber and Spanish prisoners. The caliph al-Walīd, then near his end, urged him to hurry while his brother and heir-presumptive Sulaymān, eager to appropriate the vast wealth brought by Mūsā, tried to delay him. He arrived in Damascus shortly before the death of al-Walīd, and when Sulaymān assumed power in 96/715, he at once displayed his hatred of the conqueror. Regarding Mūsā b. Nuṣayr’s stay in Syria before his death in 98/716-17, the Arab historians give a number of details which are obviously of quite a legendary character.
In 712 Seville was conquered by Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr, and according to the anonymous Arab chronicle Akhbār Majmūʿa (p. 16), he organized a Jewish guard force to defend it, as had his lieutenant, Ṭāriq ibn Ziyād, the year before in Cordova and other captured cities. A year later, the Christians in Seville rebelled, killing some eighty Jews and Muslims in the garrison. Mūsā’s son ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz suppressed the revolt, and when his father returned to the East, he became governor and made Seville his seat. At this time a synagogue was founded with his permission. Throughout the Umayyad period, Seville, although no longer the capital, enjoyed peace and prosperity and flourished as a cultural center.
All the Muslim chroniclers who have described the conquest of North Africa and Spain in their works have dealt with Mūsā b. Nusayr at fair length, but with details of a more legendary than historical nature. Moreover, these historians have copied each other, and in this connection one should consult the study made by A. Gateau on the relationships between the various chronicles, in RT, xxix (1937), xxxiii-xxxiv (1938), xxxviii-xl (1939) and Hi (1942). Amongst the principal historians whose works are accessible, one may cite: Ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakam, Futūḥ Miṣr, ed. Torrey, New Haven 1922, ed.- partial tr. Gateau, Algiers, 2nd ed. 1948 (cf. R. Brunschvig, ʿIbn ʿAbdalhakam et la conquête de l’Afrique du Nord, in AIEO Alger, vi [1942-7])
Ibn al-Ḳūtiyya, Iftitāḥ al-Andalus, ed. Ribera, Madrid 1926
Ak̲h̲bār mad̲j̲mūʿa, ed.- tr. Lafuente y Alcántara, Madrid 1867
Ibn ʿId̲j̲ārī, al-Bayān al-mug̲h̲rib, i-ii, ed. G.S. Colin and E. Lévi-Provençal, Leiden 1948-51
Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil
Lévi-Provençal, Naṣṣ d̲j̲adīd ʿan fatḥ al-ʿArab li ’l-Mag̲h̲rib, in Ṣaḥīfat al-Maʿhad al-Miṣrī, ii (1373/1954), 223-4. There are biographical notices devoted to Mūsā b. Nuṣayr in Ibn K̲h̲allikān. Wafayāt, ed. I. ʿAbbās, v, 318-29, no. 748
Ibn al-Faraḍī, Taʾrīk̲h̲ ʿulamāʾ al-Andalus, no. 1454
Ḍabbī, Bug̲h̲yat al-multamis, no. 1334
Ibn al-Abbār, al-Ḥulla al-siyarāʾ, ed. Muʾnis, Cairo 1964. See also, in addition to the general histories of North Africa and Muslim Spain, Fournel, Les Berbers, Paris 1857-75
¶ Saavedra, Estudio sobre la invasión de los árabes en España, Madrid 1892
H. Muʾnis, Fad̲j̲r al-Andalus, Cairo 1959.
Citation Lévi-Provençal, C.. " Mūsā b. Nuṣayr." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online , 2013. Reference. Jim Harlow. 01 February 2013 <http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopaedia-of-islam-2/musa-b-nusayr-SIM_5560>
-------------------- He was Arabic Governor of North Africa. Todd Farmerie has suggested that he probably a Lakhmid, one of a pre-Islamic Arab Christian community from southern Arabia. For a discussion of his ancestry, see soc.genealogy.medieval.
Musa bin Nusayr (Arabic: موسى بن نصير Mūsá bin Nuṣayr; 640–716) served as a governor and general under the Umayad caliph Al-Walid I. He ruled over the Muslim provinces of North Africa (Ifriqiya), and directed the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic kingdom in Spain.
Various suggestions have been made as to his ancestry. Some say his father belonged to the Lakhmid clan of seminomads who lived east of the Euphrates and were allies of the Sassanians, while others claim he belonged to the Banu Bakr confederation. The most detailed account is that of at-Tabari who stated that Musa's father was taken captive after the fall of the Syrian city of Ayn al-Tamr (633). According to this account, he was a Christian, possibly Persian, who was one of a number being held hostage there. However, al-Baladhuri, relating the same events, states he was an Arab of the Bali tribe, from Jabal al-Jalil in Syria.
As a slave, Musa's father entered the service of Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan (governor of Egypt and son of the caliph Marwan I) who gave him his freedom. He returned to Syria where Musa was born at a place called Kafarmara or Kafarmathra. The date of his birth has been given as 640.
Musa was made co-governor of Iraq by the caliph Abd al-Malik, together with the caliph's brother Bishr ibn Marwan. There was some quarrel over missing tax money, and Musa was given the choice: pay a huge fine, or pay with his head. His father's patron, Abd al-Aziz ibn Marwan, had a high opinion of Musa, and paid the ransom; he was later responsible for appointing Musa to be governor of Ifriqiya.
Musa ibn Nuseir al-Bekir, Governor of Ifriqiya and al-Andalus's Timeline
Cairo, Cairo Governorate, Egypt