Nadezhda Konstantinovna Kroupskaya

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Nadezhda Konstantinovna Kroupskaya

Birthplace: Saint Petersburg, gorod Sankt-Peterburg, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Death: Died in Moscow, Soviet Union
Immediate Family:

Daughter of Konstantin Ignat’evich Krupsky and Elizabeth Vasilevna Tistrova
Wife of Владимир Ленин
Mother of Matov Lenin

Occupation: Revolutionary, educator
Managed by: Olav Linno Poëll
Last Updated:

About Nadezhda Konstantinovna Kroupskaya

Кру́пская, Наде́жда Константи́новначKrupskaya, Nadezhda Konstantinovna

  • * 1869-02-14 O.S.
  • * 1869-02-26 N.S.
  • oo 1898-07-10 O.S.
  • oo 1898-07-22 N.S.
  • † 1939-02-27 N.S.

The asteroid 2071 Nadezhda, discovered 1971-08-18, is named after Krupskaya.

Nadezhda was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and the daughter of a military officer. She married Bolshevik founder Lenin in 1898 when they were both in exile, banished by the Okhranka. Since her term of exile (5 years) started three years into Lenin's, upon his release Lenin went off to travel across Europe for 3 years, leaving her in exile, only returning upon her release. Her political life was active. She was a functionary of the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP from the early days. After the October Revolution, she was appointed deputy to Anatoliy Lunacharskiy, the People's Commissar for Education. Her relationship with Lenin was more professional than marital - which Kollantai compared to slavery - but she remained loyal, never once considering divorce.

Krupskaya is believed to have suffered from Graves' disease, an illness affecting the thyroid gland in the neck which causes the eyes to bulge and the neck to tighten. In female sufferers it can also disrupt the menstrual cycle, which may explain why Lenin and Krupskaya never had children (and the rumours about Lenin allegedly choosing to have an affair with Inessa Armand). As a result of her disease she was codenamed 'Fish' inside the Party, and Lenin allegedly used to call her "my little herring".

Krupskaya is the author of the biography Reminisces of Lenin, which chronicles the life of her husband. However, the accuracy of this work has come into question due to her conspicuous omission of certain details about Lenin’s life: the book fails to mention the execution of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and his family shortly after Lenin’s rise to power, and she omits any reference to the Red Terror. Her biography is the most detailed account of Lenin’s life before coming to power, but it ends in 1918, shortly after the Bolsheviks took power.



  • Kruse, Günter. ”Die Familie des fränkischen Dichters und Sprachwissenschaftlers Friedrich Rückert und Ahnengemeinschaften mit Lenin.” [The family of the Franconian poet and linguist Friedrich Rückert and the ancestral ties with Lenin.] [in German] Archiv für Familiengeschichtsforschung no. 4 (2006), quoted in Renner, Manfred. ”Lenins Parchimer Vorfahren.” (2008). (accessed January 14, 2011).
  • Kruse, Günter. "Vorfahren Lenins in Mecklenburg" [Lenin's ancestors in Mecklenburg]. Verein für mecklenburgische Familien- und Personengescheiste e. V. (2007).
  • Rodovid, s.v. “ruЗапись:58621” (accessed January 19, 2011).
  • Zenkovich, Nikolaj A. Самые секретные родственники. [The most secret relatives] [in Russian] Moscow: OLMA-Press, 2005. ISBN 5948504085


  • Scientific transliteration: Nadežda Konstantinovna Krupskaja.
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Nadezhda Konstantinovna Kroupskaya's Timeline

February 14, 1869
Saint Petersburg, gorod Sankt-Peterburg, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Age 28
Age 53
February 27, 1939
Age 70
Moscow, Soviet Union