About Nahum Yaakov Nir (Rafalkes), 2nd Speaker of the Kneset, נחום ניר
Dr Nahum Nir (Hebrew: נחום ניר, born Nahum Rafalkes on 17 March 1884, died 10 July 1968) was a Zionist activist, Israeli politician and one of the signatories of the Israeli declaration of independence.
Member of the Knessets 1, 3, 4, 5, Party: Ahdut HaAvoda (1955-1965). Former party: Mapam (1949-1951).
He is the only Speaker of the Knesset to date not to have been a member of the ruling party.
Born in Warsaw, then part of the Russian Empire, Nir studied at a Heder in the city before studying natural sciences at university in Warsaw, Zurich and St Petersburg. He also studied law at St Petersburg and Dorfat, gaining a LL.D in 1908.
In 1903, during his time a student, he joined the Zionist student's organisation Kadima, and was a delegate to the sixth Zionist congress that year. Two years later he joined Poale Zion, and was also involved in the founding of World Poale Zion. Nir also served as head of the Polish Waiter's Union, and in 1906 led what he claimed to be the world's first successful strike against tipping. That year he was sent to prison for political activities, but still attended the seventh Zionist congress the following year. In 1919 he was elected to Warsaw City Council.
When Poale Zion split, Nir joined the left-wing faction. He served as secretary of the Left World Union of Poale Zion, and was involved in negotiations to allow it to join Comintern.
In 1925 he immigrated to Mandate Palestine and worked as a lawyer. He continued to play a prominent role in Left Poale Zion and was a member of the Jewish National Council and the Assemnly of Representatives prior to independence. A member of Moetzet HaAm (later the Provisional State Council), Nir signed the Israeli declaration of independence in 1948.
In the same year, his party merged into Mapam and Nir was elected to the first Knesset in 1949. He served as Deputy Speaker of the Knesset and chaired the Constitution, Law and Justice Committee.
Nir lost his seat in the 1951 elections. In 1954, Ahdut HaAvoda (a faction related to the Left Poale Zion) broke away from Mapam, and Nir assumed membership of the new party. He was returned to the Knesset on its list in the 1955 elections, and again chaired the Constitution, Law and Justice Committee.
He was initially re-appointed Deputy Speaker of the Knesset, but following the death of the incumbent Yosef Sprinzak in January 1959, Nir stood in the election for a new speaker against a Mapai (Ben-Gurion's party) candidate. Nir won the election due to the support of the right-wing opposition and several minor left-wing parties, marking the only time to date in which a candidate not from the ruling party has been elected Speaker.
Nir retained his seat in the November 1959 elections, and chaired the committee for public services, but was demoted back to Deputy Speaker upon the new Knesset's term starting. After being re-elected in 1961 he served again as Deputy speaker and chairman of the committee for public services. He lost his seat in the 1965 elections.
Knesset 1, 14.2.1949 - 20.8.1951; Knessets 3-5, 12.10.1955 - 30.11.1959 - 22.11.1965
Knesset 1, 3, 4, 5: Deputy Speaker of the Knesset. Knesset 3: Speaker of the Knesset
- Lawyer in Petersburg and Warsaw
- During his studies in Warsaw he joined the Zionist Students Organization “Kedima” (1903)
- In 1905 he joined “Poelei Zion”
- A delegate to the 6th Zionist Congress in 1905 and the 7th in 1907
- A founder of the “World Union of Poelei Zion”
- Imprisoned for four months in 1906 for his political activities
- Elected to Warsaw City Council in 1919
- Participated in “Poelei Zion” Convention in Stockholm in 1919
- Member of “World Union of Poelei Zion” delegation to pre-State Israel
- When the Union split he joined the left faction
- Secretary of “Left World Union of Poelei Zion”
- One of negotiators trying to enable “Left Poelei Zion” to join the Comintern
- In pre-State Israel worked as a lawyer
- Member of National Leadership of “Left Poelei Zion”
- Member of “Vaad Ha’Leumi”
- Member of Political Committee of “Achdut HaAvoda –Poelei Zion” Party
- Member of Provisional State Council
Nahum Yaakov Nir (Rafalkes), 2nd Speaker of the Kneset, נחום ניר's Timeline
March 17, 1884
Warszawa, Mazowieckie, Polska
July 10, 1968