Anne Frances Reagan (Robbins), First Lady MP

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Nicknames: "Anne Francis Luckett Robbins", "Nancy Frances Davis", "Nancy Davis Reagan"
Location: CA, USA
Birthdate: (92)
Birthplace: Sloane Hospital for Women, New York, New York, New York, United States
Occupation: First Lady of the United States 1981-1989
Managed by: Dianne Kristine Dube
Last Updated:

About Anne Frances Reagan (Robbins), First Lady

Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan and served as an influential First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. She was born in New York; her parents divorced soon after her birth and she grew up in Maryland, living with an aunt and uncle while her mother pursued acting jobs. As Nancy Davis, she was an actress in Hollywood in the 1940s and 1950s, starring in films such as Donovan's Brain, Night into Morning, and Hellcats of the Navy. In 1952 she married Ronald Reagan, who was then president of the Screen Actors Guild, and they had two children. Nancy was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975. In that capacity, she began work with the Foster Grandparents Program.

Nancy Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981 following her husband's victory, but was criticised early in his first term largely due to her decision to replace the White House china. Nancy restored a Kennedy-esque glamour to the White House following years of lax formality, and her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention, as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, which was considered her major initiative as first lady. Always protective of her husband, more controversy ensued when it was revealed in 1988 that she had consulted an astrologer to assist in planning the president's schedule after the 1981 assassination attempt on her husband.

The Reagans retired to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California in 1989. Nancy devoted most of her time to caring for her ailing husband, diagnosed in 1994 with Alzheimer's disease, until his death in 2004. Nancy Reagan has remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics, particularly in support of stem-cell research.

Early life

nne Frances Robbins was born on July 6, 1921,[3][4] at Manhattan's Sloane Hospital for Women in New York,[5][6] the only child of car salesman Kenneth Seymour Robbins (1894–1972)[7] and his actress wife, Edith Luckett (1888–1987).[1][2][8] Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova.[9] She lived for her first two years in Flushing, Queens, in New York.[10] While her parents divorced soon after her birth, they had already been separated for some time.[11] As her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs, Nancy was raised in Bethesda, Maryland, for the next six years by her aunt Virginia and uncle Audley Gailbraith.[12] Nancy describes longing for her mother during those years: "My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, and Aunt Virgie would take me by train to stay with her."[13]

In 1929, her mother married Loyal Davis (1896–1982), a prominent, politically conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago.[3] Nancy and her stepfather got along very well;[14] she would later write that he was "a man of great integrity who exemplified old-fashioned values".[15] He formally adopted her in 1935,[3] and she would always refer to him as her father.[14] At the time of the adoption, her name was legally changed to Nancy Davis (since birth, she had commonly been called Nancy).[11] She attended the Girls' Latin School of Chicago (describing herself as an average student), graduated in 1939, and later attended Smith College in Massachusetts, where she majored in English and drama and graduated in 1943.

Acting career

Following her graduation, Davis held jobs in Chicago as a sales clerk in Marshall Field's department store and as a nurse's aide.[8] With the help of her mother's colleagues in theatre, including Zasu Pitts, Walter Huston, and Spencer Tracy,[14] she pursued a career as a professional actress. She first gained a part in Pitts' 1945 road tour of Ramshackle Inn,[3][8] moving to New York City. She landed the role of Si-Tchun, a lady-in-waiting,[17] in the 1946 Broadway musical about the Orient, Lute Song, starring Mary Martin and a pre-stardom Yul Brynner.[8] The show's producer told her, "You look like you could be Chinese."[18]

After passing a screen test,[8] she moved to California and signed a seven-year contract with Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios (MGM) in 1949;[3] she later remarked, "Joining Metro was like walking into a dream world."[19] Davis appeared in 11 feature films, usually typecast as a "loyal housewife",[20] "responsible young mother", or "the steady woman".[21] She kept her professional name as Nancy Davis even after marrying. Her film career began with minor roles in 1949's The Doctor and the Girl with Glenn Ford, and followed with East Side, West Side starring Barbara Stanwyck.[22] She played a child psychiatrist in the film noir Shadow on the Wall (1950) with Ann Sothern and Zachary Scott; her performance was called "beautiful and convincing" by New York Times critic A. H. Weiler.[23] She co-starred in 1950's The Next Voice You Hear..., playing a pregnant housewife who hears the voice of God from her radio. Influential reviewer Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote that "Nancy Davis [is] delightful as [a] gentle, plain, and understanding wife."[24] In 1951, Davis appeared in her favorite screen role,[25] Night Into Morning, a study of bereavement starring Ray Milland. Crowther said that Davis "does nicely as the fiancée who is widowed herself and knows the loneliness of grief,"[26] while another noted critic, The Washington Post's Richard L. Coe, said Davis "is splendid as the understanding widow."[27] Davis left MGM in 1952, seeking a broader range of parts.[28] She soon starred in the 1953 science fiction film Donovan's Brain; Crowther said that Davis, playing the role of a possessed scientist's "sadly baffled wife", "walked through it all in stark confusion" in an "utterly silly" film.[29] In her next-to-last movie, Hellcats of the Navy (1957), she played nurse Lieutenant Helen Blair and shared the screen for the only time with her husband, playing what one critic called "a housewife who came along for the ride".[30] Another reviewer, however, stated that Davis plays her part well, and "does well with what she has to work with".

Noted author Garry Wills believes that Davis was underrated as an actress overall, because her constrained part in Hellcats was her most widely seen performance.[21] In addition, Davis downplayed her Hollywood goals: MGM promotional material in 1949 said that her "greatest ambition" was to have a "successful happy marriage";[21] decades later, in 1975, she would say, "I was never really a career woman but [became one] only because I hadn't found the man I wanted to marry. I couldn't sit around and do nothing, so I became an actress."[21] Ronald Reagan biographer Lou Cannon nevertheless characterized her as a "reliable" and "solid" performer who held her own in performances with better-known actors.[21] After her final film, she appeared for a brief time in television dramas Wagon Train and The Tall Man until 1962, when she retired as an actress.[22] During her career, she served on the board of directors of the Screen Actors Guild for nearly 10 years.[32] Decades later, Albert Brooks attempted to coax Reagan out of acting retirement by offering her the title role opposite himself in his 1996 film Mother.[33] Reagan declined in order to care for her husband, and Debbie Reynolds played the part

First Lady of California, 1967–1975

Reagan was First Lady of California during her husband's two terms as governor. She disliked living in Sacramento, which lacked the excitement, social life, and mild climate to which she was accustomed in Los Angeles.[47] She first attracted controversy early in 1967, when, after four months' residence in the California Governor's Mansion in Sacramento, she moved her family into a wealthy suburb because fire officials had labeled the mansion as a "firetrap".[48] Though the Reagans leased the new house at their expense,[47] the move was viewed by many as snobbish. Nancy defended her actions as being for the good of her family, a judgment with which her husband readily agreed.[47][48] Friends of the family later helped support the cost of the leased house, while Nancy Reagan supervised construction of a new ranch-style governor's residence in nearby Carmichael.[49] The new residence was finished just as Ronald Reagan left office in 1975, but his successor, Jerry Brown, refused to live there. It was sold in 1982, and California governors have been living in improvised arrangements ever since.[49]

In 1967 Nancy Reagan was appointed by her husband to the California Arts Commission,[50] and a year later was named Los Angeles Times' Woman of the Year; in its profile, the Times labeled her "A Model First Lady".[51] Her glamour, style, and youthfulness made her a frequent subject for press photographers.[52] As first lady, Reagan visited veterans, the elderly, and the handicapped, and worked with a number of charities.[53] She became quite involved with the Foster Grandparents Program,[54] helping to popularize it in the United States, then in Australia.[55] She later expanded her work with the organization after arriving in Washington,[54] and wrote about her experiences in her 1982 book To Love a Child.[56] The Reagans held dinners for former POWs and Vietnam War veterans while governor and first lady

First Lady of the United States, 1981–1989

White House glamour

[edit]Renovation

Nancy Reagan became the First Lady of the United States when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as president in January 1981. Early in her husband's presidency, Reagan stated her desire to create a more suitable "first home" in the White House, as the building had fallen into a state of disrepair following years of neglect.[63] White House aide Michael Deaver described the second and third floor family residence as having "cracked plaster walls, chipped paint [and] beaten up floors;"[64] rather than use government funds to renovate and redecorate, she sought private donations.[8] Nancy directed a major renovation of several White House rooms, including all of the second and third floors[65] and rooms adjacent to the Oval Office, including the press briefing room.[66] The renovation included repainting walls, refinishing floors, repairing fireplaces, and replacing antique pipes, windows, and wires.[64] The closet in the master bedroom was converted into a beauty parlor and dressing room, and the West bedroom was made into a small gymnasium.[67]

The first lady secured the assistance of renowned interior designer Ted Graber, popular with affluent West Coast social figures, to redecorate the family living quarters.[68] A Chinese-pattern, handpainted wallpaper was added to the master bedroom.[69] Family furniture was placed in the president's private study.[68] The first lady and her designer retrieved a number of White House antiques, which had been in storage, and placed them throughout the mansion.[68]

The extensive redecoration was paid for by private donations.[8][68] Many significant and long-lasting changes occurred as a result of the renovation and refurbishment, of which Nancy Reagan said, "This house belongs to all Americans, and I want it to be something of which they can be proud."[68]

[edit]Fashion

Another of Nancy Reagan's trademarks was her interest in fashion. While her husband was still president-elect, press reports speculated about Nancy's social life and interest in fashion.[70][71][72] In many press accounts, Nancy's sense of style was favorably compared to that of previous First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy.[73] Friends and those close to her remarked that, while fashionable like Kennedy, she would be different than other first ladies; close friend Harriet Deutsch was quoted as saying, "Nancy has her own imprint."[71]

Nancy Reagan's wardrobe consisted of dresses, gowns, and suits made by luxury designers, including James Galanos, Bill Blass, Adolfo, and Oscar de la Renta. Her white, hand-beaded, one shoulder Galanos 1981 inaugural gown was estimated to cost $10,000[74] while the overall price of her inaugural wardrobe was said to cost $25,000.[75] She favored the color red, calling it "a picker-upper", and wore it accordingly.[74] Her wardrobe included red so often that the fire-engine shade became known as "Reagan red".[76] She employed two private hairdressers who would style her hair on a regular basis in the White House.[77]

Reagan models for Vogue magazine in the Red Room, 1981

Fashion designers were pleased with the emphasis Nancy Reagan placed on clothing.[75] Adolfo said the first lady embodied an "elegant, affluent, well-bred, chic American look,"[75] while Bill Blass commented, "I don't think there's been anyone in the White House since Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis who has her flair."[75] William Fine, president of cosmetic company Frances Denney, noted that she "stays in style, but she doesn't become trendy."[75]

Though her elegant fashions and wardrobe were hailed as a "glamorous paragon of chic",[75] they were also controversial subjects. In 1982, she revealed that she had accepted thousands of dollars in clothing, jewelry, and other gifts, but defended her actions by stating that she had borrowed the clothes and that they would either be returned or donated to museums,[74][78] and that she was promoting the American fashion industry.[79] Facing criticism, she soon said she would no longer accept such loans.[79] While often buying her clothes, she continued to borrow and sometimes keep designer clothes throughout her time as first lady, which came to light in 1988.[80] None of this had been included on financial disclosure forms;[80] the non-reporting of loans under $10,000 in liability was in violation of a voluntary agreement the White House had made in 1982, while not reporting more valuable loans or clothes not returned was a possible violation of the Ethics in Government Act.[80][81][82] Nancy expressed through her press secretary "regrets that she failed to heed counsel's advice" on disclosing them.[82]

Despite the controversy, many designers who allowed her to borrow clothing noted that the arrangement was good for their businesses[80] as well as for the American fashion industry overall.[83] In 1989, Nancy was honored at the annual gala awards dinner of the Council of Fashion Designers of America, during which she received the council's lifetime achievement award.[84] Barbara Walters said of her, "She has served every day for eight long years the word 'style.'"[84]

[edit]Elegance and formality

Approximately a year into her husband's first term, Nancy Reagan explored the idea of ordering new state china service for the White House.[85] A full china service had not been purchased since the Truman administration in the 1940s, as only a partial service was ordered in the Johnson administration.[85] She was quoted as saying, "The White House really badly, badly needs china."[85] Working with Lenox, the primary porcelain manufacturer in America, the first lady chose a design scheme of a red with etched gold band, bordering the scarlet and cream colored ivory plates with a raised presidential seal etched in gold in the center.[85] The full service comprised 4,370 pieces, with 19 pieces per individual set.[85] The service totaled $209,508.[86] Although it was paid for by private donations, some from the private Knapp Foundation, the purchase generated quite a controversy, for it was ordered at a time when the nation was undergoing an economic recession.[87]

The new china, White House renovations, expensive clothing, and her attendance at the wedding of Charles and Diana, Prince and Princess of Wales,[88] gave her an aura of being "out of touch" with the American people during an economic recession.[8] This and her taste for splendor inspired the derogatory nickname "Queen Nancy".[8] While Jacqueline Kennedy had also faced some press criticism for her spending habits, Reagan's treatment was much more consistent and negative.[73] In an attempt to deflect the criticism, she self-deprecatingly donned a baglady costume at the 1982 Gridiron Dinner and sang "Second-Hand Clothes", mimicking the song "Second-Hand Rose".[89] The skit helped to restore her reputation.[90]

Reagan and her husband with her predecessor as First Lady, Jackie Kennedy, widow of President Kennedy, in 1985. Nancy and Jackie were often compared due to their glamour, in contrast to the intervening First Ladies.

Nancy Reagan reflected on the criticisms in her 1989 autobiography, My Turn. Reagan describes lunching with former Democratic National Committee chairman Robert Strauss, wherein Strauss said to her, "When you first came to town, Nancy, I didn't like you at all. But after I got to know you, I changed my mind and said, 'She's some broad!'" Nancy responded, "Bob, based on the press reports I read then, I wouldn't have liked me either!"[91]

After the presidencies of Gerald Ford (who favored the Michigan fight song over "Hail to the Chief") and Jimmy Carter (who dramatically reduced the formality of presidential functions), Nancy brought a Kennedy-esque glamour back into the White House.[74][92] She hosted 56 state dinners over eight years, compared to six by George and Laura Bush.[93] She remarked that hosting the dinners is "the easiest thing in the world. You don't have to do anything. Just have a good time and do a little business. And that's the way Washington works."[93] In 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev became the first Soviet leader to visit Washington, D.C. since Nikita Khrushchev in 1959, and Nancy Reagan was in charge of planning and hosting the important and highly anticipated state dinner.[94] After the meal, Nancy recruited pianist Van Cliburn to sing a rendition of "Moscow Nights" for the Soviet delegation, to which Mikhail and Raisa broke out into song.[95] Former Secretary of State George Shultz commented on the evening, saying "We felt the ice of the Cold War crumbling."[96] Nancy concluded, "It was a perfect ending for one of the great evenings of my husband's presidency."[97]

[edit]Just Say No

Main article: Just Say No

Nancy Reagan launched the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign in 1982, which was her primary project and major initiative as first lady.[8] Nancy first became aware of the need to educate young people about drugs during a 1980 campaign stop in Daytop Village, New York.[98] She remarked in 1981 that "Understanding what drugs can do to your children, understanding peer pressure and understanding why they turn to drugs is... the first step in solving the problem."[98] Her campaign focused on drug education and informing the youth of the danger of drug abuse.[98]

Reagan gives a speech at a Just Say No rally in Los Angeles, 1987

In 1982, Nancy Reagan was asked by a schoolgirl what to do when offered drugs; Nancy responded "Just say no."[99][100] The phrase proliferated in the popular culture of the 1980s and was eventually adopted as the name of club organizations and school anti-drug programs.[8] Reagan became actively involved by traveling more than 250,000 miles (400,000 km) throughout the United States and several nations, visiting drug abuse prevention programs and drug rehabilitation centers. She also appeared on television talk shows, recorded public service announcements, and wrote guest articles.[8] She appeared in an episode of the hit television drama Dynasty to underscore support for the anti-drug campaign. As she continued to promote "Just Say No", she appeared in an episode of the popular 1980s sitcom Diff'rent Strokes[101] and in a 1985 rock music video, "Stop the Madness".[102] When asked about her campaign, the first lady remarked, "If you can save just one child, it's worth it."[103]

In 1985, Nancy expanded the campaign to an international level by inviting the First Ladies of various nations to the White House for a conference on drug abuse.[8] On October 27, 1986, President Reagan signed a drug enforcement bill into law, which granted $1.7 billion in funding to fight the crisis and ensured a mandatory minimum penalty for drug offenses.[104] Although the bill was criticized by some, Nancy Reagan considered it a personal victory.[8] In 1988, she became the first First Lady invited to address the United Nations General Assembly, where she spoke on international drug interdiction and trafficking laws.[8]

Reagan hosts the First Ladies Conference on Drug Abuse at the White House, 1985.

Critics of Reagan's efforts questioned their purpose[105] and argued that the program did not go far enough in addressing many social issues, including unemployment, poverty, and family dissolution;[105] Nancy's approach to promoting drug awareness was labeled as simplistic by liberal critics.[63] Nonetheless, a number of "Just Say No" clubs and organizations remain in operation around the country, and they aim to educate children and teenagers about the effects of drugs.[98]

[edit]Her husband's protector

Nancy Reagan assumed the role of unofficial "protector" for her husband after the attempted assassination on his life in 1981.[106] On March 30 of that year, President Reagan and three others were shot as they left the Washington Hilton Hotel. Nancy was alerted and arrived at George Washington University Hospital, where the President was hospitalized. She recalled having seen "emergency rooms before, but I had never seen one like this—with my husband in it."[107] She was escorted into a waiting room, and when granted access to see her husband, he quipped to her, "Honey, I forgot to duck", borrowing the defeated boxer Jack Dempsey's jest to his wife.[108]

An early example of her protective nature occurred when Senator Strom Thurmond entered the President's hospital room that day in March, passing the Secret Service detail by claiming he was the President's "close friend", presumably to acquire media attention.[109] Nancy was outraged and demanded he leave.[40] While the president recuperated in the hospital, the first lady slept with one of his shirts to be comforted by the scent.[40] When Reagan was released from the hospital on April 12, she escorted him back to the White House.

Press accounts framed Nancy as her husband's "chief protector", an extension of their general initial framing of her as a helpmate and a Cold War domestic ideal.[110]

[edit]Influence in the White House

"The Gaze": Nancy watches as her husband is sworn in for a second term by Chief Justice Warren Burger, on January 20, 1985.

Nancy stated in her memoirs, "I felt panicky every time [Ronald] left the White House"[111] following the assassination attempt, and made it her concern to know her husband's schedule: the events he would be attending, and with whom.[8] Eventually, this protectiveness led to her consulting an astrologer, Joan Quigley, who offered insight on which days were "good", "neutral", or should be avoided, which influenced her husband's White House schedule.[112] Days were color-coded according to the astrologer's advice to discern precisely which days and times would be optimal for the president's safety and success.[8] The White House Chief of Staff, Donald Regan, grew frustrated with this regimen, which created friction between him and the First Lady. This escalated with the revelation of the Iran-Contra affair, an administration scandal, in which the First Lady felt Regan was damaging the president.[113] She thought he should resign, and expressed this to her husband although he did not share her view. Regan wanted President Reagan to address the Iran-Contra matter in early 1987 by means of a press conference, though Nancy refused to allow Reagan to overexert himself due to a recent prostate surgery and astrological warnings.[114] Regan became so angry with Nancy that he hung up on her during a 1987 telephone conversation. According to former ABC News correspondent Sam Donaldson, when the President heard of this treatment, he demanded—and eventually received—Regan's resignation.[115] In his 1988 memoirs, Regan wrote about Nancy's consultations with the astrologer, the first public mention of them, which resulted in embarrassment for the First Lady.[116] Nancy later wrote, "Astrology was simply one of the ways I coped with the fear I felt after my husband almost died... Was astrology one of the reasons [further attempts did not occur]? I don't really believe it was, but I don't really believe it wasn't."[117]

The Reagans talk in the Oval Office, 1985

Nancy Reagan wielded a powerful influence over President Reagan.[118] Again stemming from the assassination attempt, she strictly controlled access to the president and even occasionally attempted to influence her husband's decision making.[118][119]

Beginning in 1985, Nancy strongly encouraged her husband to hold "summit" conferences with Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev, and suggested they form a personal relationship beforehand.[8] Both Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev had developed a productive relationship through their summit negotiations. The relationship between Nancy Reagan and Raisa Gorbachev was anything but the friendly, diplomatic one between their husbands; Nancy found Raisa hard to converse with and their relationship was described as "frosty".[120] The two women usually had tea, and discussed differences between the USSR and the United States. Visiting the U.S. for the first time in 1987, Raisa irked Reagan with lectures on subjects ranging from architecture to socialism, reportedly prompting the American President's wife to quip, "Who does that dame think she is?"[121]

Press framing of Nancy changed from that of just helpmate and protector to someone with hidden power.[122] As the image of her as a political interloper grew, she sought to explicitly deny that she was the power behind the throne.[122] At the end of her time as First Lady, however, she said that her husband had not been well-served by his staff.[122][123] She acknowledged her role in reaction in influencing him on personnel decisions, saying "In no way do I apologize for it."[123] She wrote in her memoirs, "I don't think I was as bad, or as extreme in my power or my weakness, as I was depicted,"[124] but went on, "[H]owever the first lady fits in, she has a unique and important role to play in looking after her husband. And it's only natural that she'll let him know what she thinks. I always did that for Ronnie, and I always will."[125]

[edit]Breast cancer

In October 1987, a mammogram detected a lesion in Nancy Reagan's left breast and she was subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer. She chose to undergo a mastectomy rather than a lumpectomy[126] and the breast was removed on October 17, 1987. Ten days after the operation, her mother, Edith Luckett Davis, died in Phoenix, Arizona, leading Nancy to dub the period "a terrible month".[127]

After the surgery, more women across the country had mammograms, an example of the influence the first lady possesses.[128]

[edit]Later life

Though Nancy was a controversial First Lady, 56 percent of Americans had a favorable opinion of her when her husband left office on January 20, 1989, with 18 percent having an unfavorable opinion and the balance not giving an opinion.[129] Compared to fellow First Ladies when their husbands left office, Reagan's approval was higher than those of Rosalynn Carter and Hillary Rodham Clinton, however she was less popular than Barbara Bush and her disapproval rating was double that of Carter's.[129]

Nancy Reagan's official White House portrait hangs in the Vermeil Room.

Upon leaving the White House, the couple returned to California, where they purchased a home in the wealthy East Gate Old Bel Air neighborhood of Bel Air, Los Angeles, dividing their time between Bel Air and the Reagan Ranch in Santa Barbara, California; Ronald and Nancy regularly attended Bel Air Presbyterian Church as well. After leaving Washington, Nancy made numerous public appearances, many on behalf of her husband. She continues to reside at the Bel Air home, where she lived with her husband until his death on June 5, 2004.

[edit]Early post-White House activities

In late 1989, the former First Lady established the Nancy Reagan Foundation, which aimed to continue to educate people about the dangers of substance abuse.[134] The Foundation teamed with the BEST Foundation For A Drug-Free Tomorrow in 1994, and developed the Nancy Reagan Afterschool Program. She continued to travel around the nation, speaking out against drug and alcohol abuse. After President Reagan revealed that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994, she made herself his primary caregiver and became actively involved with the National Alzheimer's Association and its affiliate, the Ronald and Nancy Reagan Research Institute in Chicago, Illinois.[8]

“ Ronnie's long journey has finally taken him to a distant place where I can no longer reach him.[118] ”

—Nancy Reagan, May 2004

Also in 1989 she published My Turn: The Memoirs of Nancy Reagan, which gives an account of her life in the White House, speaking openly about her influence within the Reagan administration and discussing the myths and controversies that surrounded the couple.[135] In 1991, the controversial author Kitty Kelley wrote an unauthorized and largely uncited biography about Nancy Reagan, repeating accounts of a poor relationship with her children and introducing rumors of alleged sexual relations with singer Frank Sinatra. A wide range of sources commented that Kelley's largely unsupported claims are most likely false.

In 1989 the Internal Revenue Service began investigating the Reagans for whether they owed additional tax on the gifts and loans of high-fashion clothes and jewelry to Nancy during their time in the White House[140] (recipients benefiting from the display of such items recognize taxable income even if they are returned).[140] In 1992 the IRS determined the Reagans had failed to include some $3 million worth of fashion items between 1983 and 1988 on their tax returns; they were billed for a large amount of back taxes and interest, which was subsequently paid.

Nancy Reagan was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, by President George W. Bush on July 9, 2002.] President Reagan received his own Presidential Medal of Freedom in January 1993. Nancy and her husband were jointly awarded the Congressional Gold Medal on May 16, 2002 at the Capitol, and were only the third President and First Lady to receive it; she accepted the medal on behalf of both of them.

-------------------- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Nancy Reagan Nancy Reagan.jpg First Lady Nancy Reagan in 1983 First Lady of the United States In office January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989 Preceded by Rosalynn Carter Succeeded by Barbara Bush First Lady of California In office January 3, 1967 – January 6, 1975 Preceded by Bernice Layne Brown Succeeded by Gloria Saatjian Personal details Born Anne Frances Robbins July 6, 1921 (age 92) Manhattan, New York County, New York Nationality American Political party Republican Spouse(s) Ronald Reagan (m. 1952–2004; his death) Relations Parents: Kenneth Seymour Robbins, Edith Luckett Davis[1][2] adopted by stepfather Loyal Davis Children Patti Davis Ron Reagan Alma mater Smith College Occupation Actress Religion Presbyterian Signature Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins; July 6, 1921) is the widow of the 40th President of the United States, Ronald Reagan, and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Born in New York City, her parents divorced soon after her birth and she grew up in Maryland, living with an aunt and uncle while her mother pursued acting jobs. As Nancy Davis, she was an actress in Hollywood in the 1940s and 1950s, starring in films such as Donovan's Brain, Night into Morning, and Hellcats of the Navy. In 1952, she married Ronald Reagan, who was then president of the Screen Actors Guild, and they had two children. Reagan was the First Lady of California when her husband was Governor from 1967 to 1975. In that capacity, she began work with the Foster Grandparents Program. Nancy Reagan became First Lady of the United States in January 1981 following her husband's election. She was criticized early in his first term largely due to her decision to replace the White House china, despite it being paid for by private donations. Nancy restored a Kennedy-esque glamor to the White House following years of lax formality, and her interest in high-end fashion garnered much attention, as well as criticism. She championed recreational drug prevention causes by founding the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign, which was considered her major initiative as first lady. Always protective of her husband, more controversy ensued when it was revealed in 1988 that she had consulted an astrologer to assist in planning the president's schedule after the 1981 assassination attempt on her husband. She had a strong influence on her husband and played a role in a few of his personnel and diplomatic decisions. The Reagans retired to their home in Bel Air, Los Angeles, California in 1989. Nancy devoted most of her time to caring for her ailing husband, diagnosed in 1994 with Alzheimer's disease, until his death in 2004. Nancy Reagan has remained active within the Reagan Library and in politics, particularly in support of embryonic stem cell research. Contents [hide] 1 Early life 2 Acting career 3 Marriage and family 4 First Lady of California, 1967–1975 5 Role in 1976 and 1980 presidential campaigns 6 First Lady of the United States, 1981–1989 6.1 White House glamour 6.1.1 Renovation 6.1.2 Fashion 6.1.3 Elegance and formality 6.2 Just Say No 6.3 Her husband's protector 6.4 Influence in the White House 6.5 Breast cancer 7 Subsequent life 7.1 Early post-White House activities 7.2 Ronald Reagan's funeral 7.3 Widowhood 8 Filmography 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 External links Early life[edit]

Anne Frances Robbins was born on July 6, 1921,[3][4] at Manhattan's Sloane Hospital for Women in New York,[5][6] as the only child of car salesman Kenneth Seymour Robbins (1894–1972)[7] and his actress wife, Edith Luckett (1888–1987).[1][2][8] Her godmother was silent-film-star Alla Nazimova.[9] From birth, she was commonly called Nancy.[10] She lived her first two years in Flushing, Queens, in New York.[11] While her parents divorced soon after her birth, they had already been separated for some time.[10] As her mother traveled the country to pursue acting jobs, Nancy was raised in Bethesda, Maryland for the next six years by her aunt Virginia and uncle Audley Gailbraith.[12] Nancy describes longing for her mother during those years: "My favorite times were when Mother had a job in New York, and Aunt Virgie would take me by train to stay with her."[13] In 1929, her mother married Loyal Davis (1896–1982), a prominent, politically conservative neurosurgeon who moved the family to Chicago.[3] Nancy and her stepfather got along very well;[14] she would later write that he was "a man of great integrity who exemplified old-fashioned values".[15] He formally adopted her in 1935,[3] and she would always refer to him as her father.[14] At the time of the adoption, her name was legally changed to Nancy Davis.[10] She attended the Girls' Latin School of Chicago (describing herself as an average student), graduated in 1939, and later attended Smith College in Massachusetts, where she majored in English and drama and graduated in 1943.[8][16] Acting career[edit]

Nancy Davis poses for a publicity photo, 1950 In 1940, a young Davis had appeared as a National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis volunteer in a memorable short subject shown in movie theaters to raise donations for the crusade against polio. The Crippler featured a sinister figure spreading over playgrounds and farms, laughing over its victims, until finally dispelled by the volunteer. It was very effective in raising contributions.[17] Following her graduation from college, Davis held jobs in Chicago as a sales clerk in Marshall Field's department store and as a nurse's aide.[8] With the help of her mother's colleagues in theatre, including Zasu Pitts, Walter Huston, and Spencer Tracy,[14] she pursued a career as a professional actress. She first gained a part in Pitts' 1945 road tour of Ramshackle Inn,[3][8] moving to New York City. She landed the role of Si-Tchun, a lady-in-waiting,[18] in the 1946 Broadway musical about the Orient, Lute Song, starring Mary Martin and a pre-stardom Yul Brynner.[8] The show's producer told her, "You look like you could be Chinese."[19] After passing a screen test,[8] she moved to California and signed a seven-year contract with Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios (MGM) in 1949;[3] she later remarked, "Joining Metro was like walking into a dream world."[20] Her combination of attractive appearance – centered around her large eyes – and somewhat distant and understated manner made her hard at first for MGM to cast and publicize.[21] Davis appeared in eleven feature films, usually typecast as a "loyal housewife",[22] "responsible young mother", or "the steady woman".[23] Jane Powell, Debbie Reynolds, Leslie Caron, and Janet Leigh were among those that she competed with for roles at MGM.[21] Davis' film career began with small supporting roles in two films of 1949, The Doctor and the Girl with Glenn Ford and East Side, West Side starring Barbara Stanwyck.[24] She played a child psychiatrist in the film noir Shadow on the Wall (1950) with Ann Sothern and Zachary Scott; her performance was called "beautiful and convincing" by New York Times critic A. H. Weiler.[25] She co-starred in 1950's The Next Voice You Hear..., playing a pregnant housewife who hears the voice of God from her radio. Influential reviewer Bosley Crowther of The New York Times wrote that "Nancy Davis [is] delightful as [a] gentle, plain, and understanding wife."[26] In 1951, Davis appeared in her favorite screen role,[27] Night Into Morning, a study of bereavement starring Ray Milland. Crowther said that Davis "does nicely as the fiancée who is widowed herself and knows the loneliness of grief,"[28] while another noted critic, The Washington Post's Richard L. Coe, said Davis "is splendid as the understanding widow."[29] MGM released Davis from her contract in 1952;[30] she sought a broader range of parts,[31] but also married Reagan, keeping her professional name as Davis, and had her first child that year.[30] She soon starred in the 1953 science fiction film Donovan's Brain; Crowther said that Davis, playing the role of a possessed scientist's "sadly baffled wife", "walked through it all in stark confusion" in an "utterly silly" film.[32] In her next-to-last movie, Hellcats of the Navy (1957), she played nurse Lieutenant Helen Blair and shared the screen for the only time with her husband, playing what one critic called "a housewife who came along for the ride".[33] Another reviewer, however, stated that Davis plays her part well, and "does well with what she has to work with".[34] Author Garry Wills believes that Davis was underrated as an actress overall because her constrained part in Hellcats was her most widely seen performance.[23] In addition, Davis downplayed her Hollywood goals: MGM promotional material in 1949 said that her "greatest ambition" was to have a "successful happy marriage"; decades later, in 1975, she would say, "I was never really a career woman but [became one] only because I hadn't found the man I wanted to marry. I couldn't sit around and do nothing, so I became an actress."[23] Ronald Reagan biographer Lou Cannon nevertheless characterized her as a "reliable" and "solid" performer who held her own in performances with better-known actors.[23] After her final film, Davis appeared for a brief time as a guest star in television dramas such as Wagon Train and The Tall Man until 1962, when she retired as an actress.[24][35] During her career, Davis served on the board of directors of the Screen Actors Guild for nearly ten years.[36] Decades later, Albert Brooks attempted to coax her out of acting retirement by offering her the title role opposite himself in his 1996 film Mother.[37] She declined in order to care for her husband, and Debbie Reynolds played the part.[37] Marriage and family[edit]

Newlyweds Ronald and Nancy Reagan, March 4, 1952

Matron of Honor Brenda Marshall and Best Man William Holden, sole guests at the Reagans' wedding During her Hollywood career, Davis dated many actors, including Clark Gable, Robert Stack, and Peter Lawford;[30] she later called Gable the nicest of the stars she had met.[14] On November 15, 1949, she met Ronald Reagan,[38] who was then president of the Screen Actors Guild. Nancy had noticed that her name had appeared on the Hollywood blacklist and sought Reagan's help to maintain her employment as a guild actress in Hollywood, and for assistance in having her name removed from the list.[14] Reagan informed her that she had been confused with another actress of the same name.[14] The two began dating and their relationship was the subject of many gossip columns; one Hollywood press account described their nightclub-free times together as "the romance of a couple who have no vices".[38] Ronald Reagan was skeptical about marriage, however, following his painful 1948 divorce from Jane Wyman, and he still saw other women.[38] After three years of dating, he eventually proposed to Davis in the couple's favorite booth at the Beverly Hills restaurant Chasen's.[38] They married on March 4, 1952 in a simple ceremony designed to avoid the press[39] at the Little Brown Church in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles. The only people in attendance were actor William Holden, the best man, and his wife, actress Brenda Marshall, the matron of honor.[38][40] The couple's first child, Patricia Ann Reagan (better known by her professional name, Patti Davis), was born on October 21, 1952. Their son, Ronald Prescott Reagan, was born six years later on May 20, 1958. Nancy Reagan also became stepmother to Maureen Reagan (1941–2001) and Michael Reagan (born 1945), the children of her husband's first marriage to Jane Wyman.

Nancy and Ronald Reagan on a boat in 1964

The Reagan family in 1967, shortly after Ronald Reagan's inauguration as Governor of California Observers described Ronald and Nancy Reagan's relationship as intimate.[41] As President and First Lady, the Reagans were reported to display their affection frequently, with one press secretary noting, "They never took each other for granted. They never stopped courting."[42][43] Ronald often called Nancy "Mommy"; she called him "Ronnie".[43] While the President was recuperating in the hospital after the 1981 assassination attempt, Nancy Reagan wrote in her diary, "Nothing can happen to my Ronnie. My life would be over."[44] In a letter to Nancy, Ronald wrote, "whatever I treasure and enjoy ... all would be without meaning if I didn't have you."[45] In 1998, while her husband was afflicted with Alzheimer's disease, Nancy told Vanity Fair, "Our relationship is very special. We were very much in love and still are. When I say my life began with Ronnie, well, it's true. It did. I can't imagine life without him."[42] Nancy was known for the focused and attentive look, termed "the Gaze", that she fastened upon her husband during his speeches and appearances.[46] President Reagan's death in June 2004 ended what Charlton Heston called "the greatest love affair in the history of the American Presidency."[42] Nancy's relationship with her children was not always as close as that with her husband. She frequently quarreled with her biological children and her stepchildren. Her relationship with Patti was the most contentious; Patti flouted American conservatism and rebelled against her parents by joining the nuclear freeze movement and authoring many anti-Reagan books.[47] The nearly 20 years of family feuding left her very much estranged from both her mother and father.[48] Soon after her father was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, Patti and her mother reconciled and began to speak on a daily basis.[49] Nancy's disagreements with Michael were also public matters; in 1984, she was quoted as saying that the two were in an "estrangement right now". Michael responded that Nancy was trying to cover up for the fact she had not met his daughter, Ashley, who had been born nearly a year earlier.[50] They too eventually made peace. Nancy was thought to be closest to her stepdaughter Maureen during the White House years, but each of the Reagan children experienced periods of estrangement from their parents.[42] First Lady of California, 1967–1975[edit]

Nancy as the First Lady of California Reagan was First Lady of California during her husband's two terms as governor. She disliked living in Sacramento, which lacked the excitement, social life, and mild climate to which she was accustomed in Los Angeles.[51] She first attracted controversy early in 1967, when, after four months' residence in the California Governor's Mansion in Sacramento, she moved her family into a wealthy suburb because fire officials had labeled the mansion as a "firetrap".[52] Though the Reagans leased the new house at their expense,[51] the move was viewed as snobbish. Nancy defended her actions as being for the good of her family, a judgment with which her husband readily agreed.[51][52] Friends of the family later helped support the cost of the leased house, while Nancy Reagan supervised construction of a new ranch-style governor's residence in nearby Carmichael.[53] The new residence was finished just as Ronald Reagan left office in 1975, but his successor, Jerry Brown, refused to live there. It was sold in 1982, and California governors have been living in improvised arrangements ever since.[53] In 1967, Nancy Reagan was appointed by her husband to the California Arts Commission,[54] and a year later was named Los Angeles Times' Woman of the Year; in its profile, the Times labeled her "A Model First Lady".[55] Her glamour, style, and youthfulness made her a frequent subject for press photographers.[56] As first lady, Reagan visited veterans, the elderly, and the handicapped, and worked with a number of charities. She became quite involved with the Foster Grandparents Program,[57] helping to popularize it in the United States, then in Australia.[58] She later expanded her work with the organization after arriving in Washington,[57] and wrote about her experiences in her 1982 book To Love a Child.[59] The Reagans held dinners for former POWs and Vietnam War veterans while governor and first lady.[60] Role in 1976 and 1980 presidential campaigns[edit]

Main articles: United States presidential election, 1976 and United States presidential election, 1980 Governor Reagan's term ended in 1975, and he did not run for a third; instead, he met with advisors to discuss a possible bid for the presidency in 1976, challenging incumbent President Gerald Ford. Reagan still needed to convince a reluctant Nancy before running, however.[61] She feared for her husband's health and his career as a whole, though she felt that he was the right man for the job and eventually approved.[62] Nancy took on a more traditional role in the campaign, holding coffees, luncheons, and talks with senior citizens.[62] With that, she oversaw personnel, monitored her husband's schedule, and occasionally provided press conferences.[63] The 1976 campaign included the so-called "battle of the queens", contrasting Nancy with First Lady Betty Ford. They both spoke out over the course of the campaign on similar issues, but with different approaches.[64] Nancy was particularly upset by the warmonger image that the Ford campaign had drawn of her husband.[62] Though he lost the 1976 Republican nomination, Reagan ran again for the presidency in 1980 and succeeded in winning the nomination and election. During this second campaign, Nancy played a very prominent role and her management of staff became more apparent.[63] She arranged a meeting among feuding campaign managers John Sears and Michael Deaver and her husband, which resulted in Deaver leaving the campaign and Sears being given full control. After the Reagan camp lost the Iowa caucus and fell behind in New Hampshire polls, Nancy organized a second meeting and decided it was time to fire Sears and his associates; she gave Sears a copy of the press release announcing his dismissal.[63] Her influence on her husband became particularly notable; her presence at rallies, luncheons, and receptions increased his confidence.[65] First Lady of the United States, 1981–1989[edit]

First Lady Nancy Reagan and President Reagan during the inaugural parade, 1981 White House glamour[edit] Renovation[edit] Nancy Reagan became the First Lady of the United States when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as president in January 1981. Early in her husband's presidency, Reagan stated her desire to create a more suitable "first home" in the White House, as the building had fallen into a state of disrepair following years of neglect.[66] White House aide Michael Deaver described the second and third floor family residence as having "cracked plaster walls, chipped paint [and] beaten up floors;"[67] rather than use government funds to renovate and redecorate, she sought private donations.[8] In 1981, Nancy directed a major renovation of several White House rooms, including all of the second and third floors[68] and rooms adjacent to the Oval Office, including the press briefing room.[69] The renovation included repainting walls, refinishing floors, repairing fireplaces, and replacing antique pipes, windows, and wires.[67] The closet in the master bedroom was converted into a beauty parlor and dressing room, and the West bedroom was made into a small gymnasium.[70] The first lady secured the assistance of renowned interior designer Ted Graber, popular with affluent West Coast social figures, to redecorate the family living quarters.[71] A Chinese-pattern, handpainted wallpaper was added to the master bedroom.[72] Family furniture was placed in the president's private study.[71] The first lady and her designer retrieved a number of White House antiques, which had been in storage, and placed them throughout the mansion.[71] The extensive redecoration was paid for by private donations.[8][71] Many significant and long-lasting changes occurred as a result of the renovation and refurbishment, of which Nancy Reagan said, "This house belongs to all Americans, and I want it to be something of which they can be proud."[71] The renovations received some criticisms for being funded by tax-deductible donations, meaning some of it eventually did indirectly come from the tax-paying public.[73] Fashion[edit] Another of Nancy Reagan's trademarks was her interest in fashion. While her husband was still president-elect, press reports speculated about Nancy's social life and interest in fashion.[74][75][76] In many press accounts, Nancy's sense of style was favorably compared to that of previous First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy.[77] Friends and those close to her remarked that, while fashionable like Kennedy, she would be different than other first ladies; close friend Harriet Deutsch was quoted as saying, "Nancy has her own imprint."[75] Nancy Reagan's wardrobe consisted of dresses, gowns, and suits made by luxury designers, including James Galanos, Bill Blass and Oscar de la Renta. Her white, hand-beaded, one shoulder Galanos 1981 inaugural gown was estimated to cost $10,000[78] while the overall price of her inaugural wardrobe was said to cost $25,000.[79] She favored the color red, calling it "a picker-upper", and wore it accordingly.[78] Her wardrobe included red so often that the fire-engine shade became known as "Reagan red".[80] She employed two private hairdressers who would style her hair on a regular basis in the White House.[81]

Reagan models for Vogue magazine in the Red Room, 1981 Fashion designers were pleased with the emphasis Nancy Reagan placed on clothing.[79] Adolfo said the first lady embodied an "elegant, affluent, well-bred, chic American look",[79] while Bill Blass commented, "I don't think there's been anyone in the White House since Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis who has her flair."[79] William Fine, president of cosmetic company Frances Denney, noted that she "stays in style, but she doesn't become trendy."[79] Though her elegant fashions and wardrobe were hailed as a "glamorous paragon of chic",[79] they were also controversial subjects. In 1982, she revealed that she had accepted thousands of dollars in clothing, jewelry, and other gifts, but defended her actions by stating that she had borrowed the clothes and that they would either be returned or donated to museums,[78][82] and that she was promoting the American fashion industry.[83] Facing criticism, she soon said she would no longer accept such loans.[83] While often buying her clothes, she continued to borrow and sometimes keep designer clothes throughout her time as first lady, which came to light in 1988.[84] None of this had been included on financial disclosure forms;[84] the non-reporting of loans under $10,000 in liability was in violation of a voluntary agreement the White House had made in 1982, while not reporting more valuable loans or clothes not returned was a possible violation of the Ethics in Government Act.[84][85][86] Nancy expressed through her press secretary "regrets that she failed to heed counsel's advice" on disclosing them.[86] Despite the controversy, many designers who allowed her to borrow clothing noted that the arrangement was good for their businesses[84] as well as for the American fashion industry overall.[87] In 1989, Nancy was honored at the annual gala awards dinner of the Council of Fashion Designers of America, during which she received the council's lifetime achievement award.[88] Barbara Walters said of her, "She has served every day for eight long years the word 'style.'"[88] Elegance and formality[edit] Approximately a year into her husband's first term, Nancy Reagan explored the idea of ordering new state china service for the White House.[89] A full china service had not been purchased since the Truman administration in the 1940s, as only a partial service was ordered in the Johnson administration.[89] She was quoted as saying, "The White House really badly, badly needs china."[89] Working with Lenox, the primary porcelain manufacturer in America, the first lady chose a design scheme of a red with etched gold band, bordering the scarlet and cream colored ivory plates with a raised presidential seal etched in gold in the center.[89] The full service comprised 4,370 pieces, with 19 pieces per individual set.[89] The service totaled $209,508.[90] Although it was paid for by private donations, some from the private Knapp Foundation, the purchase generated quite a controversy, for it was ordered at a time when the nation was undergoing an economic recession.[91] The new china, White House renovations, expensive clothing, and her attendance at the wedding of Charles and Diana, Prince and Princess of Wales,[92] gave her an aura of being "out of touch" with the American people during an economic recession.[8] This and her taste for splendor inspired the derogatory nickname "Queen Nancy".[8] While Jacqueline Kennedy had also faced some press criticism for her spending habits, Reagan's treatment was much more consistent and negative.[77] In an attempt to deflect the criticism, she self-deprecatingly donned a baglady costume at the 1982 Gridiron Dinner and sang "Second-Hand Clothes", mimicking the song "Second-Hand Rose".[93] The skit helped to restore her reputation.[94]

First Lady Nancy Reagan and former First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the President in 1985. Nancy and Jackie were often compared due to their glamour, in contrast to the intervening First Ladies Nancy Reagan reflected on the criticisms in her 1989 autobiography, My Turn. Reagan describes lunching with former Democratic National Committee chairman Robert Strauss, wherein Strauss said to her, "When you first came to town, Nancy, I didn't like you at all. But after I got to know you, I changed my mind and said, 'She's some broad!'" Nancy responded, "Bob, based on the press reports I read then, I wouldn't have liked me either!"[95] After the presidencies of Gerald Ford (who favored the Michigan fight song over "Hail to the Chief") and Jimmy Carter (who dramatically reduced the formality of presidential functions), Nancy brought a Kennedy-esque glamour back into the White House.[78][96] She hosted 56 state dinners over eight years, compared to six by George and Laura Bush.[97] She remarked that hosting the dinners is "the easiest thing in the world. You don't have to do anything. Just have a good time and do a little business. And that's the way Washington works."[97] In 1987, Mikhail Gorbachev became the first Soviet leader to visit Washington, D.C. since Nikita Khrushchev in 1959, and Nancy Reagan was in charge of planning and hosting the important and highly anticipated state dinner.[98] After the meal, Nancy recruited pianist Van Cliburn to sing a rendition of "Moscow Nights" for the Soviet delegation, to which Mikhail and Raisa broke out into song.[99] Former Secretary of State George Shultz commented on the evening, saying "We felt the ice of the Cold War crumbling."[100] Nancy concluded, "It was a perfect ending for one of the great evenings of my husband's presidency."[101] Just Say No[edit] Main article: Just Say No Nancy Reagan launched the "Just Say No" drug awareness campaign in 1982, which was her primary project and major initiative as first lady.[8] Nancy first became aware of the need to educate young people about drugs during a 1980 campaign stop in Daytop Village, New York.[102] She remarked in 1981 that "Understanding what drugs can do to your children, understanding peer pressure and understanding why they turn to drugs is... the first step in solving the problem."[102] Her campaign focused on drug education and informing the youth of the danger of drug abuse.[102]

Reagan gives a speech at a Just Say No rally in Los Angeles, 1987 In 1982, Nancy Reagan was asked by a schoolgirl what to do when offered drugs; Nancy responded "Just say no".[103][104] The phrase proliferated in the popular culture of the 1980s and was eventually adopted as the name of club organizations and school anti-drug programs.[8] Reagan became actively involved by traveling more than 250,000 miles (400,000 km) throughout the United States and several nations, visiting drug abuse prevention programs and drug rehabilitation centers. She also appeared on television talk shows, recorded public service announcements, and wrote guest articles.[8] She appeared in an episode of the hit television drama Dynasty to underscore support for the anti-drug campaign. As she continued to promote "Just Say No", she appeared in an episode of the popular 1980s sitcom Diff'rent Strokes[105] and in a 1985 rock music video, "Stop the Madness".[106] When asked about her campaign, the first lady remarked, "If you can save just one child, it's worth it."[107] In 1985, Nancy expanded the campaign to an international level by inviting the First Ladies of various nations to the White House for a conference on drug abuse.[8] On October 27, 1986, President Reagan signed a drug enforcement bill into law, which granted $1.7 billion in funding to fight the crisis and ensured a mandatory minimum penalty for drug offenses.[108] Although the bill was criticized by some, Nancy Reagan considered it a personal victory.[8] In 1988, she became the first First Lady invited to address the United Nations General Assembly, where she spoke on international drug interdiction and trafficking laws.[8]

Reagan hosts the First Ladies Conference on Drug Abuse at the White House, 1985 Critics of Reagan's efforts questioned their purpose[109] and argued that the program did not go far enough in addressing many social issues, including unemployment, poverty, and family dissolution;[109] Nancy's approach to promoting drug awareness was labeled as simplistic by liberal critics.[66] Nonetheless, a number of "Just Say No" clubs and organizations remain in operation around the country, and they aim to educate children and teenagers about the effects of drugs.[102] Her husband's protector[edit] Nancy Reagan assumed the role of unofficial "protector" for her husband after the attempted assassination on his life in 1981.[110] On March 30 of that year, President Reagan and three others were shot as they left the Washington Hilton Hotel. Nancy was alerted and arrived at George Washington University Hospital, where the President was hospitalized. She recalled having seen "emergency rooms before, but I had never seen one like this—with my husband in it."[111] She was escorted into a waiting room, and when granted access to see her husband, he quipped to her, "Honey, I forgot to duck", borrowing the defeated boxer Jack Dempsey's jest to his wife.[112] An early example of her protective nature occurred when Senator Strom Thurmond entered the President's hospital room that day in March, passing the Secret Service detail by claiming he was the President's "close friend", presumably to acquire media attention.[113] Nancy was outraged and demanded he leave.[44] While the president recuperated in the hospital, the first lady slept with one of his shirts to be comforted by the scent.[44] When Reagan was released from the hospital on April 12, she escorted him back to the White House. Press accounts framed Nancy as her husband's "chief protector", an extension of their general initial framing of her as a helpmate and a Cold War domestic ideal.[114] Influence in the White House[edit]

"The Gaze": Nancy watches as her husband is sworn in for a second term by Chief Justice Warren Burger, on January 20, 1985 Nancy stated in her memoirs, "I felt panicky every time [Ronald] left the White House"[115] following the assassination attempt, and made it her concern to know her husband's schedule: the events he would be attending, and with whom.[8] Eventually, this protectiveness led to her consulting an astrologer, Joan Quigley, who offered insight on which days were "good", "neutral", or should be avoided, which influenced her husband's White House schedule.[116] Days were color-coded according to the astrologer's advice to discern precisely which days and times would be optimal for the president's safety and success.[8] The White House Chief of Staff, Donald Regan, grew frustrated with this regimen, which created friction between him and the First Lady. This escalated with the revelation of the Iran-Contra affair, an administration scandal, in which the First Lady felt Regan was damaging the president.[117] She thought he should resign, and expressed this to her husband although he did not share her view. Regan wanted President Reagan to address the Iran-Contra matter in early 1987 by means of a press conference, though Nancy refused to allow Reagan to overexert himself due to a recent prostate surgery and astrological warnings.[118] Regan became so angry with Nancy that he hung up on her during a 1987 telephone conversation. According to former ABC News correspondent Sam Donaldson, when the President heard of this treatment, he demanded—and eventually received—Regan's resignation.[119] In his 1988 memoirs, Regan wrote about Nancy's consultations with the astrologer, the first public mention of them, which resulted in embarrassment for the First Lady.[120] Nancy later wrote, "Astrology was simply one of the ways I coped with the fear I felt after my husband almost died... Was astrology one of the reasons [further attempts did not occur]? I don't really believe it was, but I don't really believe it wasn't."[121]

The Reagans talk in the Oval Office, 1985 Nancy Reagan wielded a powerful influence over President Reagan.[122] Again stemming from the assassination attempt, she strictly controlled access to the president and even occasionally attempted to influence her husband's decision making.[122][123] Beginning in 1985, Nancy strongly encouraged her husband to hold "summit" conferences with Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev, and suggested they form a personal relationship beforehand.[8] Both Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev had developed a productive relationship through their summit negotiations. The relationship between Nancy Reagan and Raisa Gorbachev was anything but the friendly, diplomatic one between their husbands; Nancy found Raisa hard to converse with and their relationship was described as "frosty".[124] The two women usually had tea, and discussed differences between the USSR and the United States. Visiting the U.S. for the first time in 1987, Raisa irked Reagan with lectures on subjects ranging from architecture to socialism, reportedly prompting the American President's wife to quip, "Who does that dame think she is?"[125] Press framing of Nancy changed from that of just helpmate and protector to someone with hidden power.[126] As the image of her as a political interloper grew, she sought to explicitly deny that she was the power behind the throne.[126] At the end of her time as First Lady, however, she said that her husband had not been well-served by his staff.[126][127] She acknowledged her role in reaction in influencing him on personnel decisions, saying "In no way do I apologize for it."[127] She wrote in her memoirs, "I don't think I was as bad, or as extreme in my power or my weakness, as I was depicted,"[128] but went on, "[H]owever the first lady fits in, she has a unique and important role to play in looking after her husband. And it's only natural that she'll let him know what she thinks. I always did that for Ronnie, and I always will."[129] Breast cancer[edit] In October 1987, a mammogram detected a lesion in Nancy Reagan's left breast and she was subsequently diagnosed with breast cancer. She chose to undergo a mastectomy rather than a lumpectomy[130] and the breast was removed on October 17, 1987. Ten days after the operation, her mother, Edith Luckett Davis, died in Phoenix, Arizona, leading Nancy to dub the period "a terrible month".[131] After the surgery, more women across the country had mammograms, an example of the influence the First Lady possessed.[132] Subsequent life[edit]

Though Nancy was a controversial First Lady, 56 percent of Americans had a favorable opinion of her when her husband left office on January 20, 1989, with 18 percent having an unfavorable opinion and the balance not giving an opinion.[133] Compared to fellow First Ladies when their husbands left office, Reagan's approval was higher than those of Rosalynn Carter and Hillary Rodham Clinton, however she was less popular than Barbara Bush and her disapproval rating was double that of Carter's.[133]

Nancy Reagan's official White House portrait hangs in the Vermeil Room Upon leaving the White House, the couple returned to California, where they purchased a home in the wealthy East Gate Old Bel Air neighborhood of Bel Air, Los Angeles,[134][135] dividing their time between Bel Air and the Reagan Ranch in Santa Barbara, California; Ronald and Nancy regularly attended Bel Air Presbyterian Church as well.[136] After leaving Washington, Nancy made numerous public appearances, many on behalf of her husband. She continues to reside at the Bel Air home, where she lived with her husband until his death on June 5, 2004.[137] Early post-White House activities[edit] In late 1989, the former First Lady established the Nancy Reagan Foundation, which aimed to continue to educate people about the dangers of substance abuse.[138] The Foundation teamed with the BEST Foundation For A Drug-Free Tomorrow in 1994, and developed the Nancy Reagan Afterschool Program. She continued to travel around the nation, speaking out against drug and alcohol abuse. After President Reagan revealed that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994, she made herself his primary caregiver and became actively involved with the National Alzheimer's Association and its affiliate, the Ronald and Nancy Reagan Research Institute in Chicago, Illinois.[8] “ Ronnie's long journey has finally taken him to a distant place where I can no longer reach him.[122] ” —Nancy Reagan, May 2004 Also in 1989 she published My Turn: The Memoirs of Nancy Reagan, which gives an account of her life in the White House, speaking openly about her influence within the Reagan administration and discussing the myths and controversies that surrounded the couple.[139] In 1991, the controversial author Kitty Kelley wrote an unauthorized and largely uncited biography about Nancy Reagan, repeating accounts of a poor relationship with her children and introducing rumors of alleged sexual relations with singer Frank Sinatra. A wide range of sources commented that Kelley's largely unsupported claims are most likely false.[140][141][142][143] In 1989 the Internal Revenue Service began investigating the Reagans for whether they owed additional tax on the gifts and loans of high-fashion clothes and jewelry to Nancy during their time in the White House[144] (recipients benefiting from the display of such items recognize taxable income even if they are returned).[144] In 1992 the IRS determined the Reagans had failed to include some $3 million worth of fashion items between 1983 and 1988 on their tax returns;[145] they were billed for a large amount of back taxes and interest, which was subsequently paid.[145] Nancy Reagan was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the nation's highest civilian honor, by President George W. Bush on July 9, 2002.[146] President Reagan received his own Presidential Medal of Freedom in January 1993. Nancy and her husband were jointly awarded the Congressional Gold Medal on May 16, 2002 at the Capitol, and were only the third President and First Lady to receive it; she accepted the medal on behalf of both of them.[147] Ronald Reagan's funeral[edit] Further information: Death and state funeral of Ronald Reagan

Former First Lady Nancy Reagan says her last goodbye to President Ronald Reagan on June 11, 2004, prior to the interment and concluding a week-long state funeral for the president Ronald Reagan died in their Bel Air home on June 5, 2004.[137] During the seven-day state funeral, Nancy, accompanied by her children and military escort, led the nation in mourning[148] by keeping a strong composure,[149] traveling from her home to the Reagan Library for a memorial service, then to Washington, D.C., where her husband's body lay in state for 34 hours prior to a national funeral service in the Washington National Cathedral.[150] She returned to the library in California for a sunset memorial service and interment, where, overcome with emotion, she lost her composure, crying in public for the first time during the week.[149][151] After accepting the folded flag, she kissed the casket and mouthed "I love you" before leaving.[152] Journalist Wolf Blitzer said of Reagan during the week, "She's a very, very strong woman, even though she looks frail."[153] She had directed the detailed planning of the funeral,[149] including ordering all the major events and asking former President George H. W. Bush as well as former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and former Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney to speak during the National Cathedral Service.[149] She paid very close attention to the details, something she had always done in her husband's life. Betsy Bloomingdale, one of Reagan's closest friends, stated, "She looks a little frail. But she is very strong inside. She is. She has the strength. She is doing her last thing for Ronnie. And she is going to get it right."[149] The funeral marked her first major public appearance since delivering a speech to the 1996 Republican National Convention on her husband's behalf.[149] The funeral had a great impact on Reagan's public image. Following substantial criticism during her tenure as first lady, she was seen somewhat as a national heroine, praised by many for supporting and caring for her husband while he suffered from Alzheimer's disease.[122] U.S. News & World Report opined, "after a decade in the shadows, a different, softer Nancy Reagan emerged."[154] Widowhood[edit] Reagan has remained active in politics, particularly relating to stem cell research. Beginning in 2004, she favored what many consider to be the Democratic Party's position, and urged President George W. Bush to support federally funded embryonic stem cell research in the hope that this science could lead to a cure for Alzheimer's disease.[155] Although she failed to change the president's position, she did support his campaign for a second term.[156] In 2005, Reagan was honored at a gala dinner at the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. where guests included Dick Cheney, Harry Reid and Condoleezza Rice.[157] It was her first major public appearance since the funeral. Asked what her future plans were, Reagan shook her head and responded, "I don't know. I'll know when I'll know. But the [Reagan] library is Ronnie, so that's where I spend my time."[157]

Nancy Reagan dedicates the Air Force One Pavilion at the Reagan Library with President and Laura Bush, October 2005 In 2007, she attended the national funeral service for Gerald Ford in the Washington National Cathedral. Nancy Reagan hosted two 2008 Republican Presidential Candidates Debates at the Reagan Presidential Library, the first in May 2007 and the second in January 2008. While she did not participate in the discussions, she sat in the front row and listened as the men vying to become the nation's 44th president claimed to be a rightful successor to her husband.[158][159][160] Though some speculation arose as to whether Reagan might support New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg in a presidential bid,[161][162] nothing came of it. She formally endorsed Senator John McCain, then the presumptive Republican party nominee, for president on March 25.[163]

Nancy Reagan, center, receives an honorary degree from Eureka College, March 31, 2009

Nancy Reagan and one of her successors, First Lady Michelle Obama, at a luncheon, June 3, 2009 She attended the funeral of Lady Bird Johnson in Austin, Texas on July 14, 2007[164] and three days later accepted the highest Polish distinction, the Order of the White Eagle, on behalf of Ronald Reagan at the Reagan Library. The Reagan Library opened the temporary exhibit "Nancy Reagan: A First Lady's Style", which displayed over eighty designer dresses belonging to the first lady.[165][166] Nancy Reagan's health and well-being became a prominent concern in 2008. In February she suffered a fall at her Bel Air home and was taken to St. John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California. Doctors reported that she did not break a hip as feared and she was released from the hospital two days later.[167] News commentators noted that Reagan's step had slowed significantly, as the following month she walked in very slow strides with John McCain.[168] NBC's Brian Williams, who attended a dinner with Reagan in mid-2008, recalled, "Mrs. Reagan's vision isn't what it always was so she was taking very halting steps as a lot of folks her age do... [I]t is so important for folks in her age bracket and in her bracket of life to remain upright and captain of their own ship. She very much is captain of her own ship."[168] As for her mental ability, Williams remarked, "She's as sharp as ever and enjoys a robust life with her friends in California, but [falling] is always a danger of course. She's a very stoic, hardy person full of joy and excitement for life... She is not without opinions on politics and political types these days... She is, as most of her friends described her, a pistol."[168] In October 2008, Reagan was admitted to Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center after falling at home. Doctors determined that the 87-year-old had fractured her pelvis and sacrum and could recuperate at home with a regimen of physical therapy.[169] As a result of her mishap, medical articles were published containing information on how to prevent falls.[170][171] In January 2009, Reagan was said to be "improving every day and starting to get out more and more."[172] In March 2009 she praised President Barack Obama for reversing the ban on federally funded embryonic stem cell research.[173] She traveled to Washington, D.C. in June 2009 to unveil a statue of her late husband in the Capitol Rotunda.[174] She was also on hand as President Obama signed the Ronald Reagan Centennial Commission Act and lunched privately with Michelle Obama.[175] Nancy revealed in an interview with Vanity Fair that Michelle Obama had telephoned her for advice on living and entertaining in the White House.[176] Following the August 2009 death of Senator Edward M. Kennedy, she said she was "terribly saddened ... Given our political differences, people are sometimes surprised how close Ronnie and I have been to the Kennedy family. ... I will miss him."[177] Filmography[edit]

The Crippler (1940) [short] The Doctor and the Girl (1949) East Side, West Side (1949) Shadow on the Wall (1950) The Next Voice You Hear... (1950) Night Into Morning (1951) It's a Big Country (1951) Talk About a Stranger (1952) Shadow in the Sky (1952) Donovan's Brain (1953) The Dark Wave (1956) [short] Hellcats of the Navy (1957)[24] Crash Landing (originally announced as Rescue at Sea) (1958)[178][179] She also made a number of television appearances from 1953 through 1962, as a guest star in dramatic shows or installments of anthology series.[35] These included The Ford Television Theatre (her first appearance with Ronald Reagan came during a 1953 episode titled "First Born"), Schlitz Playhouse of Stars, Wagon Train, The Tall Man, and General Electric Theater (hosted by Ronald Reagan). Footnotes[edit]

^ Jump up to: a b Edith Luckett at Internet Movie Database ^ Jump up to: a b Edith Luckett at Internet Broadway Database ^ Jump up to: a b c d e "Nancy Reagan > Her Life & Times". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on October 24, 2006. Retrieved 2007-09-22. Jump up ^ When Nancy Davis signed with MGM, she gave her birth date as July 6, 1923, shaving two years off her age, a common practice in Hollywood (see Cannon, Governor Reagan, p. 75). This caused subsequent confusion as some sources would continue to use the incorrect birth year. Jump up ^ Powling, Anne; O'Connor, John; Barton, Geoff; John O'Connor, Geoff Barton (1997). New Oxford English. Oxford University Press. p. 79. ISBN 0-19-831192-3. Jump up ^ Some sources and websites erroneously list her as either being born in Flushing or being raised in Manhattan. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 66 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "First Lady Biography: Nancy Reagan". National First Ladies Library. Retrieved 2007-06-02. Jump up ^ Wills (1987), p. 182 ^ Jump up to: a b c Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 67 Jump up ^ Gonzalez, David (1991-04-12). "Talk and More Talk About Nancy (That One!) in Flushing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-29. Jump up ^ "The 'just say no' first lady". MSNBC. February 18, 2004. Retrieved 2007-10-16. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 71 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Weymouth, Lally (1980-10-26). "The Biggest Role of Nancy's Life" (fee required). The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 2007-10-20. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 74 Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 82 Jump up ^ Oshinsky, David M. (2005). Polio: An American Story. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 68. ISBN 0-19-515294-8. Jump up ^ "Lute Song". Internet Broadway Database. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 85 Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 88 ^ Jump up to: a b Metzger, Robert Paul (1989), pp. 31–32 Jump up ^ "Biography for Nancy Davis". Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-17. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Cannon, Lou (2003), pp. 75–76 ^ Jump up to: a b c "Nancy Reagan > Her Films". Ronald Reagan Foundation. Archived from the original on August 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-08. Jump up ^ A. H. Weiler (credited as "A. W.") (1950-05-19). "Another View of Psychiatrist's Task". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Jump up ^ Bosley Crowther (1950-06-30). "'The Next Voice You Hear ...', Dore Schary Production, Opens at Music Hall". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 91 Jump up ^ Bosley Crowther (1951-06-11). "'Night Into Morning,' Starring Ray Milland as a Bereaved Professor, at Loew's State". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Jump up ^ Richard L. Coe (1951-06-09). "'Night Into Morning' Is Almost Excellent" (Registration required). The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-02-09. ^ Jump up to: a b c Metzger, Robert Paul (1989), p. 33 Jump up ^ Wills (1987), p. 184. Jump up ^ Bosley Crowther (1954-01-21). "' Donovan's Brain,' Science-Fiction Thriller, Has Premiere at the Criterion Theatre". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-20. Jump up ^ Erickson, Glenn (2003). "Hellcats of the Navy, review one". Kleinman.com Inc. Retrieved 2007-10-17. Jump up ^ Harper, Erick (2003). "Hellcats Of The Navy, review two". DVDVerdict. Retrieved 2007-10-17. ^ Jump up to: a b "Nancy Davis". The Internet Movie Database. Retrieved September 19, 2011. Jump up ^ "Screen Actors Guild Presidents". Screen Actors Guild. Retrieved 2007-03-08. ^ Jump up to: a b Lambert, Pat (1997-01-27). "To The Top". People. Retrieved 2012-01-27. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Cannon, Lou (2003), pp. 77–78 Jump up ^ "Noteworthy places in Reagan's life". The Baltimore Sun. 2004-06-05. Retrieved 2007-04-11. Jump up ^ "First Ladies: Nancy Reagan". The White House. Retrieved 2007-03-08. Jump up ^ Beschloss, Michael (2007), p. 296 ^ Jump up to: a b c d "End of a Love Story". BBC News. June 5, 2004. Retrieved 2007-03-21. ^ Jump up to: a b Berry, Deborah Barfield (June 6, 2004). "By Reagan's Side, but her own person". Newsday. Retrieved 2007-08-15. ^ Jump up to: a b c Beschloss, Michael (2007), p. 284 Jump up ^ "Reagan Love Story". NBC News. June 9, 2004. Retrieved 2007-05-25. Jump up ^ "Up Next for Nancy Reagan: tending her Ronnie's flame". St. Petersburg Times. June 13, 2004. Retrieved 2007-03-08. Jump up ^ Wolf, Julie (2000). "The Reagan Children". PBS. Retrieved 2007-10-17. Jump up ^ Couric, Katie (November 14, 2004). "Reagan daughter shares her story". MSNBC. Retrieved 2009-06-04. Jump up ^ "Road To A Reconciliation". CBS. March 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 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(2005), p. 32 ^ Jump up to: a b c Loizeau, P.M. (2004), p. 64 ^ Jump up to: a b c Benze, James G., Jr. (2005), p. 33 Jump up ^ Loizeau, P.M. (2004), p. 65 Jump up ^ Loizeau, P.M. (2004), p. 69 ^ Jump up to: a b Wolf, Julie. "The American Experience: Nancy Reagan". PBS. Retrieved 2008-01-22. ^ Jump up to: a b Deaver, Michael (2004), p. 78 Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan". The White House Historical Association. Retrieved 2012-01-27. Jump up ^ "Brady Press Briefing Room". The White House Museum. Retrieved 2008-02-01. Jump up ^ "West Bedroom". The White House Museum. Retrieved 2008-02-01. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Nemy, Enid (June 12, 2000). "Ted Graber, 80, Decorator for Reagans, Dies". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-21. Jump up ^ "Master Bedroom". The White House Museum. Retrieved 2008-02-01. Jump up ^ Loizeau, P.M. (2005), p. 93 Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan To Run The White House In Grand Style, Social Pundits Say". St. Petersburg Independent. Associated Press. November 13, 1980. p. 5A. ^ Jump up to: a b Nemy, Enid (November 9, 1980). "Word From Friends: A New White House Style Is on the Way". The New York Times. p. 80. Jump up ^ Proven, Grace (December 23, 1980). "Fashion Designers Look Ahead to '81". The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 18. ^ Jump up to: a b Burns, Lisa (2008), p. 148 ^ Jump up to: a b c d West, Kevin (October 2007). "Nancy's Closet". W. Retrieved 2009-05-15. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Bennetts, Leslie (January 25, 1981). "Nancy Reagan's inaugural wardrobe gives notice of new White House opulence". The New York Times published in the St. Petersburg Times (Google News Archives). Retrieved 2009-07-22.[dead link] Jump up ^ Stevens, Dana (February 6, 2008). "Color Me Nancy Reagan Red". Slate.com. Retrieved 2012-01-27.[dead link] Jump up ^ King, Wayne and Warren Weaver, Jr. (August 23, 1986). "Washington Talk: Briefing; A Do Ado". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-18. Jump up ^ "For Mrs. Reagan, Gifts Mean High Fashion At No Cost" (fee required). Associated Press for The New York Times. 1982-01-16. Retrieved 2008-02-01. ^ Jump up to: a b Hedrick Smith (1982-02-17). "Nancy Reagan Gives Up Dress Designer Loans" (fee required). The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-01. ^ Jump up to: a b c d Ed Magnuson (1988-10-24). "Why Mrs. Reagan Still Looks Like a Million". Time. Retrieved 2008-02-01. Jump up ^ Kurtz, Howard (1989-12-05). "IRS Looking Into Gifts To Reagans; Borrowed Designer Dresses Subject of Tax Inquiry" (fee required). The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-02-02. ^ Jump up to: a b Steven V. Roberts (1988-10-18). "First Lady Expresses 'Regrets' on Wardrobe". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-01. Jump up ^ John Robinson (1988-10-19). "Nancy Reagan's Dress Blues: Borrowing Clothes From Top Designers May Be Chic, But Is It Proper?" (fee required). The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2008-02-07. ^ Jump up to: a b Hochswender, Woody (January 10, 1989). "Fashion; Amid the Rustle of Finery, Fashion Celebrates Its Own". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-07-22. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Santini, Maureen (September 12, 1981). "Nancy Reagan's White House china: $209,508". Associated Press, published in The St. Petersburg Times (Google News Archives). Retrieved 2009-07-23.[dead link] Jump up ^ "Lenox: White House". Lenox, Inc. Retrieved 2007-06-02. Jump up ^ Klapthor, Margaret Brown (1999), p. 184 Jump up ^ Downie, Leonard Jr. (1981-07-30). "Britain Celebrates, Charles Takes a Bride". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-11-16. Jump up ^ Page, Susan (2004-06-13). "Husband's Past will shape Nancy Reagan". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-03-08. Jump up ^ Neuman, Johanna and David Willman (August 19, 2007). "Michael K. Deaver: 1938 – 2007 – Image guru set the stage for Reagan". The Los Angeles Times. p. 5. Retrieved 2009-07-29. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 56 Jump up ^ Moore, Boothe (January 18, 2009). "Can she stay 'everywoman'?". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-02-05. ^ Jump up to: a b Usborne, David (June 2, 2009). "Nancy Reagan: I still see Ronnie in my bedroom". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2009-06-03. Jump up ^ Schifando and Joseph (2007), p. 165 Jump up ^ Schifando and Joseph (2007), pp. 169–172 Jump up ^ Schifando and Joseph (2007), p. 175 Jump up ^ Schifando and Joseph (2007), p. 173 ^ Jump up to: a b c d "Mrs. Reagan's Crusade". Ronald Reagan Foundation. Archived from the original on August 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-08. Jump up ^ "Remarks at the Nancy Reagan Drug Abuse Center Benefit Dinner in Los Angeles, California". Ronald Reagan Foundation. 1989-01-04. Retrieved 2007-10-03. "...in Oakland where a schoolchild in an audience Nancy was addressing stood up and asked what she and her friends should say when someone offered them drugs. And Nancy said, "Just say no." And within a few months thousands of Just Say No clubs had sprung up in schools around the country." Jump up ^ Loizeau, Pierre-Marie. Nancy Reagan: The Woman Behind the Man (1984). Nova Publishers, pp. 104–105 Jump up ^ "'Diff'rent Strokes': The Reporter (1983)". The Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2007-10-18. Jump up ^ Brian L. Dyak (Executive Producer), William N. Utz (Executive Producer) (1985-12-11). Stop the Madness (Music Video). Hollywood, California and The White House, Washington, D.C.: E.I.C. Event occurs at 3:15. Jump up ^ Tribute to Nancy Reagan (Motion picture). Motion Picture Association, Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. May 2005. Event occurs at 3:08. Retrieved 2008-11-07. Jump up ^ "Thirty Years of America's Drug War". pbs.org. Retrieved 2007-04-04. ^ Jump up to: a b Elliott, Jeff (May 1993). "Just say nonsense – Nancy Reagan's drug education programs". Washington Monthly. p. 3. Retrieved 2007-10-10. Jump up ^ Hancock, David (June 5, 2004). "His Fierce Protector: Nancy". CBS. Retrieved 2007-11-15. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 5 Jump up ^ Noonan, Peggy. "Character Above All: Ronald Reagan essay". PBS. Retrieved 2007-08-15. Jump up ^ "Final Edited Transcript: Interview with Max Friedersdorf" (PDF). Miller Center of Public Affairs. October 24–25, 2002. p. 60. Retrieved 2007-10-20. "Mrs. Reagan was all upset, of course. He said that Senator [Strom] Thurmond had come over to the hospital and had talked his way in, past the lobby, up to the President's room—he's in intensive care, tubes coming out of his nose and his throat, tubes in his arms and everything—and said that Strom Thurmond had talked his way past the secret service into his room and Mrs. Reagan was outraged, distraught. She couldn't believe her eyes. He said, 'You know, those guys are crazy. They come over here trying to get a picture in front of the hospital and trying to talk to the President when he may be on his deathbed." Jump up ^ Burns, Lisa (2008), pp. 130, 138–139 Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 21 Jump up ^ Ivins, Molly (March 18, 1990). "Stars and Strife". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-16. Jump up ^ Anthony, C.S. (1991), p. 396 Jump up ^ Anthony, C.S. (1991), p. 398 Jump up ^ Thomas, Rhys (Writer/Producer); Donaldson, Sam (interviewee) (2005). The Presidents (Documentary). A&E Television.[dead link] Jump up ^ Kurtz, Howard (2007-05-02). "Ronald Reagan, In His Own Words". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-10-20. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 44, p. 47 ^ Jump up to: a b c d "Nancy Reagan emerges as public icon". BBC News. 2004-06-10. Retrieved 2007-11-02. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 62 Jump up ^ Celestine Bohlen (December 8, 1988). "The Gorbachev Visit; Another Obstacle Falls: Nancy Reagan and Raisa Gorbachev Get Chummy". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-10-14. Jump up ^ Chua-Eoan, Howard G. (June 6, 1988). "My Wife Is a Very Independent Lady". Time. Retrieved 2007-10-05. ^ Jump up to: a b c Burns, Lisa (2008), pp. 139–140 ^ Jump up to: a b "Nancy Reagan Criticizes Aides to President". The New York Times. Reuters. 1988-11-13. Retrieved 2009-05-16. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. vii Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 65 Jump up ^ Altman, Lawrence K (October 18, 1987). "Surgeons Remove Cancerous Breast of Nancy Reagan". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-23. Jump up ^ Reagan, Nancy (1989), p. 285 Jump up ^ "Perspectives in Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Trends in Screening Mammograms for Women 50 Years of Age and Older — Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1987". Department of Health and Human Services. March 10, 1989. Retrieved 2008-06-23. ^ Jump up to: a b "A Look Back At The Polls". CBS Interactive Inc. June 7, 2004. Retrieved 2007-10-14. Jump up ^ Beyette, Beverly; Cuniberti, Betty (December 4, 1988). "The Reagan Re-Entry: After Years in the Capital Fishbowl, the First Couple Hope to Find a Little Calm in a Much Changed L.A.". Los Angeles Times. Jump up ^ Stevens, Pam (January 21, 2001). "Reagan paid back his friends for house they bought for him". CNN. Retrieved 2007-11-16. Jump up ^ Netburn, Deborah (December 24, 2006). "Agenting for God". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-11-16. ^ Jump up to: a b "Ronald Reagan dies at 93". CNN. 2004-06-05. Retrieved 2007-02-07. Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan: Her Life and Times". Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Archived from the original on November 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-12. Jump up ^ "My Turn Review". A-1 Women's Discount Bookstore. Retrieved 2007-03-28.[dead link] Jump up ^ Kiely, Kathy (2004-09-13). "Critical book on Bushes sparks firestorm". USA Today. Retrieved 2007-12-24. "In 1991, The New York Times published a front-page story on Kelley's biography of Nancy Reagan — and then apologized for repeating some of its salacious charges without attempting to verify them." Jump up ^ Crowley, Michael (September 15, 2004). "Kitty Kelley: Colonoscopist to the Stars". Slate. Retrieved 2009-06-13. Jump up ^ Usborne, David (December 15, 2006). "Fact or fiction? The incredible world of Kitty Kelley". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2009-06-20. Jump up ^ Kurtz, Howard (September 8, 2004). "Media View Kitty Kelley's Bush Book With Caution". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-06-20. ^ Jump up to: a b Hershey, Robert D. (December 6, 1989). "Gifts and Loans to Nancy Reagan Stir I.R.S. Interest in High Fashion". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-28. ^ Jump up to: a b Castro, Janice (January 27, 1992). "Nancy with the Golden Threads". Time. Retrieved 2008-01-28. Jump up ^ "President Bush Honors Recipients of the Presidential Medal of Freedom Award" (Press release). The White House. July 9, 2002. Retrieved 2007-03-21. Jump up ^ "Congressional Gold Medal History". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved 2007-03-08. Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan". Scholastic Library Publishing, Inc. 2006. Archived from the original on March 13, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-16. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f Nogourney, Adam and Bernard Wienrob (June 12, 2004). "The 40th President: The President's Widow; For a Frail Mrs. Reagan, A Week of Great Resolve". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-29. Jump up ^ "Outline of Funeral Events in honor of Ronald Wilson Reagan" (Press release). The Office of Ronald Reagan. June 6, 2004. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-29. Jump up ^ "A Nation bids Reagan Farewell". CBS. June 12, 2004. Retrieved 2008-02-29. Jump up ^ "Reagan Laid to Rest". Fox News. 2004-06-12. Retrieved 2007-03-24. Jump up ^ "Reagan's Casket Arrives in Washington" (Transcript). CNN. aired June 9, 2004. Retrieved 2007-11-02. Jump up ^ Cannon, Angie (June 21, 2004). "A warm public embrace for the new Nancy". US News and World Report. Retrieved 2008-12-13. Jump up ^ Erika Check (2004). "Bush pressured as Nancy Reagan pleads for stem-cell research". Nature 429 (6988): 116. doi:10.1038/429116a. PMID 15141173. Jump up ^ "Former first lady Nancy Reagan supports Bush's re-election". USA Today. August 4, 2004. Retrieved 2007-10-17. ^ Jump up to: a b Roberts, Roxanne (May 12, 2005). "Just Say Yes: Nancy Reagan Welcomed Back at Tribute". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-05-17. Jump up ^ Nagourney, Adam; Santora, Marc (May 4, 2007). "'08 Republicans Differ on Defining Party's Future". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-05-04. Jump up ^ "Romney Blasts McCain over Iraq War Charge". Fox News. 2008-01-30. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-01. Jump up ^ Phillips, Kate (2008-01-31). "One Word: Reagan". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-09. Jump up ^ Kugler, Sara (2007-11-13). "Bloomberg Hosts Event with Nancy Reagan". ABC. Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-01-20. Jump up ^ Rauh, Grace (2007-11-12). "Bloomberg Turns to Reagan". The New York Sun. Retrieved 2008-01-20. Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan gives McCain seal of approval". Fox News. Associated Press. 2008-03-25. Archived from the original on March 30, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-25. Jump up ^ Alex Johnson (May 4, 2007). "Republicans walk tightrope over war in Iraq". MSNBC. Retrieved 2007-05-03. Jump up ^ Corcoran, Monica (2007-11-08). "The Nancy Years". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-01-20. Jump up ^ Bakalis, Anna (2007-11-09). "Style exhibit chronicles Nancy Reagan's life". The Ventura County Star. Retrieved 2008-01-20. Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan Released From Hospital". MSNBC. February 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-19. ^ Jump up to: a b c Williams, Brian (interviewee) (2008-10-15). Nancy Reagan suffers broken pelvis (Television production). MSNBC. Retrieved 2008-12-05. Jump up ^ Whitcomb, Dan (2008-10-17). "Former first lady Nancy Reagan out of hospital". Reuters. Retrieved 2009-05-14. Jump up ^ Rarback, Sheah (November 4, 2008). "Steps to take for strong bones". The Miami Herald. Retrieved 2008-12-06.[dead link] Jump up ^ "Physical Therapy Will Play Key Role In Nancy Reagan's Recovery From Recent Fall". News Today. October 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-06. Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan Health Update: 'Shes Improving Every Day'". Entertainment Tonight. January 15, 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-20. Jump up ^ Gordon, Craig (2009-03-09). "Nancy Reagan praises Obama". The Politico. Retrieved 2009-05-14. Jump up ^ Simon, Richard (June 4, 2009). "Reagan returns to Washington, D.C., in bronze". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-06-03. Jump up ^ Cooper, Helene (June 2, 2009). "Nancy Reagan and Obama Kiss and Make Up". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-06-03. Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan Speaks Out About Obamas, the Bushes, and Her Husband". Vanity Fair. June 1, 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-03. Jump up ^ "Nancy Reagan Statement on Ted Kennedy's Death" (Press release). Time. 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2010-03-23.[dead link] Jump up ^ Thomas M. Pryor (1957-08-03). "Universal Plans 7 Films in Month". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-03-08. Jump up ^ "Of Local Origin". The New York Times. 1958-01-31. Retrieved 2010-03-08. References[edit]

Anthony, Carl Sferrazza (2003). America's Most Influential First Ladies. The Oliver Press. ISBN 1-881508-69-2. Anthony, Carl Sferrazza (1991). First Ladies: The Saga of the Presidents' Wives and Their Power; 1961–1990 (Volume II). New York: William Morrow and Co. Benze, James G., Jr. (2005). Nancy Reagan: On the White House Stage. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1401-X. Beschloss, Michael (2007). Presidential Courage: Brave Leaders and How They Changed America. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85705-7. Burns, Lisa M. (2008). First Ladies and the Fourth Estate: Press Framing of Presidential Wives. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 978-0-87580-391-3. Cannon, Lou (2003). Governor Reagan: His Rise to Power. Public Affairs. ISBN 1-58648-030-8. Cook, Lynn; Janet LaDue (2007). The First Ladies of California. Xlibris Corporation. ISBN 1-4257-2965-7. Deaver, Michael K. (2004). Nancy: A Portrait of My Years with Nancy Reagan. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 0-06-078095-9. Klapthor, Margaret Brown (1999). Official White House China: 1789 to the Present. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-3993-2. Loizeau, Pierre-Marie (2004). Nancy Reagan: The Woman Behind the Man. Nova Publishers. ISBN 1-59033-759-X. Loizeau, Pierre-Marie (2005). Nancy Reagan in Perspective. Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-0742529700. Metzger, Robert Paul (1989). Reagan, American Icon. Bucknell University, Center Gallery. ISBN 0-916279-05-7. Reagan, Nancy; Reagan, Ronald (2002). I Love You, Ronnie: The Letters of Ronald Reagan to Nancy Reagan. United States: Random House. ISBN 0-375-76051-2. Reagan, Nancy; Novak, William; William Novak (1989). My Turn: The Memoirs of Nancy Reagan. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-56368-9. Reagan, Nancy; Libby, Bill (1980). Nancy: The Autobiography of America's First Lady. United States: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-688-03533-4. Reagan, Nancy; Wilkie, Jane (1982). To Love a Child. United States: Bobbs-Merrill. ISBN 0-672-52711-1. Schifando, Peter; J. Jonathan Joseph (2007). Entertaining at the White House with Nancy Reagan. New York: William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-135012-2. Wertheimer, Molly Meijer (2004). [Inventing A Voice: The Rhetoric Of American First Ladies Of The Twentieth Century Nancy Reagan in Perspective]. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 978-0742529700. Wills, Garry (1987). Reagan's America: Innocents at Home. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-18286-4.

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Nancy Davis Reagan's Timeline

1921
July 6, 1921
New York, New York, New York, United States
1952
March 4, 1952
Age 30
North Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, USA
October 21, 1952
Age 31
Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, California, United States
1958
May 20, 1958
Age 36
Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA
????
- present
Sidwell Friends
????
- present
Smith