Napoleon II, King of Rome

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Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, King of Rome

Also Known As: "Наполеон Франсуа Жозеф Шарль Бонапарт (Наполеон II)", "герцог Рейхштадский", "Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte", "Duke of Reichstadt"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Paris, Ile-de-France, France
Death: Died in Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria
Place of Burial: Esplanade des Invalides
Immediate Family:

Son of Napoléon I, emperor of the French and Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria
Half brother of Albertina María von Montenuovo; Wilhelm Albrecht, Fürst von Montenuovo; Countess Mathilde of Montenuovo; Tři neznáme děti von Montenuovo; Eugen Alexander Megerle von Mühlfeld and 3 others

Occupation: Duke of Reichstadt, Emperor of France June 1815-July 1815, Duke of Reichstadt 1818-1821, King of Rome
Managed by: Andrzej Hennel
Last Updated:

About Napoleon II, King of Rome

http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_II_Bonaparte

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Nascimento: no Palácio das Tulherias. Morte: no Palácio de Schönbrunn.

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Napoleon II, Emperor of the French, King of Rome, Duke of Reichstadt.


Reign 22 June-7 July 1815

Coronation 22 June 1815

Father Napoleon I of France

Mother Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma


Born 20 March 1811

Paris, France

Died 22 July 1832 (aged 21)

Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria

Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte and his second wife, Marie Louise of Austria. Known from birth as the King of Rome, he was styled as His Majesty the King of Rome, which Napoleon I declared was the courtesy title of the heir-apparent. He was briefly the second Emperor of the French.

Napoleon I declared him his heir-apparent. Three years later, the First French Empire — to which he was heir — collapsed, and Napoleon abdicated the throne in favour of his infant son, who was taken by the empress to Château de Blois in April 1814. In 1815, after his defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon again abdicated in favour of his son whom he had not seen since his exile to Elba.

The Chamber of Representatives and Chamber of Peers recognized him as Emperor from the moment of his father's abdication (June 22, 1815), but the entrance of the Allies into Paris on July 7 brought a rapid end to his fictive rule. Napoleon II, aged 4, was residing in Austria with his mother and was probably never aware at the time that he had been proclaimed Emperor. The next Bonaparte to come to the throne of France (in 1851) took the name Napoleon III in deference to his cousin's theoretical reign.

After 1815, the young prince, now known as "Franz," after his maternal grandfather, rather than as "Napoleon," was a virtual captive in Austria. He was awarded the title of Duke of Reichstadt in 1818. He died of tuberculosis at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna on July 22, 1832. Upon the death of his stepfather, Neipperg, and the revelation that his mother had borne two illegitimate children to him prior to their marriage, Franz said to his friend, Prokesch von Osten, "If Josephine had been my mother, my father would not have been buried at Saint Helena, and I should not be at Vienna. My mother is kind but weak; she was not the wife my father deserved". It has been suggested that his death was the result of deliberate lead or arsenic poisoning at the hands of agents of Metternich's police state.

He was very close to Princess Sophie of Bavaria and it has been further suggested that he was the father to her son, the future ill-fated Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.

In 1940, the remains of Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte were transferred from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. This was done as a gift to France from German dictator Adolf Hitler. The remains of Napoleon I were moved there in 1840. For some time, the young prince rested beside his father. Later the remains of Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte were moved to the lower church. While most of his remains were transferred to Paris, his heart and intestines remained in Vienna.

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Napoleon II of France

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte, Duke of Reichstadt (March 20, 1811 – July 22, 1832) was the son of Napoleon Bonaparte and his second wife, Marie Louise of Austria. Known from birth as the King of Rome, he was styled as His Majesty the King of Rome, which Napoleon I declared was the courtesy title of the heir-apparent. He was briefly the second Emperor of the French.

Three years after his birth in Paris, the First French Empire — to which he was heir — collapsed, and Napoleon abdicated the throne in favour of his infant son, who was taken by the empress to Château de Blois in April 1814. In 1815, after his defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon again abdicated in favour of his son whom he had not seen since his exile to Elba.

The Chamber of Representatives and Chamber of Peers recognized him as Emperor from the moment of his father's abdication (June 22, 1815), but the entrance of the Allies into Paris on July 7 brought a rapid end to his regime. The next Bonaparte to come to the throne of France (in 1851) took the name Napoleon III in deference to his cousin's mostly theoretical reign.

After 1815, the young prince, now known as "Franz," after his maternal grandfather, rather than as "Napoleon," was a virtual captive in Austria. He was awarded the title of Duke of Reichstadt in 1818. He died of tuberculosis at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna on July 22, 1832. Upon the death of his stepfather, Neipperg, and the revelation that his mother had borne two illegitimate children to him prior to their marriage, Franz said to his friend, Prokesch von Osten, "If Josephine had been my mother, my father would not have been buried at Saint Helena, and I should not be at Vienna. My mother is kind but weak; she was not the wife my father deserved".[1]

It has been suggested[2] that his death was the result of deliberate lead or arsenic poisoning at the hands of agents of Metternich's police state.

He was very close to Princess Sophie of Bavaria and it has been further suggested that he was the father to her son, the future ill-fated Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico.[3]

In 1940, the remains of Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte were transferred from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. This was done as a gift to France from German dictator Adolf Hitler. The remains of Napoleon I were moved there in 1840. For some time, the young prince rested beside his father.

Later the remains of Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte were moved to the lower church. While most of his remains were transferred to Paris, his heart and intestines remained in Vienna. They are in Urn 42 in the "Heart Crypt" (Herzgruft) and his viscera are in Urn 76 of the Ducal Crypt.

Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte was also known as "The Eaglet" (L'Aiglon). Edmond Rostand wrote a play, L'Aiglon, about his life. Serbian composer Petar Stojanović composed an operetta "Napoleon II: Herzog von Reichstadt", which premiered in Vienna in the 1920s.

[edit]Publications

Welschinger, Le roi de Rome, 1811-32, (Paris, 1897)

Wertheimer, The Duke of Reichstadt, (London, 1905)

[edit]References

^ Markham, Felix, Napoleon, p.249

^ Altman, Gail S. Fatal Links: The Curious Deaths of Beethoven and the Two Napoleons (Paperback). Anubian Press (September 1999). ISBN 1-888071-02-8

^ Maximilian and Carlota by Gene Smith, ISBN-10: 0245524185, ISBN-13: 978-0245524189

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_II_of_France#Life -------------------- Napoleon II (Napoléon François Joseph Charles, 20. maaliskuuta 1811 – 22. heinäkuuta 1832), Reichstadtin herttua, oli Napoleon Bonaparten poika ja lyhyen aikaa Ranskan keisari.

Napoleon II, syntymästään Rooman kuningas, syntyi Pariisissa keisari Napoleon I:n ja hänen toisen vaimonsa arkkiherttuatar Marie-Louisen poikana. Kolme vuotta myöhemmin Ranskan ensimmäinen keisarikunta kuitenkin lyötiin, ja Napoleon luopui kruunusta poikansa hyväksi, jonka keisarinna vei Château de Bloisiin huhtikuussa 1814. Napoleon luopui toisenkin kerran kruunusta poikansa hyväksi hävittyään Waterloossa.

Edustajien ja aatelin kamari tunnusti prinssi Franzin keisariksi välittömästi hänen isänsä luopumisen jälkeen 22. kesäkuuta 1815, mutta liittoutuman armeijoiden saapuminen Pariisiin päätti tämän vallan 7. heinäkuuta. Napoleon II:ksi häntä ei kuitenkaan yleisesti kutsuttu. Tästä huolimatta seuraava keisari otti Napoleon III:n nimen.

Vuoden 1815 jälkeen prinssiä pidettiin Itävallassa. Hän sai Reichstadtin herttuan arvonimen 1818. Hän kuoli tuberkuloosiin Schönbrunnin linnassa 1832.

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Napoleon II, King of Rome's Timeline

1811
March 20, 1811
Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1811
France - Francois Charles Joseph Bonaparte
1832
July 22, 1832
Age 21
Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria
1940
December 15, 1940
Age 21
Esplanade des Invalides