Njord "The Rich" Vanir, King in Sweden (c.214 - c.260) MP

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Nicknames: "Njord", "Njörðr"
Birthplace: Noatun, Sweden
Death: Died in Noatun, Sweden
Occupation: King
Managed by: Jennie Jacobson
Last Updated:

About Njord "The Rich" Vanir, King in Sweden

Info according to Snorre's Ynglingesoga:

  • Parents: Unknown.
  • Wife 1: His sister (no name)
    • Children 1: Frey (king of Sweden) and Freya
  • Wife 2: Skadi (goddess)
    • No children.

"Hvorledes Norge ble bygget" gives another line of descent for Njord, making him the son of Yngvi-frey son of Odin; this is not unifiable with the story in Ynglingesoga, where Odin and Njord belong to different tribes.

Details

Njörðr is a Vanir god in Norse mythology. In surviving sources, Njörðr is the father of the major deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed Vanir sister, was in an ill-fated relationship with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún (Old Norse "ship-enclosure"[1]) and is associated with sea, seafaring, wind, fishing, wealth, and crop fertility. Njörðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in euhemerized form as a beloved mythological early king of Sweden in Heimskringla, also written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, as one of three gods invoked in the 14th century Hauksbók ring oath, and in numerous Scandinavian place names.

Njörðr has been the subject of an amount of scholarly discourse and theory, often connecting him with the figure of the much earlier attested Germanic goddess Nerthus, the hero Hadingus, and theorizing on his seemingly once great place in Norse paganism due to the appearance of his name in abundant place names.

Sources

Njörðr is attested in the following works:

Poetic Edda

Njörðr is described as a future survivor of Ragnarök in stanza 39 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. In the poem, the god Odin, disguised as "Gagnráðr" faces off with the wise jötunn Vafþrúðnir in a battle of wits. Vafþrúðnismál references Njörðr's status as a hostage during the earlier Æsir-Vanir War, and that he will "come back home among the wise Vanir" after the events of Ragnarök.[2]

In stanza 16 of the poem Grímnismál, Njörðr is described as having a hall in Nóatún made for himself. The stanza describes Njörðr as a "prince of men," that he is "lacking in malice," and that he "rules over the "high-timbered temple."[3] In stanza 43, the creation of the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir is recounted, and Freyr is cited as the son of Njörðr.[4] In the prose introduction to the poem Skírnismál, Freyr is mentioned as the son of Njörðr, and stanza 2 cites the goddess Skaði as the mother of Freyr.[5] Further in the poem, Njörðr is again mentioned as the father of Freyr in stanzas 38, 39, and 41.[6]

In the late flyting poem Lokasenna, an exchange between Njörðr and Loki occurs in stanzas 33, 34, 35, and 36. After Loki has an exchange with the goddess Freyja, in stanza 33 Njörðr states:

:"That's harmless, if, beside a husband, a woman has :a lover or someone else; :what is surprising is a pervert god coming in here, :who has borne children."[7]

Loki responds in the stanza 34, stating that "from here you were sent east as hostage to the gods" (a reference to the Æsir-Vanir War) and that "the daughters of Hymir used you as a pisspot, and pissed in your mouth."[7] In stanza 35, Njörðr responds that:

:"That was my reward, when I, from far away, :was sent as a hostage to the gods, :that I fathered that son, whom no one hates :and is thought the prince of the Æsir.[7]

Loki tells Njörðr to "stop" and "keep some moderation," and that he "won't keep it a secret any longer" that Njörðr's son Freyr was produced with his unnamed sister, "though you'd expect him to be worse than he is." The god Tyr then interjects and the flyting continues in turn.[7]

Njörðr is referenced in stanza 22 of the poem Þrymskviða, where he is referred to as the father of the goddess Freyja. In the poem, the jötunn Þrymr mistakenly thinks that he will be receiving the goddess Freyja as his bride, and while telling his fellow jötunn to spread straw on the benches in preparation for the arrival of Freyja, he refers to her as the daughter of Njörðr of Nóatún.[8]

Prose Edda

Njörðr is mentioned in the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál.

Gylfaginning

In the Prose Edda, Njörðr is introduced in chapter 23 of the book Gylfaginning. In this chapter, Njörðr is described by the enthroned figure of High as living in the heavens at Nóatún, but also as ruling over the movement of the winds, having the ability to calm both sea and fire, and that he is to be invoked in seafaring and fishing. High continues that Njörðr is very wealthy and prosperous, and that he can also grant wealth in land and valuables to those who request his aid. Njörðr originates from Vanaheimr and is devoid of Æsir stock, and he is described as having been traded with Hœnir in hostage exchange with between the Æsir and Vanir.

High further states that Njörðr's wife is Skaði, that she is the daughter of the jötunn Þjazi, and recounts a tale involving the two. High recalls that Skadi wanted to live in the home once owned by her father called Þrymheimr ("Thunder Home"). However, Njörðr wanted to live nearer to the sea. Subsequently, the two made an agreement that they would spend night nights in Þrymheimr and then next three nights in Nóatún (or nine winters in Þrymheimr and another nine in Nóatún according to the Codex Regius manuscript[10]). However, when Njörðr returned from the mountains to Nóatún, he said:

:"Hateful for me are the mountains, :I was not long there, :only nine nights. :The howling of the wolves :sounded ugly to me :after the song of the swans."

Skaði then responds:

:"Sleep I could not :on the sea beds :for the screeching of the bird. :That gull wakes me :when from the wide sea :he comes each morning."

High states that afterwards Skaði went back up to the mountains to Þrymheimr and recites a stanza where Skaði skis around and hunts hunts animals with a bow and lives in her fathers old house.[10] Chapter 24 then begins, which describes Njörðr as the father of two beautiful and powerful children: Freyr and Freyja.[12] In chapter 37, after Freyr has spotted the beautiful jötunn Gerðr, he becomes overcome with sorrow, and refuses to sleep, drink, or talk. Njörðr then sends for Skírnir to find out who he seems to be so angry at, and, not looking forward to being treated roughly, Skírnir reluctantly goes to Freyr.[13]

Skáldskaparmál

Njörðr is introduced in Skáldskaparmál within a list of 12 Æsir attending a banquet held for Ægir.[14] Further in Skáldskaparmál, the skaldic god Bragi recounds the death of Skaði's father Þjazi by the Æsir. As one of the three acts of reparation performed by the Æsir for Þjazi's death, Skaði was allowed by the Æsir to choose a husband from amongst them, but given the stipulation that she may not see any part of them but their feet when making the selection. Expecting to choose the god Baldr by the beauty of the feet she selects, Skaði instead finds that she has picked Njörðr.

In chapter 6, a list of kennings is provided for Njörðr: "God of chariots," "Descendant of Vanir," "a Van," father of Freyr and Freyja, and "the giving god." This is followed by an excerpt from a composition by the 11th century skald Þórðr Sjáreksson, explained as containing a reference to Skaði leaving Njörðr:

Gundrun became her son's slayer; the wise god-bride [Skadi] could not love the Van; Kialar [Odin] trained horses pretty well; Hamdir is said not to have held back sword-play.

Chapter 7 follows and provides various kennings for Freyr, including referring to him as the son of Njörðr. This is followed by an excerpt from a work by the 10th century skald Egill Skallagrímsson that references Njörðr (here anglicized as "Niord"):

For Freyr and Niord have endowed Griotbiorn with a power of wealth.[16]

In chapter 20, "daughter of Njörðr" is given as a kenning for Freyja.[16] In chapter 33, Njörðr is cited among the gods attending a banquet held by Ægir.[17] In chapter 37, Freyja is again referred to as Njörðr's daughter in a verse by the 12th century skald Einarr Skúlason.[18] In chapter 75, Njörðr is included in a list of the Æsir.[19] Additionally, Njörðr is used in kennings for "warrior" or "warriors" various times in Skáldskaparmál.[20]

Heimskringla

Njörðr appears in or is mentioned in three Kings' sagas collected in Heimskringla; Ynglinga saga, the Saga of Hákon the Good and the Saga of Harald Graycloak. In chapter 4 the of Ynglinga saga, Njörðr is introduced in connection with the Æsir-Vanir War. When the two sides became tired of war, they came to a peace agreement and exchanged hostages. For their part, the Vanir send to the Æsir their most "outstanding men"; Njörðr, described as wealthy, and Freyr, described as his son, in exchange for the Æsir's Hœnir. Additionally, the Æsir send Mímir in exchange for the wise Kvasir.[21]

Further into chapter 4, Odin appoints Njörðr and Freyr as preists of sacrificial offerings, and they became gods among the Æsir. Freyja is introduced as a daughter of Njörðr, and as the priestess at the sacrifices. In the saga, Njörðr is described as having once wed his unnamed sister while he was still among the Vanir, and the couple produced their children Freyr and Freyja from this union, though this custom was forbidden among the Æsir.[21]

Chapter 5 relates that Odin gave all of his temple priests dwelling places and good estates, in Njörðr's case being Nóatún.[22] Chapter 8 states that Njörðr married a woman named Skaði, though she would not have intercourse with him. Skaði then marries Odin, and the two had numerous sons.

In chapter 9, Odin dies and Njörðr takes over as ruler of the Swedes, and he continues the sacrifices. The Swedes recognize him as their king, and pay him tribute. Njörðr's rule is marked with peace and many great crops, so much so that the Swedes believed that Njörðr held power over the crops and over the prosperity of mankind. During his rule, most of the Æsir die, their bodies are burned, and sacrifices are made by men to them. Njörðr has himself "marked for" Odin and he dies in his bed. Njörðr's body is burnt by the Swedes, and they weep heavily at his tomb.[24] After Njörðr's reign, his son Freyr replaces him, and he is greatly loved and "blessed by good seasons like his father".[24]

In chapter 14 of Saga of Hákon the Good a description of the pagan Germanic custom of Yule is given. Part of the description includes a series of toasts. The toasts begin with Odin's toasts, described as for victory and power for the king, followed by Njörðr and Freyr's toast, intended for good harvests and peace. Following this, a beaker is drank for the king, and then a toast is given for departed kin.[25] Chapter 28 quotes verse where the kenning "Njörðr-of-roller-horses" is used for "sailor".[26] In the Saga of Harald Graycloak, a stanza is given of a poem entitled Vellekla ("Lack of Gold") by the 10th century Icelandic skald Einarr skálaglamm that mentions Njörðr in a kenning for "warrior".

Theories

Nerthus

Njörðr is often identified with the goddess Nerthus, whose reverence by various Germanic tribes is described by Roman historian Tacitus in his 1st CE century work Germania. The connection between the two is due to the linguistic relationship between Njörðr and the reconstructed *Nerþus,[28] "Nerthus" being the feminine, Latinized form of what Njörðr would have looked like around 1 CE.[29] This has led to theories about the relation of the two, including that Njörðr may have once been a hermaphroditic god or, generally considered more likely, that the name may indicate an otherwise unattested divine brother and sister pair such as Freyr and Freyja.[28] Connections have been proposed between the unnamed mother of Freyja and Freyr/sister of Njörðr mentioned in Lokasenna and Nerthus.[30]

Hadingus

Parallels have been pointed out between Njörðr and the figure of Hadingus, attested in book I of Saxo Grammaticus' 13th century work Gesta Danorum.[31] Some of these similarities include that, in parallel to Skaði and Njörðr in Skáldskaparmál, Hadingus is chosen by his wife Regnhild after selecting him from other men at a banquet by his lower legs, and, in parallel to Skaði and Njörðr in Gylfaginning, Hadingus complains in verse of his displeasure at his life away from the sea and how he is disturbed by the howls of wolves, while his wife Regnhild complains of life at the shore and states her annoyance at the screeching sea birds.[31] Georges Dumézil theorized that in the tale Hadingus passes through all three functions of his trifunctional hypothesis, before ending as an Odinic hero, paralleling Njörðr's passing from the Æsir to the Vanir in the Æsir-Vanir War.

References

TEMP: Material to be incorporated above

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Njord, King of the SWEDES, son of Yngvi, King in Turkey, was born about 214 in Noatun, Sweden.

"Njord was then the sole sovereign of the Swedes. He practiced sacrifrice, and was called the drot, or sovereign, by the Swedes. He received scatt and gifts from them. In his days were peace and plenty, and such good years in all respects that the Swedes believed Njord ruled over the growth of seasons and the prosperity of the people. In his time all the diars, or gods, died, and blood-sacrifices were made for them. Njord died on a bed of sickness, and before he died made himself be marked for Odin with the spear-point. The Swedes burned him, and all wept over his grave-mound."

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In Norse mythology, Njörðr is a Vanir god. Njörðr is father of the deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed Van sister, was in an ill-fated marriage with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún (Old Norse "ship-enclosure"[1]) and is associated with sea, seafaring, wind, fishing, wealth, and crop fertility.

Njörðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in euhemerized form as a beloved mythological early king of Sweden in Heimskringla, also written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, as one of three gods invoked in the 14th century Hauksbók ring oath, and in numerous Scandinavian place names.

Njörðr has been the subject of an amount of scholarly discourse and theory, often connecting him with the figure of the much earlier attested Germanic goddess Nerthus, the hero Hadingus, and theorizing on his formerly more prominent place in Norse paganism due to the appearance of his name in numerous place names.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Njord

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Norse God lol

http://royroyes.net/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I24&tree=sagas

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Han ble kalt "Drotten over Svear".

Ref.: Norges konge sagaer av Snorre Sturluson, side 14.

Han ble også kalt Yngve.

11. OF NJORD.

Njord of Noatun was then the sole sovereign of the Swedes; and he

continued the sacrifices, and was called the drot or sovereign by

the Swedes, and he received scatt and gifts from them. In his

days were peace and plenty, and such good years, in all respects,

that the Swedes believed Njord ruled over the growth of seasons

and the prosperity of the people. In his time all the diar or

gods died, and blood-sacrifices were made for them. Njord died

on a bed of sickness, and before he died made himself be marked

for Odin with the spear-point. The Swedes burned him, and all

wept over his grave-mound.

He died 20 years B.C.

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http://royroyes.net/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I24&tree=sagas

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От рода на Ваните. Женен за сестра си, от която са децата му - Фрейр и Фрея. След войната между аси и вани, като част от мирния договор, помирените страни трябвало взаимно да си разменят заложници от господарски произход. Така при асите отишли Ньордур с децата си Фрейр и Фрея. Один ги изпратил при жреците и асите ги приели за богове. Ньордур станал бог на морските ветрове, а дъщеря му Фрея научила асите на магии, така както ги правели ваните. Дъщерята на великана Тятци, Скади (богинята на ските, лова с копие и зимата), която по-късно става жена на Один, избира Ньордур за мъж, като гледала единствено ходилата на боговете и понеже Ньордур имал най-красивите ходила, тя решила, че той е и най-красивия измежду боговете. Провъзгласен за крал след смъртта на Один. Всъщност поема властта и жертвоприношенията. По негово време царял мир и благоденствие и затова шведите го обичали. Преди смъртта си се обрекъл на Один.

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http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f50/a0025089.htm

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The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway: The Ynglinga Saga

Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings

Originally written in Old Norse, app. 1225 A.D., by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson. English translation by Samuel Laing (London, 1844).

1. OF THE SITUATION OF COUNTRIES.

It is said that the earth's circle which the human race inhabits

is torn across into many bights, so that great seas run into the

land from the out-ocean. Thus it is known that a great sea goes

in at Narvesund (1), and up to the land of Jerusalem. From the

same sea a long sea-bight stretches towards the north-east, and

is called the Black Sea, and divides the three parts of the

earth; of which the eastern part is called Asia, and the western

is called by some Europa, by some Enea. Northward of the Black

Sea lies Swithiod the Great, or the Cold. The Great Swithiod is

reckoned by some as not less than the Great Serkland (2); others

compare it to the Great Blueland (3). The northern part of

Swithiod lies uninhabited on account of frost and cold, as

likewise the southern parts of Blueland are waste from the

burning of the sun. In Swithiod are many great domains, and many

races of men, and many kinds of languages. There are giants, and

there are dwarfs, and there are also blue men, and there are any

kinds of stranger creatures. There are huge wild beasts, and

dreadful dragons. On the south side of the mountains which lie

outside of all inhabited lands runs a river through Swithiod,

which is properly called by the name of Tanais, but was formerly

called Tanaquisl, or Vanaquisl, and which falls into the Black

Sea. The country of the people on the Vanaquisl was called

Vanaland, or Vanaheim; and the river separates the three parts of

the world, of which the eastermost part is called Asia, and the

westermost Europe.

ENDNOTES:

(1) The Straits of Gibraltar.

(2) Northern Africa.

(3) Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa.

2. OF THE PEOPLE OF ASIA.

The country east of the Tanaquisl in Asia was called Asaland, or

Asaheim, and the chief city in that land was called Asgaard. In

that city was a chief called Odin, and it was a great place for

sacrifice. It was the custom there that twelve temple priests

should both direct the sacrifices, and also judge the people.

They were called Diar, or Drotner, and all the people served and

obeyed them. Odin was a great and very far-travelled warrior,

who conquered many kingdoms, and so successful was he that in

every battle the victory was on his side. It was the belief of

his people that victory belonged to him in every battle. It was

his custom when he sent his men into battle, or on any

expedition, that he first laid his hand upon their heads, and

called down a blessing upon them; and then they believed their

undertaking would be successful. His people also were

accustomed, whenever they fell into danger by land or sea, to

call upon his name; and they thought that always they got comfort

and aid by it, for where he was they thought help was near.

Often he went away so far that he passed many seasons on his

journeys.

3. OF ODIN'S BROTHERS.

Odin had two brothers, the one called Ve, the other Vilje, and

they governed the kingdom when he was absent. It happened once

when Odin had gone to a great distance, and had been so long away

that the people Of Asia doubted if he would ever return home,

that his two brothers took it upon themselves to divide his

estate; but both of them took his wife Frigg to themselves. Odin

soon after returned home, and took his wife back.

4. OF ODIN'S WAR WITH THE PEOPLE OF VANALAND.

Odin went out with a great army against the Vanaland people; but

they were well prepared, and defended their land; so that victory

was changeable, and they ravaged the lands of each other, and did

great damage. They tired of this at last, and on both sides

appointed a meeting for establishing peace, made a truce, and

exchanged hostages. The Vanaland people sent their best men,

Njord the Rich, and his son Frey. The people of Asaland sent a

man called Hone, whom they thought well suited to be a chief, as

he was a stout and very handsome man; and with him they sent a

man of great understanding called Mime. On the other side, the

Vanaland people sent the wisest man in their community, who was

called Kvase. Now, when Hone came to Vanaheim he was immediately

made a chief, and Mime came to him with good counsel on all

occasions. But when Hone stood in the Things or other meetings,

if Mime was not near him, and any difficult matter was laid

before him, he always answered in one way -- "Now let others give

their advice"; so that the Vanaland people got a suspicion that

the Asaland people had deceived them in the exchange of men. They

took Mime, therefore, and beheaded him, and sent his head to the

Asaland people. Odin took the head, smeared it with herbs so

that it should not rot, and sang incantations over it. Thereby

he gave it the power that it spoke to him, and discovered to him

many secrets. Odin placed Njord and Frey as priests of the

sacrifices, and they became Diar of the Asaland people. Njord's

daughter Freya was priestess of the sacrifices, and first taught

the Asaland people the magic art, as it was in use and fashion

among the Vanaland people. While Njord was with the Vanaland

people he had taken his own sister in marriage, for that was

allowed by their law; and their children were Frey and Freya.

But among the Asaland people it was forbidden to intermarry with

such near relations.

5. ODIN DIVIDES HIS KINGDOM: ALSO CONCERNING GEFION.

There goes a great mountain barrier from north-east to south-

west, which divides the Greater Swithiod from other kingdoms.

South of this mountain ridge it is not far to Turkland, where

Odin had great possessions. In those times the Roman chiefs went

wide around in the world, subduing to themselves all people; and

on this account many chiefs fled from their domains. But Odin

having foreknowledge, and magic-sight, knew that his posterity

would come to settle and dwell in the northern half of the world.

He therefore set his brothers Ve and Vilje over Asgaard; and he

himself, with all the gods and a great many other people,

wandered out, first westward to Gardarike, and then south to

Saxland. He had many sons; and after having subdued an extensive

kingdom in Saxland, he set his sons to rule the country. He

himself went northwards to the sea, and took up his abode in an

island which is called Odins in Fyen. Then he sent Gefion across

the sound to the north to discover new countries; and she came to

King Gylve, who gave her a ploughgate of land. Then she went to

Jotunheim, and bore four sons to a giant, and transformed them

into a yoke of oxen. She yoked them to a plough, and broke out

the land into the ocean right opposite to Odins. This land was

called Sealand, and there she afterwards settled and dwelt.

Skjold, a son of Odin, married her, and they dwelt at Leidre.

Where the ploughed land was is a lake or sea called Laage. In

the Swedish land the fjords of Laage correspond to the nesses in

Sealand. Brage the Old sings thus of it: --

"Gefion from Gylve drove away,

To add new land to Denmark's sway --

Blythe Gefion ploughing in the smoke

That steamed up from her oxen-yoke:

Four heads, eight forehead stars had they,

Bright gleaming, as she ploughed away;

Dragging new lands from the deep main

To join them to the sweet isle's plain.

Now when Odin heard that things were in a prosperous condition in

the land to the east beside Gylve; he went thither, and Gylve

made a peace with him, for Gylve thought he had no strength to

oppose the people of Asaland. Odin and Gylve had many tricks and

enchantments against each other; but the Asaland people had

always the superiority. Odin took up his residence at the

Maelare lake, at the place now called Old Sigtun. There he

erected a large temple, where there were sacrifices according to

the customs of the Asaland people. He appropriated to himself

the whole of that district, and called it Sigtun. To the temple

priests he gave also domains. Njord dwelt in Noatun, Frey in

Upsal, Heimdal in the Himinbergs, Thor in Thrudvang, Balder in

Breidablik; to all of them he gave good estates.

6. OF ODIN'S ACCOMPLISHMENTS.

When Odin of Asaland came to the north, and the Diar with him,

they introduced and taught to others the arts which the people

long afterwards have practised. Odin was the cleverest of all,

and from him all the others learned their arts and

accomplishments; and he knew them first, and knew many more than

other people. But now, to tell why he is held in such high

respect, we must mention various causes that contributed to it.

When sitting among his friends his countenance was so beautiful

and dignified, that the spirits of all were exhilarated by it,

but when he was in war he appeared dreadful to his foes. This

arose from his being able to change his skin and form in any way

he liked. Another cause was, that he conversed so cleverly and

smoothly, that all who heard believed him. He spoke everything

in rhyme, such as now composed, which we call scald-craft. He

and his temple priests were called song-smiths, for from them

came that art of song into the northern countries. Odin could

make his enemies in battle blind, or deaf, or terror-struck, and

their weapons so blunt that they could no more but than a willow

wand; on the other hand, his men rushed forwards without armour,

were as mad as dogs or wolves, bit their shields, and were strong

as bears or wild bulls, and killed people at a blow, but neither

fire nor iron told upon themselves. These were called Berserker.

7. OF ODIN'S FEATS.

Odin could transform his shape: his body would lie as if dead, or

asleep; but then he would be in shape of a fish, or worm, or

bird, or beast, and be off in a twinkling to distant lands upon

his own or other people's business. With words alone he could

quench fire, still the ocean in tempest, and turn the wind to any

quarter he pleased. Odin had a ship which was called

Skidbladnir, in which he sailed over wide seas, and which he

could roll up like a cloth. Odin carried with him Mime's head,

which told him all the news of other countries. Sometimes even

he called the dead out of the earth, or set himself beside the

burial-mounds; whence he was called the ghost-sovereign, and lord

of the mounds. He had two ravens, to whom he had taught the

speech of man; and they flew far and wide through the land, and

brought him the news. In all such things he was pre-eminently

wise. He taught all these arts in Runes, and songs which are

called incantations, and therefore the Asaland people are called

incantation-smiths. Odin understood also the art in which the

greatest power is lodged, and which he himself practised; namely,

what is called magic. By means of this he could know beforehand

the predestined fate of men, or their not yet completed lot; and

also bring on the death, ill-luck, or bad health of people, and

take the strength or wit from one person and give it to another.

But after such witchcraft followed such weakness and anxiety,

that it was not thought respectable for men to practise it; and

therefore the priestesses were brought up in this art. Odin knew

finely where all missing cattle were concealed under the earth,

and understood the songs by which the earth, the hills, the

stones, and mounds were opened to him; and he bound those who

dwell in them by the power of his word, and went in and took what

he pleased. From these arts he became very celebrated. His

enemies dreaded him; his friends put their trust in him, and

relied on his power and on himself. He taught the most of his

arts to his priests of the sacrifices, and they came nearest to

himself in all wisdom and witch-knowledge. Many others, however,

occupied themselves much with it; and from that time witchcraft

spread far and wide, and continued long. People sacrificed to

Odin and the twelve chiefs from Asaland, and called them their

gods, and believed in them long after. From Odin's name came the

name Audun, which people gave to his sons; and from Thor's name

comes Thore, also Thorarinn; and also it is sometimes compounded

with other names, as Steenthor, or Havthor, or even altered in

other ways.

8. ODIN'S LAWGIVING.

Odin established the same law in his land that had been in force

in Asaland. Thus he established by law that all dead men should

be burned, and their belongings laid with them upon the pile, and

the ashes be cast into the sea or buried in the earth. Thus,

said he, every one will come to Valhalla with the riches he had

with him upon the pile; and he would also enjoy whatever he

himself had buried in the earth. For men of consequence a mound

should be raised to their memory, and for all other warriors who

had been distinguished for manhood a standing stone; which custom

remained long after Odin's time. On winter day there should be

blood-sacrifice for a good year, and in the middle of winter for

a good crop; and the third sacrifice should be on summer day, for

victory in battle. Over all Swithiod the people paid Odin a

scatt or tax -- so much on each head; but he had to defend the

country from enemy or disturbance, and pay the expense of the

sacrifice feasts for a good year.

9. OF NJORD'S MARRIAGE.

Njord took a wife called Skade; but she would not live with him

and married afterwards Odin, and had many sons by him, of whom

one was called Saeming; and about him Eyvind Skaldaspiller sings

thus: --

"To Asa's son Queen Skade bore

Saeming, who dyed his shield in gore, --

The giant-queen of rock and snow,

Who loves to dwell on earth below,

The iron pine-tree's daughter, she

Sprung from the rocks that rib the sea,

To Odin bore full many a son,

Heroes of many a battle won."

To Saeming Earl Hakon the Great reckoned back his pedigree. This

Swithiod they called Mannheim, but the Great Swithiod they called

Godheim; and of Godheim great wonders and novelties were related.

10. OF ODIN'S DEATH.

Odin died in his bed in Swithiod; and when he was near his death

he made himself be marked with the point of a spear, and said he

was going to Godheim, and would give a welcome there to all his

friends, and all brave warriors should be dedicated to him; and

the Swedes believed that he was gone to the ancient Asgaard, and

would live there eternally. Then began the belief in Odin, and

the calling upon him. The Swedes believed that he often showed

to them before any great battle. To some he gave victory; others

he invited to himself; and they reckoned both of these to be

fortunate. Odin was burnt, and at his pile there was great

splendour. It was their faith that the higher the smoke arose in

the air, the higher he would be raised whose pile it was; and the

richer he would be, the more property that was consumed with him.

11. OF NJORD.

Njord of Noatun was then the sole sovereign of the Swedes; and he

continued the sacrifices, and was called the drot or sovereign by

the Swedes, and he received scatt and gifts from them. In his

days were peace and plenty, and such good years, in all respects,

that the Swedes believed Njord ruled over the growth of seasons

and the prosperity of the people. In his time all the diar or

gods died, and blood-sacrifices were made for them. Njord died

on a bed of sickness, and before he died made himself be marked

for Odin with the spear-point. The Swedes burned him, and all

wept over his grave-mound.

  • ***************

Events in the life of Njör› "the Rich" of Vanaland

event 1 .

·a priest of the sacrifices, and became Diar of the Asaland people

event 1 .

·succeeded Odin as the sole sovereign of the Swedes

† death 1 .

·Njord died on a bed of sickness, and before he died made himself be marked for Odin with the spear-point.

burial

·The Swedes burned him, and all wept over his grave-mound.

event 1 .

·given Noatun as a domain by Odin

event 1 .

·a good ruler, and in his days were peace and plenty, and such good years, in all respects, that the Swedes believed Njord ruled over the growth of seasons and the prosperity of the people

event 1 .

·the best man of the Vanaland people, whom Odin attacked but could not subdue, and so Njord was offered as hostage in exchange for peace between those of Vanaland and those of Asaland

event 1 .

·was there when all the diar or gods died, these diar being the temple priests that had journeyed from Asaland with Odin, and blood-sacrifices were made for them

event 1 .

·"had taken his own sister in marriage, for that was allowed by their law;"

--------------------

Niord, Yngves Søn, var den første af denne Æt; førte en fredsom og lykkelig Regjering, og dyrkedes efter sin Død som Veirligets Gud. Han efterfulgtes af sin Søn.

--------------------

God of the old Norse pantheon.

Parents: Unknown.

Wife 1: His sister (no name)

Children 1: Frey (king of Sweden) and Freya

Wife 2: Skadi (goddess)

No known children.

From Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Njörðr

'In Norse mythology, Njörðr is a Vanir god. Njörðr is father of the deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed Van sister, was in an ill-fated marriage with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún (Old Norse "ship-enclosure") and is associated with sea, seafaring, wind, fishing, wealth, and crop fertility.'

See also:

http://lind.no/nor/index.asp?lang=&emne=asatru&person=Nj%F6r%F0r

-------------------- I følge Sorre var Njord en stor høvding i området rundt Svartehavet, og hans virkelige navn kan ha vært Mithradates.

-------------------- Njörðr is a Vanir god in Norse mythology. In surviving sources, Njörðr is the father of the major deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed Van sister, was in an ill-fated marriage with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún (Old Norse "ship-enclosure") and is associated with sea, seafaring, wind, fishing, wealth, and crop fertility. Njörðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in euhemerized form as a beloved mythological early king of Sweden in Heimskringla, also written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, as one of three gods invoked in the 14th century Hauksbók ring oath, and in numerous Scandinavian place names.

Njörðr is introduced in Skáldskaparmál within a list of 12 Æsir attending a banquet held for Ægir. Further in Skáldskaparmál, the skaldic god Bragi recounds the death of Skaði's father Þjazi by the Æsir. As one of the three acts of reparation performed by the Æsir for Þjazi's death, Skaði was allowed by the Æsir to choose a husband from amongst them, but given the stipulation that she may not see any part of them but their feet when making the selection. Expecting to choose the god Baldr by the beauty of the feet she selects, Skaði instead finds that she has picked Njörðr.

In chapter 6, a list of kennings is provided for Njörðr: "God of chariots," "Descendant of Vanir," "a Van," father of Freyr and Freyja, and "the giving god." This is followed by an excerpt from a composition by the 11th century skald Þórðr Sjáreksson, explained as containing a reference to Skaði leaving Njörðr:

The Norse god of winds, sea and fire. He brings good fortune at sea and in the hunt. He is married to the giantess Skadi . His children are Freya and Freyr , whom he fathered on his own sister.

Originally, Njord was one of the Vanir but when they made peace with the Aesir , he and his children were given to them as hostages. The Aesir appointed both Njord and Freyr as high priests to preside over sacrifices. Freya was consecrated as sacrificial priestess. She taught the Aesir witchcraft, an art that was common knowledge among the Vanir.

From Norsk mythology

The Vanir gods, subordinate to the Aesir, were responsible for ensuring fertility and prosperity. Njörd, seen by many scholars as a masculinization of the older fertility goddess, Nerthus, is depicted as a god of the sea and of riches and prosperity. His son, Freyr, was also a god of fertility who is described in several sources as the ancestor of the line of Swedish kings. His sister, Freyja, was a goddess not only of love and fertility but also of a primitive form of magic, seiyr, which she is said to have taught to Odin and the Aesir.

Nerthus is described as Terra Mater ("Earth Mother"), but her name corresponds to that of the god Njörd (from Germanic Nerthuz). Scholars have attempted various explanations of this puzzling change of sex, assuming that the original deity was androgynous or claiming that the loss of feminine nouns of the type Njörd represents triggered the reinterpretation of the goddess as a male god. As Njörd is essentially a god of the sea and its riches, it may be preferable to consider Nerthus and Njörd as originally separate gods altogether, whose relationship might be similar to that of Poseidon ("Husband of the Earth-Goddess") and Demeter ("Earth Mother") in Arcadia. Etymologically, the name Njörd could then be related to that of the Greek "Old Man of the Sea," Nereus. Before coming to the Aesir, Njörd was supposed to have begotten his two children with his (unnamed) sister. Since such incestuous unions were not allowed among the Aesir, Njörd afterward married Skadi (Ska?i), daughter of the giant Thjazi. Evidence from place-names shows that Njörd was worshiped widely in Sweden and Norway, and he was one of the gods whom Icelanders invoked when they swore their most sacred oaths.

Njörd - "Stiller-of-storms", Vana-God of seafaring: controls wind, stills sea and fire. Lives in Noatun ("Boat-Town"), was married to Giantess Skadi or Skadhi daughter to Thiazi, the giant killed for trying to steal Idunna. This action brought Skadhi to Asgard demanding payment for her father's death. She was told she could choose a husband by his legs. Wanting Balder, she chose the best legs, and this happened to be Njörd. Unfortunately, she could not stand the sound of sea birds. Therefore, his home was out of the question. Njörd could not stand the howling of the wolves so he moved back home. He has ten children, most famous are Frey and Freya. He is Frigg's brother.

Skinir - servant and friend to Frey. With the horse and sword given to him by Frey, he goes and gets Gerd to be Frey's wife.

Gerd - Frey's wife, and daughter to Gymir.

Od - Husband of Freya, possibly another name for Odin.

From http://www.timelessmyths.com/norse/vanir.html ...

God of wind and sea. Njörd (Njord) appeared to be the leader of Vanir, before he became an Aesir god.

While he was living in Vanaheim, Njörd was married to his own sister (nameless or else she is the Germanic goddess Nerthus), and was the father of Freyr and Freyja.

Some scholars believed that Njörd was a female form of Nerthus.

Njörd and his children were originally Vanir, and during the peace between them and rival tribes, the Aesir, they were exchanged as hostages, to keep the peace. However Njörd and his children were later offered places within Aesir.

It seemed that incest was a normal practice among the Vanir. When Njörd became member of the Aesir, as well as his children, Njörd had to give up his sister-wife (Nerthus?).

His marriage to the giantess Skadi, daughter of Thiassi, did not last long, due to the fact that he preferred to live by the sea, Nóatún (Noatun), while Skadi like to live on the mountains. Skadi left Njörd before she married Ull.

Njörd was the god of the sea. He was patron god of sailors and fishermen. He was also god of good fortune, whom seafarers and fishermen prayed to, when they set out to sea. Njörd may also be god of hunting -------------------- Njord De Noatun King Of Swedes 1

Birth: About 214 in 2 3

Death:

Sex: M

Father:

Mother:

   

Unknown: 3

LDS Baptism: 10 Nov 1953

LDS Endowment: 19 May 1955

Changed: 20 Mar 2001 00:00

  Spouses & Children    
  
  

 Skadi De Varmland Queen Of The Swedes (Wife) b. After 214 in (, , Värmland, Sweden)  

2 3

Marriage: Abt 241 6 Nov 2004 14:29

 

Njord De Noatun Queen Of Swedes (Wife) b. About 217 in (Noatun, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden)

2 3

Marriage: Abt 234 in (Noatun, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden) 6 Nov 2004 14:29

Children:

Yngvi-Frey Njordsson King Of Swedes b. About 235 in (, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden)

Freya Njordsdotter Princess Of The Swedes b. About 237 in (, Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden)


 

Skadi De Sweden (Wife) b. About 215 in , , , Sweden

4

Marriage: Abt 241 in (, , , Sweden) 6 Nov 2004 14:29

 

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  Notes    
  
  

 Individual:

Name Suffix: King of Swedes

REFN: HWS8924

Ancestral File Number: G6SX-C4

OBJE: C:\LEGACY\PICTURES\C_Royal_King.GIF

OBJE: C:\LEGACY\PICTURES\Suede_Moderne.GIF

(Research):DEADEND:CHAN20 Mar 2001CHAN20 Mar 2001CHAN3 Mar 2001


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  

  Sources    
  
  

 Title: "Concise Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia"

Author: Ansley, Clarke F.

Publication: (Morningside Heights, New York, Columbia University Press

, Licensed from INSO Corporation, December 31, 1941, 1994), Hard C

Title: "FamilySearch® Ancestral Fileâ„¢ v4.19"

Author: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

Publication: 3 Feb 2001

Title: "Genealogical Research of Kirk Larson"

Author: Larson, Kirk

Publication: Personal Research Works including Bethune & Hohenlohe Desce

ndants, 1981-2001, Kirk Larson, Private Library

Title: "Adamic Lineages of Horace Ralph Fuller Family"

Author: Fuller, Robert F., Gerald Ralph, Hortense M.

Publication: (Salem, Massachusetts : Peabody Essex Museum ; Mystic, Conn

. : Mystic Seaport Museum, 1996); Call # 910.4 S796Page: p. 9 (ID# 55b); p. 11 (ID# 55d)

Quality: 3




-------------------- Njörðr is a Vanir god in Norse mythology. In surviving sources, Njörðr is the father of the major deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed Vanir sister, was in an ill-fated relationship with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún (Old Norse "ship-enclosure"[1]) and is associated with sea, seafaring, wind, fishing, wealth, and crop fertility. Njörðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in euhemerized form as a beloved mythological early king of Sweden in Heimskringla, also written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, as one of three gods invoked in the 14th century Hauksbók ring oath, and in numerous Scandinavian place names.

Njörðr has been the subject of an amount of scholarly discourse and theory, often connecting him with the figure of the much earlier attested Germanic goddess Nerthus, the hero Hadingus, and theorizing on his seemingly once great place in Norse paganism due to the appearance of his name in abundant place names.

Njörðr is attested in the following works:

Poetic Edda

Njörðr is described as a future survivor of Ragnarök in stanza 39 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. In the poem, the god Odin, disguised as "Gagnráðr" faces off with the wise jötunn Vafþrúðnir in a battle of wits. Vafþrúðnismál references Njörðr's status as a hostage during the earlier Æsir-Vanir War, and that he will "come back home among the wise Vanir" after the events of Ragnarök.[2]

In stanza 16 of the poem Grímnismál, Njörðr is described as having a hall in Nóatún made for himself. The stanza describes Njörðr as a "prince of men," that he is "lacking in malice," and that he "rules over the "high-timbered temple."[3] In stanza 43, the creation of the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir is recounted, and Freyr is cited as the son of Njörðr.[4] In the prose introduction to the poem Skírnismál, Freyr is mentioned as the son of Njörðr, and stanza 2 cites the goddess Skaði as the mother of Freyr.[5] Further in the poem, Njörðr is again mentioned as the father of Freyr in stanzas 38, 39, and 41.[6]

In the late flyting poem Lokasenna, an exchange between Njörðr and Loki occurs in stanzas 33, 34, 35, and 36. After Loki has an exchange with the goddess Freyja, in stanza 33 Njörðr states:

"That's harmless, if, beside a husband, a woman has

a lover or someone else;

what is surprising is a pervert god coming in here,

who has borne children."[7]

Loki responds in the stanza 34, stating that "from here you were sent east as hostage to the gods" (a reference to the Æsir-Vanir War) and that "the daughters of Hymir used you as a pisspot, and pissed in your mouth."[7] In stanza 35, Njörðr responds that:

"That was my reward, when I, from far away,

was sent as a hostage to the gods,

that I fathered that son, whom no one hates

and is thought the prince of the Æsir.[7]

Loki tells Njörðr to "stop" and "keep some moderation," and that he "won't keep it a secret any longer" that Njörðr's son Freyr was produced with his unnamed sister, "though you'd expect him to be worse than he is." The god Tyr then interjects and the flyting continues in turn.[7]

Njörðr is referenced in stanza 22 of the poem Þrymskviða, where he is referred to as the father of the goddess Freyja. In the poem, the jötunn Þrymr mistakenly thinks that he will be receiving the goddess Freyja as his bride, and while telling his fellow jötunn to spread straw on the benches in preparation for the arrival of Freyja, he refers to her as the daughter of Njörðr of Nóatún.[8]

Prose Edda

Njörðr is mentioned in the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál.

Gylfaginning

In the Prose Edda, Njörðr is introduced in chapter 23 of the book Gylfaginning. In this chapter, Njörðr is described by the enthroned figure of High as living in the heavens at Nóatún, but also as ruling over the movement of the winds, having the ability to calm both sea and fire, and that he is to be invoked in seafaring and fishing. High continues that Njörðr is very wealthy and prosperous, and that he can also grant wealth in land and valuables to those who request his aid. Njörðr originates from Vanaheimr and is devoid of Æsir stock, and he is described as having been traded with Hœnir in hostage exchange with between the Æsir and Vanir.

High further states that Njörðr's wife is Skaði, that she is the daughter of the jötunn Þjazi, and recounts a tale involving the two. High recalls that Skadi wanted to live in the home once owned by her father called Þrymheimr ("Thunder Home"). However, Njörðr wanted to live nearer to the sea. Subsequently, the two made an agreement that they would spend night nights in Þrymheimr and then next three nights in Nóatún (or nine winters in Þrymheimr and another nine in Nóatún according to the Codex Regius manuscript[10]). However, when Njörðr returned from the mountains to Nóatún, he said:

"Hateful for me are the mountains,

I was not long there,

only nine nights.

The howling of the wolves

sounded ugly to me

after the song of the swans."

Skaði then responds:

"Sleep I could not

on the sea beds

for the screeching of the bird.

That gull wakes me

when from the wide sea

he comes each morning."

High states that afterwards Skaði went back up to the mountains to Þrymheimr and recites a stanza where Skaði skis around and hunts hunts animals with a bow and lives in her fathers old house.[10] Chapter 24 then begins, which describes Njörðr as the father of two beautiful and powerful children: Freyr and Freyja.[12] In chapter 37, after Freyr has spotted the beautiful jötunn Gerðr, he becomes overcome with sorrow, and refuses to sleep, drink, or talk. Njörðr then sends for Skírnir to find out who he seems to be so angry at, and, not looking forward to being treated roughly, Skírnir reluctantly goes to Freyr.[13]

Skáldskaparmál

Njörðr is introduced in Skáldskaparmál within a list of 12 Æsir attending a banquet held for Ægir.[14] Further in Skáldskaparmál, the skaldic god Bragi recounds the death of Skaði's father Þjazi by the Æsir. As one of the three acts of reparation performed by the Æsir for Þjazi's death, Skaði was allowed by the Æsir to choose a husband from amongst them, but given the stipulation that she may not see any part of them but their feet when making the selection. Expecting to choose the god Baldr by the beauty of the feet she selects, Skaði instead finds that she has picked Njörðr.

In chapter 6, a list of kennings is provided for Njörðr: "God of chariots," "Descendant of Vanir," "a Van," father of Freyr and Freyja, and "the giving god." This is followed by an excerpt from a composition by the 11th century skald Þórðr Sjáreksson, explained as containing a reference to Skaði leaving Njörðr:

Gundrun became her son's slayer; the wise god-bride [Skadi] could not love the Van; Kialar [Odin] trained horses pretty well; Hamdir is said not to have held back sword-play.

Chapter 7 follows and provides various kennings for Freyr, including referring to him as the son of Njörðr. This is followed by an excerpt from a work by the 10th century skald Egill Skallagrímsson that references Njörðr (here anglicized as "Niord"):

For Freyr and Niord have endowed Griotbiorn with a power of wealth.[16]

In chapter 20, "daughter of Njörðr" is given as a kenning for Freyja.[16] In chapter 33, Njörðr is cited among the gods attending a banquet held by Ægir.[17] In chapter 37, Freyja is again referred to as Njörðr's daughter in a verse by the 12th century skald Einarr Skúlason.[18] In chapter 75, Njörðr is included in a list of the Æsir.[19] Additionally, Njörðr is used in kennings for "warrior" or "warriors" various times in Skáldskaparmál.[20]

Heimskringla

Njörðr appears in or is mentioned in three Kings' sagas collected in Heimskringla; Ynglinga saga, the Saga of Hákon the Good and the Saga of Harald Graycloak. In chapter 4 the of Ynglinga saga, Njörðr is introduced in connection with the Æsir-Vanir War. When the two sides became tired of war, they came to a peace agreement and exchanged hostages. For their part, the Vanir send to the Æsir their most "outstanding men"; Njörðr, described as wealthy, and Freyr, described as his son, in exchange for the Æsir's Hœnir. Additionally, the Æsir send Mímir in exchange for the wise Kvasir.[21]

Further into chapter 4, Odin appoints Njörðr and Freyr as preists of sacrificial offerings, and they became gods among the Æsir. Freyja is introduced as a daughter of Njörðr, and as the priestess at the sacrifices. In the saga, Njörðr is described as having once wed his unnamed sister while he was still among the Vanir, and the couple produced their children Freyr and Freyja from this union, though this custom was forbidden among the Æsir.[21]

Chapter 5 relates that Odin gave all of his temple priests dwelling places and good estates, in Njörðr's case being Nóatún.[22] Chapter 8 states that Njörðr married a woman named Skaði, though she would not have intercourse with him. Skaði then marries Odin, and the two had numerous sons.

In chapter 9, Odin dies and Njörðr takes over as ruler of the Swedes, and he continues the sacrifices. The Swedes recognize him as their king, and pay him tribute. Njörðr's rule is marked with peace and many great crops, so much so that the Swedes believed that Njörðr held power over the crops and over the prosperity of mankind. During his rule, most of the Æsir die, their bodies are burned, and sacrifices are made by men to them. Njörðr has himself "marked for" Odin and he dies in his bed. Njörðr's body is burnt by the Swedes, and they weep heavily at his tomb.[24] After Njörðr's reign, his son Freyr replaces him, and he is greatly loved and "blessed by good seasons like his father".[24]

In chapter 14 of Saga of Hákon the Good a description of the pagan Germanic custom of Yule is given. Part of the description includes a series of toasts. The toasts begin with Odin's toasts, described as for victory and power for the king, followed by Njörðr and Freyr's toast, intended for good harvests and peace. Following this, a beaker is drank for the king, and then a toast is given for departed kin.[25] Chapter 28 quotes verse where the kenning "Njörðr-of-roller-horses" is used for "sailor".[26] In the Saga of Harald Graycloak, a stanza is given of a poem entitled Vellekla ("Lack of Gold") by the 10th century Icelandic skald Einarr skálaglamm that mentions Njörðr in a kenning for "warrior".

Theories

Nerthus

Njörðr is often identified with the goddess Nerthus, whose reverence by various Germanic tribes is described by Roman historian Tacitus in his 1st CE century work Germania. The connection between the two is due to the linguistic relationship between Njörðr and the reconstructed *Nerþus,[28] "Nerthus" being the feminine, Latinized form of what Njörðr would have looked like around 1 CE.[29] This has led to theories about the relation of the two, including that Njörðr may have once been a hermaphroditic god or, generally considered more likely, that the name may indicate an otherwise unattested divine brother and sister pair such as Freyr and Freyja.[28] Connections have been proposed between the unnamed mother of Freyja and Freyr/sister of Njörðr mentioned in Lokasenna and Nerthus.[30]

Hadingus

Parallels have been pointed out between Njörðr and the figure of Hadingus, attested in book I of Saxo Grammaticus' 13th century work Gesta Danorum.[31] Some of these similarities include that, in parallel to Skaði and Njörðr in Skáldskaparmál, Hadingus is chosen by his wife Regnhild after selecting him from other men at a banquet by his lower legs, and, in parallel to Skaði and Njörðr in Gylfaginning, Hadingus complains in verse of his displeasure at his life away from the sea and how he is disturbed by the howls of wolves, while his wife Regnhild complains of life at the shore and states her annoyance at the screeching sea birds.[31] Georges Dumézil theorized that in the tale Hadingus passes through all three functions of his trifunctional hypothesis, before ending as an Odinic hero, paralleling Njörðr's passing from the Æsir to the Vanir in the Æsir-Vanir War.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Njord

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yngvi

-------------------- In Norse mythology, Njörðr is a god among the Vanir. Njörðr is father of the deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed Van sister, was in an ill-fated marriage with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún and is associated with sea, seafaring, wind, fishing, wealth, and crop fertility.

Njörðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in euhemerized form as a beloved mythological early king of Sweden in Heimskringla, also written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, as one of three gods invoked in the 14th century Hauksbók ring oath, and in numerous Scandinavian place names. Veneration of Njörðr survived into 18th or 19th century Norwegian folk practice, where the god is recorded as Njor and thanked for a bountiful catch of fish.

Njörðr has been the subject of an amount of scholarly discourse and theory, often connecting him with the figure of the much earlier attested Germanic goddess Nerthus, the hero Hadingus, and theorizing on his formerly more prominent place in Norse paganism due to the appearance of his name in numerous place names. Njörðr is sometimes modernly anglicized as Njord, Njoerd, or Njorth.

Name and Eponyms

he name Njörðr corresponds to that of the older Germanic fertility goddess Nerthus, and both derive from the Proto-Germanic *Nerþuz. The original meaning of the name is contested, but it may be related to the Irish word nert which means "force" and "power". It has been suggested that the change of sex from the female Nerthus to the male Njörðr is due to the fact that feminine nouns with u-stems disappeared early in Germanic language while the masculine nouns with u-stems prevailed. However, other scholars hold the change to be based not on grammatical gender but on the evolution of religious beliefs; that *Nerþuz and Njörðr appear as different genders because they are to be considered separate beings.[1] The name Njörðr may be related to the name of the Norse goddess Njörun.[2]

Njörðr's name appears in various place names in Scandinavia, such as Nærdhæwi (now Nalavi), Njærdhavi (now Mjärdevi), Nærdhælunda (now Närlunda), Nierdhatunum (now Närtuna) in Sweden,[1] Njarðvík in eastern Iceland, Njarðarlög and Njarðey (now Nærøy) in Norway.[3] Njörðr's name appears in a word for sponge; Njarðarvöttr (Old Norse "Njörðr's glove"). Additionally, in Old Icelandic translations of Classical mythology the Roman god Saturn's name is glossed as "Njörðr."[4]

Attestations

Njörðr is attested in the following works:

Poetic Edda

Njörðr is described as a future survivor of Ragnarök in stanza 39 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. In the poem, the god Odin, disguised as "Gagnráðr" faces off with the wise jötunn Vafþrúðnir in a battle of wits. While Odin states that Vafþrúðnir knows all the fates of the gods, Odin asks Vafþrúðnir "from where Njörðr came to the sons of the Æsir," that Njörðr rules over quite a lot of temples and hörgrs (a type of Germanic altar), and further adds that Njörðr was not raised among the Æsir. In response, Vafþrúðnir says:

       "In Vanaheim the wise Powers made him
       and gave him as hostage to the gods;
       at the doom of men he will come back
       home among the wise Vanir."[5]

In stanza 16 of the poem Grímnismál, Njörðr is described as having a hall in Nóatún made for himself. The stanza describes Njörðr as a "prince of men," that he is "lacking in malice," and that he "rules over the "high-timbered temple."[6] In stanza 43, the creation of the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir is recounted, and Freyr is cited as the son of Njörðr.[7] In the prose introduction to the poem Skírnismál, Freyr is mentioned as the son of Njörðr, and stanza 2 cites the goddess Skaði as the mother of Freyr.[8] Further in the poem, Njörðr is again mentioned as the father of Freyr in stanzas 38, 39, and 41.[9]

In the late flyting poem Lokasenna, an exchange between Njörðr and Loki occurs in stanzas 33, 34, 35, and 36. After Loki has an exchange with the goddess Freyja, in stanza 33 Njörðr states:

       "That's harmless, if, beside a husband, a woman has
       a lover or someone else;
       what is surprising is a pervert god coming in here,
       who has borne children."[10]

Loki responds in the stanza 34, stating that "from here you were sent east as hostage to the gods" (a reference to the Æsir-Vanir War) and that "the daughters of Hymir used you as a pisspot, and pissed in your mouth."[10] In stanza 35, Njörðr responds that:

       "That was my reward, when I, from far away,
       was sent as a hostage to the gods,
       that I fathered that son, whom no one hates
       and is thought the prince of the Æsir.[10]

Loki tells Njörðr to "stop" and "keep some moderation," and that he "won't keep it a secret any longer" that Njörðr's son Freyr was produced with his unnamed sister, "though you'd expect him to be worse than he is." The god Tyr then interjects and the flyting continues in turn.[10]

Njörðr is referenced in stanza 22 of the poem Þrymskviða, where he is referred to as the father of the goddess Freyja. In the poem, the jötunn Þrymr mistakenly thinks that he will be receiving the goddess Freyja as his bride, and while telling his fellow jötunn to spread straw on the benches in preparation for the arrival of Freyja, he refers to her as the daughter of Njörðr of Nóatún.[11] Towards the end of the poem Sólarljóð, Njörðr is cited as having nine daughters. Two of the names of these daughters are given; the eldest Ráðveig and the youngest Kreppvör.[12]

Prose Edda

Njörðr is mentioned in the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál.

Gylfaginning

In the Prose Edda, Njörðr is introduced in chapter 23 of the book Gylfaginning. In this chapter, Njörðr is described by the enthroned figure of High as living in the heavens at Nóatún, but also as ruling over the movement of the winds, having the ability to calm both sea and fire, and that he is to be invoked in seafaring and fishing. High continues that Njörðr is very wealthy and prosperous, and that he can also grant wealth in land and valuables to those who request his aid. Njörðr originates from Vanaheimr and is devoid of Æsir stock, and he is described as having been traded with Hœnir in hostage exchange with between the Æsir and Vanir.[13]

High further states that Njörðr's wife is Skaði, that she is the daughter of the jötunn Þjazi, and recounts a tale involving the two. High recalls that Skaði wanted to live in the home once owned by her father called Þrymheimr ("Thunder Home"). However, Njörðr wanted to live nearer to the sea. Subsequently, the two made an agreement that they would spend nine nights in Þrymheimr and then next three nights in Nóatún (or nine winters in Þrymheimr and another nine in Nóatún according to the Codex Regius manuscript[14]). However, when Njörðr returned from the mountains to Nóatún, he says:

       "Hateful for me are the mountains,
       I was not long there,
       only nine nights.
       The howling of the wolves
       sounded ugly to me
       after the song of the swans."[13]

Skaði then responds:

       "Sleep I could not
       on the sea beds
       for the screeching of the bird.
       That gull wakes me
       when from the wide sea
       he comes each morning."[13]

High states that afterward Skaði went back up to the mountains to Þrymheimr and recites a stanza where Skaði skis around, hunts animals with a bow, and lives in her fathers old house.[14] Chapter 24 begins, which describes Njörðr as the father of two beautiful and powerful children: Freyr and Freyja.[15] In chapter 37, after Freyr has spotted the beautiful jötunn Gerðr, he becomes overcome with sorrow, and refuses to sleep, drink, or talk. Njörðr then sends for Skírnir to find out who he seems to be so angry at, and, not looking forward to being treated roughly, Skírnir reluctantly goes to Freyr.[16]

Skáldskaparmál

Njörðr is introduced in Skáldskaparmál within a list of 12 Æsir attending a banquet held for Ægir.[17] Further in Skáldskaparmál, the skaldic god Bragi recounds the death of Skaði's father Þjazi by the Æsir. As one of the three acts of reparation performed by the Æsir for Þjazi's death, Skaði was allowed by the Æsir to choose a husband from amongst them, but given the stipulation that she may not see any part of them but their feet when making the selection. Expecting to choose the god Baldr by the beauty of the feet she selects, Skaði instead finds that she has picked Njörðr.[18]

In chapter 6, a list of kennings is provided for Njörðr: "God of chariots," "Descendant of Vanir," "a Van," father of Freyr and Freyja, and "the giving god." This is followed by an excerpt from a composition by the 11th century skald Þórðr Sjáreksson, explained as containing a reference to Skaði leaving Njörðr:

       Gundrun became her son's slayer; the wise god-bride [Skadi] could not love the Van; Kialar [Odin] trained horses pretty well; Hamdir is said not to have held back sword-play.[19]

Chapter 7 follows and provides various kennings for Freyr, including referring to him as the son of Njörðr. This is followed by an excerpt from a work by the 10th century skald Egill Skallagrímsson that references Njörðr (here anglicized as "Niord"):

       For Freyr and Niord have endowed Griotbiorn with a power of wealth.[19]

In chapter 20, "daughter of Njörðr" is given as a kenning for Freyja.[19] In chapter 33, Njörðr is cited among the gods attending a banquet held by Ægir.[20] In chapter 37, Freyja is again referred to as Njörðr's daughter in a verse by the 12th century skald Einarr Skúlason.[21] In chapter 75, Njörðr is included in a list of the Æsir.[22] Additionally, Njörðr is used in kennings for "warrior" or "warriors" various times in Skáldskaparmál.[23]

Heimskringla

Njörðr appears in or is mentioned in three Kings' sagas collected in Heimskringla; Ynglinga saga, the Saga of Hákon the Good and the Saga of Harald Graycloak. In chapter 4 of Ynglinga saga, Njörðr is introduced in connection with the Æsir-Vanir War. When the two sides became tired of war, they came to a peace agreement and exchanged hostages. For their part, the Vanir send to the Æsir their most "outstanding men"; Njörðr, described as wealthy, and Freyr, described as his son, in exchange for the Æsir's Hœnir. Additionally, the Æsir send Mímir in exchange for the wise Kvasir.[24]

Further into chapter 4, Odin appoints Njörðr and Freyr as priests of sacrificial offerings, and they became gods among the Æsir. Freyja is introduced as a daughter of Njörðr, and as the priestess at the sacrifices. In the saga, Njörðr is described as having once wed his unnamed sister while he was still among the Vanir, and the couple produced their children Freyr and Freyja from this union, though this custom was forbidden among the Æsir.[24]

Chapter 5 relates that Odin gave all of his temple priests dwelling places and good estates, in Njörðr's case being Nóatún.[25] Chapter 8 states that Njörðr married a woman named Skaði, though she would not have intercourse with him. Skaði then marries Odin, and the two had numerous sons.[26]

In chapter 9, Odin dies and Njörðr takes over as ruler of the Swedes, and he continues the sacrifices. The Swedes recognize him as their king, and pay him tribute. Njörðr's rule is marked with peace and many great crops, so much so that the Swedes believed that Njörðr held power over the crops and over the prosperity of mankind. During his rule, most of the Æsir die, their bodies are burned, and sacrifices are made by men to them. Njörðr has himself "marked for" Odin and he dies in his bed. Njörðr's body is burnt by the Swedes, and they weep heavily at his tomb. After Njörðr's reign, his son Freyr replaces him, and he is greatly loved and "blessed by good seasons like his father."[27]

In chapter 14 of Saga of Hákon the Good a description of the pagan Germanic custom of Yule is given. Part of the description includes a series of toasts. The toasts begin with Odin's toasts, described as for victory and power for the king, followed by Njörðr and Freyr's toast, intended for good harvests and peace. Following this, a beaker is drank for the king, and then a toast is given for departed kin.[28] Chapter 28 quotes verse where the kenning "Njörðr-of-roller-horses" is used for "sailor".[29] In the Saga of Harald Graycloak, a stanza is given of a poem entitled Vellekla ("Lack of Gold") by the 10th century Icelandic skald Einarr skálaglamm that mentions Njörðr in a kenning for "warrior."[30]

Egils saga

In chapter 80 of the 13th century Icelandic saga Egils saga, Egill Skallagrímsson composes a poem in praise of Arinbjörn (Arinbjarnarkviða). In stanza 17, Egill writes that all others watch in marvel how Arinbjörn gives out wealth, as he has been so endowed by the gods Freyr and Njörðr.[31]

Modern folk practice

Veneration of Njörðr survived into 18th or 19th century Norwegian folk practice, as recorded in a tale collected by Halldar O. Opedal from an informant in Odda, Hordaland, Norway. The informant comments on a family tradition in which the god is thanked for a bountiful catch of fish:

       The old folk [folk in the olden days?] were always rather lucky when they went fishing. One night old Gunnhild Reinsnos (born in 1746) and Johannes Reinsnos were fishing in the Sjosavatn. They had taken a torch and were fishing with live bait. The fish bit well, and it wasn't long before Gunnhild had a week's supply of fish for her pot. So she wound her line around her rod with the words: "Thanks be to him, to Njor, for this time."[32]

Scholar Georges Dumézil further cites various tales of havmennesker (Norwegian "sea people") who govern over sea weather, wealth, or, in some incidents, give magic boats are likely connected to Njörðr.[33]

Theories

Nerthus

Njörðr is often identified with the goddess Nerthus, whose reverence by various Germanic tribes is described by Roman historian Tacitus in his 1st CE century work Germania. The connection between the two is due to the linguistic relationship between Njörðr and the reconstructed *Nerþuz,[34] "Nerthus" being the feminine, Latinized form of what Njörðr would have looked like around 1 CE.[35] This has led to theories about the relation of the two, including that Njörðr may have once been a hermaphroditic god or, generally considered more likely, that the name may indicate an otherwise unattested divine brother and sister pair such as Freyr and Freyja.[34] Consequently, Nerthus has been identified with Njörðr's unnamed sister with whom he had Freyja and Freyr, which is mentioned in Lokasenna.[36]

Hadingus

Parallels have been pointed out between Njörðr and the figure of Hadingus, attested in book I of Saxo Grammaticus' 13th century work Gesta Danorum.[37] Some of these similarities include that, in parallel to Skaði and Njörðr in Skáldskaparmál, Hadingus is chosen by his wife Regnhild after selecting him from other men at a banquet by his lower legs, and, in parallel to Skaði and Njörðr in Gylfaginning, Hadingus complains in verse of his displeasure at his life away from the sea and how he is disturbed by the howls of wolves, while his wife Regnhild complains of life at the shore and states her annoyance at the screeching sea birds.[37] Georges Dumézil theorized that in the tale Hadingus passes through all three functions of his trifunctional hypothesis, before ending as an Odinic hero, paralleling Njörðr's passing from the Æsir to the Vanir in the Æsir-Vanir War.[38]

Svafrþorinn

In stanza 8 of the poem Fjölsvinnsmál, Svafrþorinn is stated as the father of Menglöð by an unnamed mother, who the hero Svipdagr seeks. Menglöð has often been theorized as the goddess Freyja, and according to this theory, Svafrþorinn would therefore be Njörðr. The theory is complicated by the etymology of the name Svafrþorinn (þorinn meaning "brave" and svafr means "gossip") (or possibly connects to sofa "sleep"), which Rudolf Simek says makes little sense when attempting to connect it to Njörðr.[39]

Modern influence

Njörðr has been the subject of an amount of artistic depictions. Depictions include "Freyr und Gerda; Skade und Niurd" (drawing, 1883) by K. Ehrenberg, "Njörðr" (1893) by Carl Frederick von Saltza, "Skadi" (1901) by E. Doepler d. J., and "Njörd's desire of the Sea" (1908) by W. G. Collingwood. -------------------- Summary

God of the old Norse pantheon.

Info according to Snorre's Ynglingesoga:

   Parents: Unknown.
   Wife 1: His sister (no name)
       Children 1: Frey (king of Sweden) and Freya
   Wife 2: Skadi (goddess)
       No children.

Details

Njörðr is a Vanir god in Norse mythology. In surviving sources, Njörðr is the father of the major deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed Vanir sister, was in an ill-fated relationship with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún (Old Norse "ship-enclosure"[1]) and is associated with sea, seafaring, wind, fishing, wealth, and crop fertility. Njörðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in euhemerized form as a beloved mythological early king of Sweden in Heimskringla, also written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, as one of three gods invoked in the 14th century Hauksbók ring oath, and in numerous Scandinavian place names.

Njörðr has been the subject of an amount of scholarly discourse and theory, often connecting him with the figure of the much earlier attested Germanic goddess Nerthus, the hero Hadingus, and theorizing on his seemingly once great place in Norse paganism due to the appearance of his name in abundant place names. Sources

Njörðr is attested in the following works: Poetic Edda

Njörðr is described as a future survivor of Ragnarök in stanza 39 of the poem Vafþrúðnismál. In the poem, the god Odin, disguised as "Gagnráðr" faces off with the wise jötunn Vafþrúðnir in a battle of wits. Vafþrúðnismál references Njörðr's status as a hostage during the earlier Æsir-Vanir War, and that he will "come back home among the wise Vanir" after the events of Ragnarök.[2]

In stanza 16 of the poem Grímnismál, Njörðr is described as having a hall in Nóatún made for himself. The stanza describes Njörðr as a "prince of men," that he is "lacking in malice," and that he "rules over the "high-timbered temple."[3] In stanza 43, the creation of the god Freyr's ship Skíðblaðnir is recounted, and Freyr is cited as the son of Njörðr.[4] In the prose introduction to the poem Skírnismál, Freyr is mentioned as the son of Njörðr, and stanza 2 cites the goddess Skaði as the mother of Freyr.[5] Further in the poem, Njörðr is again mentioned as the father of Freyr in stanzas 38, 39, and 41.[6]

In the late flyting poem Lokasenna, an exchange between Njörðr and Loki occurs in stanzas 33, 34, 35, and 36. After Loki has an exchange with the goddess Freyja, in stanza 33 Njörðr states:

:"That's harmless, if, beside a husband, a woman has :a lover or someone else; :what is surprising is a pervert god coming in here, :who has borne children."[7]

Loki responds in the stanza 34, stating that "from here you were sent east as hostage to the gods" (a reference to the Æsir-Vanir War) and that "the daughters of Hymir used you as a pisspot, and pissed in your mouth."[7] In stanza 35, Njörðr responds that:

:"That was my reward, when I, from far away, :was sent as a hostage to the gods, :that I fathered that son, whom no one hates :and is thought the prince of the Æsir.[7]

Loki tells Njörðr to "stop" and "keep some moderation," and that he "won't keep it a secret any longer" that Njörðr's son Freyr was produced with his unnamed sister, "though you'd expect him to be worse than he is." The god Tyr then interjects and the flyting continues in turn.[7]

Njörðr is referenced in stanza 22 of the poem Þrymskviða, where he is referred to as the father of the goddess Freyja. In the poem, the jötunn Þrymr mistakenly thinks that he will be receiving the goddess Freyja as his bride, and while telling his fellow jötunn to spread straw on the benches in preparation for the arrival of Freyja, he refers to her as the daughter of Njörðr of Nóatún.[8] Prose Edda

Njörðr is mentioned in the Prose Edda books Gylfaginning and Skáldskaparmál. Gylfaginning

In the Prose Edda, Njörðr is introduced in chapter 23 of the book Gylfaginning. In this chapter, Njörðr is described by the enthroned figure of High as living in the heavens at Nóatún, but also as ruling over the movement of the winds, having the ability to calm both sea and fire, and that he is to be invoked in seafaring and fishing. High continues that Njörðr is very wealthy and prosperous, and that he can also grant wealth in land and valuables to those who request his aid. Njörðr originates from Vanaheimr and is devoid of Æsir stock, and he is described as having been traded with Hœnir in hostage exchange with between the Æsir and Vanir.

High further states that Njörðr's wife is Skaði, that she is the daughter of the jötunn Þjazi, and recounts a tale involving the two. High recalls that Skadi wanted to live in the home once owned by her father called Þrymheimr ("Thunder Home"). However, Njörðr wanted to live nearer to the sea. Subsequently, the two made an agreement that they would spend night nights in Þrymheimr and then next three nights in Nóatún (or nine winters in Þrymheimr and another nine in Nóatún according to the Codex Regius manuscript[10]). However, when Njörðr returned from the mountains to Nóatún, he said:

:"Hateful for me are the mountains, :I was not long there, :only nine nights. :The howling of the wolves :sounded ugly to me :after the song of the swans."

Skaði then responds:

:"Sleep I could not :on the sea beds :for the screeching of the bird. :That gull wakes me :when from the wide sea :he comes each morning."

High states that afterwards Skaði went back up to the mountains to Þrymheimr and recites a stanza where Skaði skis around and hunts hunts animals with a bow and lives in her fathers old house.[10] Chapter 24 then begins, which describes Njörðr as the father of two beautiful and powerful children: Freyr and Freyja.[12] In chapter 37, after Freyr has spotted the beautiful jötunn Gerðr, he becomes overcome with sorrow, and refuses to sleep, drink, or talk. Njörðr then sends for Skírnir to find out who he seems to be so angry at, and, not looking forward to being treated roughly, Skírnir reluctantly goes to Freyr.[13] Skáldskaparmál

Njörðr is introduced in Skáldskaparmál within a list of 12 Æsir attending a banquet held for Ægir.[14] Further in Skáldskaparmál, the skaldic god Bragi recounds the death of Skaði's father Þjazi by the Æsir. As one of the three acts of reparation performed by the Æsir for Þjazi's death, Skaði was allowed by the Æsir to choose a husband from amongst them, but given the stipulation that she may not see any part of them but their feet when making the selection. Expecting to choose the god Baldr by the beauty of the feet she selects, Skaði instead finds that she has picked Njörðr.

In chapter 6, a list of kennings is provided for Njörðr: "God of chariots," "Descendant of Vanir," "a Van," father of Freyr and Freyja, and "the giving god." This is followed by an excerpt from a composition by the 11th century skald Þórðr Sjáreksson, explained as containing a reference to Skaði leaving Njörðr:

Gundrun became her son's slayer; the wise god-bride [Skadi] could not love the Van; Kialar [Odin] trained horses pretty well; Hamdir is said not to have held back sword-play.

Chapter 7 follows and provides various kennings for Freyr, including referring to him as the son of Njörðr. This is followed by an excerpt from a work by the 10th century skald Egill Skallagrímsson that references Njörðr (here anglicized as "Niord"):

For Freyr and Niord have endowed Griotbiorn with a power of wealth.[16]

In chapter 20, "daughter of Njörðr" is given as a kenning for Freyja.[16] In chapter 33, Njörðr is cited among the gods attending a banquet held by Ægir.[17] In chapter 37, Freyja is again referred to as Njörðr's daughter in a verse by the 12th century skald Einarr Skúlason.[18] In chapter 75, Njörðr is included in a list of the Æsir.[19] Additionally, Njörðr is used in kennings for "warrior" or "warriors" various times in Skáldskaparmál.[20] Heimskringla

Njörðr appears in or is mentioned in three Kings' sagas collected in Heimskringla; Ynglinga saga, the Saga of Hákon the Good and the Saga of Harald Graycloak. In chapter 4 the of Ynglinga saga, Njörðr is introduced in connection with the Æsir-Vanir War. When the two sides became tired of war, they came to a peace agreement and exchanged hostages. For their part, the Vanir send to the Æsir their most "outstanding men"; Njörðr, described as wealthy, and Freyr, described as his son, in exchange for the Æsir's Hœnir. Additionally, the Æsir send Mímir in exchange for the wise Kvasir.[21]

Further into chapter 4, Odin appoints Njörðr and Freyr as preists of sacrificial offerings, and they became gods among the Æsir. Freyja is introduced as a daughter of Njörðr, and as the priestess at the sacrifices. In the saga, Njörðr is described as having once wed his unnamed sister while he was still among the Vanir, and the couple produced their children Freyr and Freyja from this union, though this custom was forbidden among the Æsir.[21]

Chapter 5 relates that Odin gave all of his temple priests dwelling places and good estates, in Njörðr's case being Nóatún.[22] Chapter 8 states that Njörðr married a woman named Skaði, though she would not have intercourse with him. Skaði then marries Odin, and the two had numerous sons.

In chapter 9, Odin dies and Njörðr takes over as ruler of the Swedes, and he continues the sacrifices. The Swedes recognize him as their king, and pay him tribute. Njörðr's rule is marked with peace and many great crops, so much so that the Swedes believed that Njörðr held power over the crops and over the prosperity of mankind. During his rule, most of the Æsir die, their bodies are burned, and sacrifices are made by men to them. Njörðr has himself "marked for" Odin and he dies in his bed. Njörðr's body is burnt by the Swedes, and they weep heavily at his tomb.[24] After Njörðr's reign, his son Freyr replaces him, and he is greatly loved and "blessed by good seasons like his father".[24]

In chapter 14 of Saga of Hákon the Good a description of the pagan Germanic custom of Yule is given. Part of the description includes a series of toasts. The toasts begin with Odin's toasts, described as for victory and power for the king, followed by Njörðr and Freyr's toast, intended for good harvests and peace. Following this, a beaker is drank for the king, and then a toast is given for departed kin.[25] Chapter 28 quotes verse where the kenning "Njörðr-of-roller-horses" is used for "sailor".[26] In the Saga of Harald Graycloak, a stanza is given of a poem entitled Vellekla ("Lack of Gold") by the 10th century Icelandic skald Einarr skálaglamm that mentions Njörðr in a kenning for "warrior". Theories Nerthus

Njörðr is often identified with the goddess Nerthus, whose reverence by various Germanic tribes is described by Roman historian Tacitus in his 1st CE century work Germania. The connection between the two is due to the linguistic relationship between Njörðr and the reconstructed *Nerþus,[28] "Nerthus" being the feminine, Latinized form of what Njörðr would have looked like around 1 CE.[29] This has led to theories about the relation of the two, including that Njörðr may have once been a hermaphroditic god or, generally considered more likely, that the name may indicate an otherwise unattested divine brother and sister pair such as Freyr and Freyja.[28] Connections have been proposed between the unnamed mother of Freyja and Freyr/sister of Njörðr mentioned in Lokasenna and Nerthus.[30] Hadingus

Parallels have been pointed out between Njörðr and the figure of Hadingus, attested in book I of Saxo Grammaticus' 13th century work Gesta Danorum.[31] Some of these similarities include that, in parallel to Skaði and Njörðr in Skáldskaparmál, Hadingus is chosen by his wife Regnhild after selecting him from other men at a banquet by his lower legs, and, in parallel to Skaði and Njörðr in Gylfaginning, Hadingus complains in verse of his displeasure at his life away from the sea and how he is disturbed by the howls of wolves, while his wife Regnhild complains of life at the shore and states her annoyance at the screeching sea birds.[31] Georges Dumézil theorized that in the tale Hadingus passes through all three functions of his trifunctional hypothesis, before ending as an Odinic hero, paralleling Njörðr's passing from the Æsir to the Vanir in the Æsir-Vanir War. References

   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Njord
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yngvi

TEMP: Material to be incorporated above

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Njord, King of the SWEDES, son of Yngvi, King in Turkey, was born about 214 in Noatun, Sweden.

"Njord was then the sole sovereign of the Swedes. He practiced sacrifrice, and was called the drot, or sovereign, by the Swedes. He received scatt and gifts from them. In his days were peace and plenty, and such good years in all respects that the Swedes believed Njord ruled over the growth of seasons and the prosperity of the people. In his time all the diars, or gods, died, and blood-sacrifices were made for them. Njord died on a bed of sickness, and before he died made himself be marked for Odin with the spear-point. The Swedes burned him, and all wept over his grave-mound."

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In Norse mythology, Njörðr is a Vanir god. Njörðr is father of the deities Freyr and Freyja by his unnamed Van sister, was in an ill-fated marriage with the goddess Skaði, lives in Nóatún (Old Norse "ship-enclosure"[1]) and is associated with sea, seafaring, wind, fishing, wealth, and crop fertility.

Njörðr is attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources, the Prose Edda, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson, in euhemerized form as a beloved mythological early king of Sweden in Heimskringla, also written by Snorri Sturluson in the 13th century, as one of three gods invoked in the 14th century Hauksbók ring oath, and in numerous Scandinavian place names.

Njörðr has been the subject of an amount of scholarly discourse and theory, often connecting him with the figure of the much earlier attested Germanic goddess Nerthus, the hero Hadingus, and theorizing on his formerly more prominent place in Norse paganism due to the appearance of his name in numerous place names.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Njord

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Norse God lol

http://royroyes.net/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I24&tree=sagas

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Han ble kalt "Drotten over Svear".

Ref.: Norges konge sagaer av Snorre Sturluson, side 14.

Han ble også kalt Yngve.

11. OF NJORD.

Njord of Noatun was then the sole sovereign of the Swedes; and he

continued the sacrifices, and was called the drot or sovereign by

the Swedes, and he received scatt and gifts from them. In his

days were peace and plenty, and such good years, in all respects,

that the Swedes believed Njord ruled over the growth of seasons

and the prosperity of the people. In his time all the diar or

gods died, and blood-sacrifices were made for them. Njord died

on a bed of sickness, and before he died made himself be marked

for Odin with the spear-point. The Swedes burned him, and all

wept over his grave-mound.

He died 20 years B.C.

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http://royroyes.net/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I24&tree=sagas

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От рода на Ваните. Женен за сестра си, от която са децата му - Фрейр и Фрея. След войната между аси и вани, като част от мирния договор, помирените страни трябвало взаимно да си разменят заложници от господарски произход. Така при асите отишли Ньордур с децата си Фрейр и Фрея. Один ги изпратил при жреците и асите ги приели за богове. Ньордур станал бог на морските ветрове, а дъщеря му Фрея научила асите на магии, така както ги правели ваните. Дъщерята на великана Тятци, Скади (богинята на ските, лова с копие и зимата), която по-късно става жена на Один, избира Ньордур за мъж, като гледала единствено ходилата на боговете и понеже Ньордур имал най-красивите ходила, тя решила, че той е и най-красивия измежду боговете. Провъзгласен за крал след смъртта на Один. Всъщност поема властта и жертвоприношенията. По негово време царял мир и благоденствие и затова шведите го обичали. Преди смъртта си се обрекъл на Один.

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http://www.smokykin.com/ged/f002/f50/a0025089.htm

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The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway: The Ynglinga Saga

Heimskringla: A History of the Norse Kings

Originally written in Old Norse, app. 1225 A.D., by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson. English translation by Samuel Laing (London, 1844).

1. OF THE SITUATION OF COUNTRIES.

It is said that the earth's circle which the human race inhabits

is torn across into many bights, so that great seas run into the

land from the out-ocean. Thus it is known that a great sea goes

in at Narvesund (1), and up to the land of Jerusalem. From the

same sea a long sea-bight stretches towards the north-east, and

is called the Black Sea, and divides the three parts of the

earth; of which the eastern part is called Asia, and the western

is called by some Europa, by some Enea. Northward of the Black

Sea lies Swithiod the Great, or the Cold. The Great Swithiod is

reckoned by some as not less than the Great Serkland (2); others

compare it to the Great Blueland (3). The northern part of

Swithiod lies uninhabited on account of frost and cold, as

likewise the southern parts of Blueland are waste from the

burning of the sun. In Swithiod are many great domains, and many

races of men, and many kinds of languages. There are giants, and

there are dwarfs, and there are also blue men, and there are any

kinds of stranger creatures. There are huge wild beasts, and

dreadful dragons. On the south side of the mountains which lie

outside of all inhabited lands runs a river through Swithiod,

which is properly called by the name of Tanais, but was formerly

called Tanaquisl, or Vanaquisl, and which falls into the Black

Sea. The country of the people on the Vanaquisl was called

Vanaland, or Vanaheim; and the river separates the three parts of

the world, of which the eastermost part is called Asia, and the

westermost Europe.

ENDNOTES:

(1) The Straits of Gibraltar.

(2) Northern Africa.

(3) Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa.

2. OF THE PEOPLE OF ASIA.

The country east of the Tanaquisl in Asia was called Asaland, or

Asaheim, and the chief city in that land was called Asgaard. In

that city was a chief called Odin, and it was a great place for

sacrifice. It was the custom there that twelve temple priests

should both direct the sacrifices, and also judge the people.

They were called Diar, or Drotner, and all the people served and

obeyed them. Odin was a great and very far-travelled warrior,

who conquered many kingdoms, and so successful was he that in

every battle the victory was on his side. It was the belief of

his people that victory belonged to him in every battle. It was

his custom when he sent his men into battle, or on any

expedition, that he first laid his hand upon their heads, and

called down a blessing upon them; and then they believed their

undertaking would be successful. His people also were

accustomed, whenever they fell into danger by land or sea, to

call upon his name; and they thought that always they got comfort

and aid by it, for where he was they thought help was near.

Often he went away so far that he passed many seasons on his

journeys.

3. OF ODIN'S BROTHERS.

Odin had two brothers, the one called Ve, the other Vilje, and

they governed the kingdom when he was absent. It happened once

when Odin had gone to a great distance, and had been so long away

that the people Of Asia doubted if he would ever return home,

that his two brothers took it upon themselves to divide his

estate; but both of them took his wife Frigg to themselves. Odin

soon after returned home, and took his wife back.

4. OF ODIN'S WAR WITH THE PEOPLE OF VANALAND.

Odin went out with a great army against the Vanaland people; but

they were well prepared, and defended their land; so that victory

was changeable, and they ravaged the lands of each other, and did

great damage. They tired of this at last, and on both sides

appointed a meeting for establishing peace, made a truce, and

exchanged hostages. The Vanaland people sent their best men,

Njord the Rich, and his son Frey. The people of Asaland sent a

man called Hone, whom they thought well suited to be a chief, as

he was a stout and very handsome man; and with him they sent a

man of great understanding called Mime. On the other side, the

Vanaland people sent the wisest man in their community, who was

called Kvase. Now, when Hone came to Vanaheim he was immediately

made a chief, and Mime came to him with good counsel on all

occasions. But when Hone stood in the Things or other meetings,

if Mime was not near him, and any difficult matter was laid

before him, he always answered in one way -- "Now let others give

their advice"; so that the Vanaland people got a suspicion that

the Asaland people had deceived them in the exchange of men. They

took Mime, therefore, and beheaded him, and sent his head to the

Asaland people. Odin took the head, smeared it with herbs so

that it should not rot, and sang incantations over it. Thereby

he gave it the power that it spoke to him, and discovered to him

many secrets. Odin placed Njord and Frey as priests of the

sacrifices, and they became Diar of the Asaland people. Njord's

daughter Freya was priestess of the sacrifices, and first taught

the Asaland people the magic art, as it was in use and fashion

among the Vanaland people. While Njord was with the Vanaland

people he had taken his own sister in marriage, for that was

allowed by their law; and their children were Frey and Freya.

But among the Asaland people it was forbidden to intermarry with

such near relations.

5. ODIN DIVIDES HIS KINGDOM: ALSO CONCERNING GEFION.

There goes a great mountain barrier from north-east to south-

west, which divides the Greater Swithiod from other kingdoms.

South of this mountain ridge it is not far to Turkland, where

Odin had great possessions. In those times the Roman chiefs went

wide around in the world, subduing to themselves all people; and

on this account many chiefs fled from their domains. But Odin

having foreknowledge, and magic-sight, knew that his posterity

would come to settle and dwell in the northern half of the world.

He therefore set his brothers Ve and Vilje over Asgaard; and he

himself, with all the gods and a great many other people,

wandered out, first westward to Gardarike, and then south to

Saxland. He had many sons; and after having subdued an extensive

kingdom in Saxland, he set his sons to rule the country. He

himself went northwards to the sea, and took up his abode in an

island which is called Odins in Fyen. Then he sent Gefion across

the sound to the north to discover new countries; and she came to

King Gylve, who gave her a ploughgate of land. Then she went to

Jotunheim, and bore four sons to a giant, and transformed them

into a yoke of oxen. She yoked them to a plough, and broke out

the land into the ocean right opposite to Odins. This land was

called Sealand, and there she afterwards settled and dwelt.

Skjold, a son of Odin, married her, and they dwelt at Leidre.

Where the ploughed land was is a lake or sea called Laage. In

the Swedish land the fjords of Laage correspond to the nesses in

Sealand. Brage the Old sings thus of it: --

"Gefion from Gylve drove away,

To add new land to Denmark's sway --

Blythe Gefion ploughing in the smoke

That steamed up from her oxen-yoke:

Four heads, eight forehead stars had they,

Bright gleaming, as she ploughed away;

Dragging new lands from the deep main

To join them to the sweet isle's plain.

Now when Odin heard that things were in a prosperous condition in

the land to the east beside Gylve; he went thither, and Gylve

made a peac -------------------- BIOGRAFI:

Nicknames: "Njord", "Njörðr", "Njord Norse /God/", "the Rich", ""The Rich"", "Nortun", "of Sweden"

Birthdate: cirka 200

Birthplace: Noatun, Sweden

Death: Died 260 in Noatun, Sweden

Occupation: Drott, konge av Sverige, King, Konge av Sverige, ???????? ? ??????, ????????????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??????, God in Norse Mythology and King of Sweden, Konge i Sverige, Nordisk Gud, King Of The Swedes

følge Sorre var Njord en stor høvding i området rundt Svartehavet, og hans virkelige navn kan ha vært Mithradates.

view all 19

Njord Vanir, king in Sweden's Timeline

214
214
Noatun, Sweden
220
220
Age 6
Uppsala, Sweden
234
234
Age 20
Of, , , Sweden
234
Age 20
237
237
Age 23
of,Uppsala,Uppsala,Sweden
260
260
Age 46
Noatun, Sweden

Died in his bed

1953
November 10, 1953
Age 46
November 10, 1953
Age 46
November 10, 1953
Age 46
1955
May 19, 1955
Age 46