Nuno Álvares Pereira, 2.º Condestável de Portugal (1360 - 1431) MP

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Nicknames: "São Nuno de Santa Maria", "Constable/Military Leader"
Birthplace: Cernache do Bonjardim, Castelo Branco, Sertã, Portugal
Death: Died in Lisboa, Portugal
Occupation: Gâenâeral, 2áe Connâetable du Portugal, moine
Managed by: Eduardo C. Ferreyra Semería
Last Updated:

About Nuno Álvares Pereira, 2.º Condestável de Portugal

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Casamento: ou em 1377. -------------------- Nuno Álvares Pereira (24 de junio de 1360 - 1 de noviembre de 1431), también conocido como el Santo Condestable o San Nuno de Santa María (Nuño Álvarez, en español) fue un general portugués del siglo XIV que desempeñó un papel fundamental en la crisis portuguesa de 1383-85, donde Portugal se jugó su independencia contra Castilla.

Nuno Álvares Pereira nació en la villa de Cernache do Bonjardim, concejo de Sertã (Distrito de Castelo Branco). Casó con Leonor de Alvim en 1377 en Vila Nova da Rainha, del concejo de Azambuja. Cuando el rey Fernando I de Portugal murió en 1383, dejando como heredera a su hija D. Beatriz, ya desposada, aunque niña con el rey Juan I de Castilla, Nuno fue uno de los primeros nobles que apoyaron las pretensiones a la corona del Maestre de Avis (futuro Juan I). A pesar de ser hijo ilegítimo de Pedro I de Portugal, las clases populares y gran parte de la nobleza portuguesa, se opusieron rotundamente a que Portugal se uniera territorial y políticamente con Castilla. Después de la primera victoria de Álvares Pereira frente a los castellanos en la batalla de Atoleiros en abril de 1384, Juan de Avis lo nombra Condestable de Portugal y Conde de Ourém.

El 6 de abril de 1385, Juan de Avis es reconocido por las cortes reunidas en Coímbra como Rey de Portugal. Esta posición de fuerza portuguesa desencadena una respuesta de Castilla. Juan de Castilla invade Portugal con vista a proteger los intereses de su mujer Beatriz. Álvares Pereira toma el control de la situación en el terreno e inicia una serie de cercos a las ciudades leales a Castilla, localizadas principalmente en el Norte del país. El 14 de agosto, Álvares Pereira muestra su genio militar al vencer en la batalla de Aljubarrota al frente de un pequeño ejército de 6.000 portugueses y aliados ingleses, contra los 30.000 soldados de Castilla. La batalla vendría a ser decisiva en el fin de la inestabilidad política de 1383-1385 y en la consolidación de la independencia portuguesa. Terminada la amenaza castellana, Nuno Álvares Pereira permaneció como condestable del reino y se hizo Conde de Arraiolos y Barcelos. Entre 1385 y 1390, año de la muerte de Juan de Castilla, se dedicó a realizar incursiones contra la frontera de Castilla, con el objetivo de mantener la presión y disuadir el país vecino de nuevos ataques, obteniendo entre otras la victoria sobre los castellanos en la Batalla de Valverde (15 de octubre de 1385), en Valverde de Mérida), y que acabaría conduciendo a la firma en 1411 tratado de Ayton-Segovia.

De su boda con Leonor de Alvim, el Condestable tuvo sólo una hija, Beatriz Pereira de Alvim, que se hizo mujer de Alfonso I de Braganza, el primer Duque de Braganza. Acordado como uno de los mejores generales portugueses, abraza en sus últimos años, la vida religiosa carmelita.

Según algunas fuentes en 1415 participó en la conquista de Ceuta, liderando tropas Portuguesas en la que sería la primera conquista de los Descubrimentos portugueses, precisamente 30 años más tarde, de su gran victoria de Aljubarrota.

Después de la muerte de su mujer, se hizo carmelita (entró en la Orden en 1423, en el Convento do Carmo, que hubo fundado como cumplimiento de un voto). Toma el nombre de Hermano Nuno de Santa María. Ahí permanece hasta su muerte, ocurrida el 1 de abril de 1431, un domingo de Pascua. Durante su último año de vida, el rey Juan I de Portugal le hizo una visita en el Carmo. Juan siempre consideró que Nuno Álvares Pereira fue su amigo más próximo, que le colocara en el trono y salvara la independencia de Portugal.

El túmulo de Nuno Álvares Pereira fue destruido en el Terremoto de 1755. Su epitafio era: "Aquí yace el famoso Nuno, el Condestable, fundador de la Casa de Braganza, excelente general, beato monje, que durante su vida en la tierra tan ardientemente deseó el Reino de los Cielos después de la muerte, y mereció la eterna compañía de los Santos. Sus honras terrenales fueron incontables, pero les volvió la espalda. Fue un gran Príncipe, pero se hizo humilde monje. Fundó, construyó y dedicó esta iglesia donde descansa su cuerpo."

Nuno Álvares Pereira murió en el Convento do Carmo en Lisboa en 1431.

Nuno Álvares Pereira fue beatificado el 23 de enero de 1918 por el Papa Benedicto XV. Su día festivo es el 6 de noviembre. Recibió el nombre de Beato Nuno de Santa María.

El proceso de canonización estuvo abierto y activo desde 1940, siendo canonizado por el Papa Benedicto XVI el 26 de abril de 2009. Recibió el nombre de San Nuno de Santa María.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuno_%C3%81lvares_Pereira

Dom Nuno Álvares Pereira, O. Carm. (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈnunu ˈaɫvɐɾɨʃ pɨˈɾɐjɾɐ]; June 24, 1360 – April 1, 1431), also spelled Nun'Álvares Pereira, was a Portuguese general of great success who had a decisive role in the 1383-1385 Crisis that assured Portugal's independence from Castile. He later became a mystic, was beatified by Pope Benedict XV in 1918 and was canonised by Pope Benedict XVI in 2009.


Early life


Nuno Álvares Pereira was born in Flor da Rosa, near Crato, central Portugal. His parents were Dom Álvaro Gonçalves Pereira, Prior of Crato and Iria Gonçalves do Carvalhal. His grandfather was Dom Gonçalo (Gonçalves) Pereira, 97th Archbishop of Braga (1326–1349). He descended from the oldest Portuguese and Galician nobility. At age 17, he married Leonor de Alvim, daughter of João Pires de Alvim and wife Branca Pires Coelho and childless widow of Vasco Gonçalves Barroso.


Military life


Nuno started a military career very early. He was in the army when he was only 13, in 1373, and helped stopping a Castilian invasion. However, according to his own words, his first military campaigns were no more than skirmishes on the borders of Portugal. He was an impetuous and brave young man who soon showed himself to be an excellent leader.


Later on, when king Fernando I of Portugal died in 1383, with no heir besides Beatrice married to king John I of Castile, the Portuguese independence was again very fragile. Nuno was one of the first nobles to support the claim of king Fernando's brother John, Master of Aviz to the throne. True that John was a natural son of Peter I of Portugal, but, like many others, it was a better option than the loss of independence. After his first victory over the Castilians, in the Battle of Atoleiros (April 1384), João of Aviz named Nuno Álvares Pereira Protector and 2nd Constable of Portugal (Condestável do Reino), in practice supreme commander of Portugal’s armies and 3rd Count of Ourém. He was only 23 years old.

 

In April 1385, João of Aviz was recognized and accepted as king by the kingdom assembly (the Cortes) as John I. This strong Portuguese position for independence triggered an invasion of the country by Juan I of Castile, willing to defend his wife's rights to the throne. Nuno Álvares Pereira engaged in a pursuit against the cities loyal to the Castilians, namely in the North of the country. In August, he was the mastermind of the Portuguese victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota, after which the threat of annexation was over. After the 1383-1385 Crisis, Álvares Pereira received from John I the titles of 2nd Count of Arraiolos and 7th Count of Barcelos, which along with the previous one were the only three Countdoms existing at the time and which had been taken from Noblemen who took part for Castile. He was also made the 38th Mordomo-Mór (Major Majordomo) of the Realm.


Not wanting to give the enemy room to manoeuvre, John I and his supreme general took the offensive and raided several Castilian towns, defeating once again a much larger Castilian army at the Battle of Valverde. He continued to watch out for Juan I of Castile, until his death in 1390. The final peace and the recognition from Castile came only later on October 30, 1411, with the signature of the Treaty of Ayllón.


Nuno Álvares Pereira sired only one daughter by his marriage to Leonor de Alvim, Beatriz Pereira de Alvim, who was to become the wife of Afonso, Count of Barcelos (natural son of John I of Portugal) and first Duke of Braganza. Therefore, Nuno Álvares Pereira was, through the female line, the ancestor of the House of Braganza which became the Portuguese Royal House in the 17th century, ruling the Kingdom of Portugal (1640–1910), the Kingdom of Brazil (1815–1822) and the Empire of Brazil (1822–1889).


Religious life


After the death of his wife, he became a Carmelite (he joined the Order in 1423) at the Carmo Convent (Lisbon) which he had founded in fulfilment of a vow, and took the name of Friar Nuno of Saint Mary (in Portuguese: Irmão Nuno de Santa Maria). There he lived until his death on Easter Sunday of 1431. He was noted for his prayer, his practise of penance and his filial devotion to the Mother of God.


During the last year of his life, King John I went to visit and embrace him for the last time. He wept, for he considered Nuno Álvares Pereira his closest friend, the one who had put him on the throne and saved his country's independence.


Nuno Álvares Pereira's tomb was lost in the famous 1755 Lisbon earthquake. His epitaph read:


"Here lies that famous Nuno, the Constable, founder of the House of Bragança, excellent general, blessed monk, who during his life on earth so ardently desired the Kingdom of Heaven that after his death, he merited the eternal company of the Saints. His worldly honors were countless, but he turned his back on them. He was a great Prince, but he made himself a humble monk. He founded, built and endowed this church in which his body rests."


Veneration


Nuno was beatified on January 23, 1918, by Pope Benedict XV.


He had been on the point of being canonized by decree in 1940 by Pope Pius XII. According to a recent statement by the Postulator General of the Carmelite Order, his canonisation was postponed for diplomatic reasons (the Portuguese government itself raised some difficulties), and thus did not initially take place.


On July 3, 2008, Pope Benedict XVI signed two decrees in Rome, promulgating the heroic virtues of Nuno and the authenticity of a miracle that had already been previously confirmed as such by medical and theological Commissions. By this act, the Pope formally canonised Saint Friar Nuno de Santa Maria Álvares Pereira. The public celebration of his canonisation took place on April 26, 2009 in Saint Peter's Square in the Vatican City. Saint Nuno's Feast Day is celebrated on April 1 except in Portugal where it is celebrated on November 6. A petition has been submitted to change the date universally to November 6.


Prayer


Lord God,

you called Saint Nuno Álvares Pereira
to put aside his sword and follow Christ
under the Patronage of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.
Through his prayers may we too deny ourselves,
and devote ourselves to you with all our hearts.
We ask this through Christ, Our Lord.
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Nuno Álvares Pereira, 2.º Condestável de Portugal's Timeline

1360
June 24, 1360
Castelo Branco, Sertã, Portugal
1378
1378
Age 17
Barcellos,Braga,,Portugal
1379
1379
Age 18
Barcellos,Braga,,Portugal
1431
November 1, 1431
Age 71
Lisboa, Portugal
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