Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland

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Oliver Cromwell

Nicknames: "Old Ironsides"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
Death: Died in London, Middlesex, England
Place of Burial: Westminster Abbey, City of London, Greater London, England, United Kingdom
Immediate Family:

Son of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon and Elizabeth Cromwell (Steward)
Husband of Elizabeth Bromley Cromwell (Bourchier)
Father of Robert Cromwell; Oliver Cromwell, Jr.; Bridget Fleetwood (Cromwell); Richard Cromwell, 2nd Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland; Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland, and 5 others
Brother of Joan Cromwell; Elizabeth Cromwell; Robina Cromwell; Henry B Cromwell; Catherine Jones and 4 others

Occupation: Lord Protector
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Oliver Cromwell

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_cromwell

Oliver Cromwell (born April 25, 1599 Old Style, died September 3, 1658 Old Style) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. He was one of the most capable English generals in history. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658. Events that occurred during his reign and his politics are a cause of long lasting animosity between Ireland and the United Kingdom.

Cromwell has been a very controversial figure in the history of the British Isles – a regicidal dictator to some historians (such as David Hume and Christopher Hill) and a hero of liberty to others (such as Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner). In Britain he was elected as one of the Top 10 Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll.

His measures against Irish Catholics have been characterized by some historians as genocidal or near-genocidal, and in Ireland he is widely hated. After defeating the Irish Catholics and the Protestant Royalists in battle, Cromwell engineered the greatest man-made population upheavel in the history of Ireland. Catholic landowners were forced to the north-west corner of the island to an area called Connacht. As Cromwell put it "They can go to hell or they can go to Connacht." The land the Catholics vacated was sold to Protestants to repay war debts. Thus, the Cromwellian government rewrote the demographics of Ireland to produce a society notable for its inequality and its instability.

Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry, and remained relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life, at times his lifestyle resembling that of a yeoman farmer until his finances were boosted thanks to an inheritance from his uncle. After undergoing a religious conversion during the same decade, he made an Independent style of Puritanism a core tenet of his life. Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments, and later entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians.

An effective soldier (nicknamed "Old Ironsides") he rose from leading a single cavalry troop to command of the entire army. Cromwell was the third person to sign Charles I's death warrant in 1649 and was an MP in the Rump Parliament (1649-1653), being chosen by the Rump to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. He then led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650-51. On April 20, 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament before being made Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland on 16 December 1653 until his death. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, but when the Royalists returned to power in 1660, his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded. ------------

Birth : 1599

Death : 1658

  • Father : CROMWELL Robert ( ? - 1617 )
  • Mother : STEWARD Elizabeth ( ? - 1654 )

Union : BOURCHIER Elizabeth ( 1598 - 1665 )

Marriage : 1620

Children :

  1. CROMWELL Robert ( 1621 - 1639 )
  2. CROMWELL Oliver ( 1623 - 1644 )
  3. CROMWELL Bridget ( 1624 - 1662 )
  4. CROMWELL Richard ( 1626 - 1712 )
  5. CROMWELL Henry ( 1628 - 1674 )
  6. CROMWELL Elizabeth ( 1629 - 1658 )
  7. CROMWELL James ( 1632 - 1632 )
  8. CROMWELL Mary ( 1637 - 1713 )
  9. CROMWELL Frances ( 1638 - 1720 )

Source: http://www.datadirect.org.uk/cromwellcollection/genealogy/fiches/fiche18.htm#f378

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Other source: http://www.olivercromwell.org

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Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry, and remained relatively obscure for the first 40 years of his life. At times his lifestyle resembled that of a yeoman farmer until his finances were boosted thanks to an inheritance from his uncle. After undergoing a religious conversion during the same decade, he made an Independent style of Puritanism a core tenet of his life. Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments, and later entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians.

An effective soldier (nicknamed "Old Ironsides"), he rose from leading a single cavalry troop to command of the entire army. Cromwell was one of the signatories of Charles I's death warrant in 1649 and was a member of the Rump Parliament (1649-1653), being chosen by the Rump to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. He then led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650-51. On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebones Parliament before being made Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland on 16 December 1653. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, but when the Royalists returned to power his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded.

Cromwell has been a controversial figure in the history of the British Isles – a regicidal dictator to some historians (such as David Hume and Christopher Hill) and a hero of liberty to others (such as Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner). In Britain he was elected as one of the Top 10 Britons of all time in a 2002 BBC poll.[1] His measures against Irish Catholics have been characterized by some historians as genocidal or near-genocidal,[2] and in Ireland itself he is widely hated.[3][4]

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English soldier and statesman who led parliamentary forces in the English Civil Wars; he was lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 to 1658 during the republican Commonwealth.

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Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. He was one of the commanders of the New Model Army which defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oliver_Cromwell

__________________________

"CROMWELL, OLIVER (1599-1638), lord protector of England, was the 5th and only surviving son of Robert Cromwell of Huntingdon and of Elizabeth. Steward, widow of William Lynn. His paternal grandfather was Sir Henry Cromwell of Hinchinbrook, a leading personage in Huntingdonshire, and grandson of Richard Williams, knighted by Henry VIII., nephew of Thomas Cromwell, earl of Essex, Henry VIII's minister, whose name he adopted. His mother was descended from a family named Styward in Norfolk, which was not, however, connected in any way, as has been often asserted, with the royal house of Stuart. Oliver was born on the 25th of April 1599, was educated ander Dr Thomas Beard, a fervent puritan, at the free school at Huntingdon, and on the 23rd of April 1616 matriculated as a fellow-commoner at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, then a hotbed of puritanism, subsequently studying law in London. The royalist anecdotes relating to his youth, including charges of ill-conduct, do not deserve credit, the entries in the register of St Johns, Huntingdon, noting Oliver's submission on two occasions to church censure being forgeries; but it is not improbable that his youth was wild and possibly dissolute. According to Edmund Waller he was very well read in the Greek and Roman story. Burnet declares he had little Latin, but he was able to converse with the Dutch ambassador in that language. According to James Heath in his Flagellum, he was more famous for his exercises in the fields than in. the schools, being one of the chief match-makers and players at football, cudgels, or any other boisterous game or sport. On the 22nd of August 1620 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Bourchier, a city merchant of Tower Hill, and of Felstead in Essex; and his father having died in 1617 he settled at Huntingdon and occupied himself in the management of his small estate. In 1628 he was returned to parliament as member for the borough, and on. the 11th of February 1629 he spoke in. support of puritan doctrine, complaining of the attempt by the king to silence Dr Beard, who had raised his voice against the flat popery inculcated by Dr Alabaster at Pauls Cross. He was also one of the members who refused to adjourn at the kings command till Sir John Eliots resolutions had been passed. [long article] During the period following the dissolution Cromwell's power appeared outwardly at least to be at its height. The revolts of royalists and sectaries against his government had been easily suppressed, and the various attempts to assassinate him, contemptuously referred to by Cromwell as little fiddling things, were anticipated and prevented by an excellent system of police and spies, and by his bodyguard of 160 men. The victory at Dunkirk increased his reputation, while Louis XIV. showed his respect for the ruler of England by the splendid reception given to the Protectors envoy, Lord Fauconberg, and by a complirnentary mission despatched to England.

The great career, the incidents of which we have been following, was now, however, drawing to a close. Cromwell's health had long been impaired by the hardships of campaigning. Now at the age of 58 he was already old, and his firm, strong signature had become feeble and trembling. The responsibilities and anxieties of government unassisted by parliament, and the continued struggle against the force of anarchy, weighed upon him and exhausted his physical powers. It has been hitherto, Cromwell said, a matter of, I think, but philosophical discourse, that a great place, a great authority, is a great burthen. I know it is.[poor OCR translation here] I can say in the presence of God, in comparison of whom we are but like poor creeping ants upon the earth, I would have lived under my woodside to have kept a flock of sheep rather than undertook such a government as this. I doubt not to say, declared his steward Maidston, it drank up his spirits, of which his natural constitution afforded a vast stock, and brought him to his grave.

Domestic bereavements added further causes of grief and of weakened vitality. On the 6th of February 1658 he lost his favorite daughter, Elizabeth Claypole, and he was much cast down by the shock of his bereavement and of her long sufferings. Shortly afterwards he fell ill of an intermittent fever, but seemed to recover. On the 20th of August George Fox met him riding at the head of his guards in the park at Hampton Court, but declared he looked like a dead man. The next day he again fell ill and was removed from Hampton Court to Whitehall, where his condition became worse. The anecdotes believed and circulated by the royalists that Cromwell died in all the agonies of remorse and fear are entirely false. On the 31st of August he seemed to rally, and one who slept in his bedchamber Death and who heard him praying, declared, a public spirit to Gods cause did breathe in him to the very last. During the next few days he grew weaker and resigned himself to death. I would, he said, be willing to be further serviceable to God and his people, but my work is done. For the first time doubts as to his spiritual state seemed to have troubled him. Tell me is it possible to fall from grace? he asked the attendant minister. No, it is not possible, the latter replied. Then, said Cromwell, I am safe, for I know that I was once in grace. He refused medicine to induce sleep, declaring it is not my design to drink or to sleep, but my design is to make what haste I can to be gone. Towards the morning of the 3rd of September he again spoke, using divers holy expressions, implying much inward consolation and peace, together with some exceeding self-debasing words, annihilating and judging himself. He died on the afternoon of the same day, his day of triumph, the anniversary both of Dunbar and of Worcester. His body was privately buried in the chapel of Henry VII. in Westminster Abbey, the public funeral taking place on the 23rd of November, with great ceremony and on the same scale as that of Philip II. of Spain, and costing the enormous sum of 60,000. At the Restoration his body was exhumed, and on the 30th of January 1661, the anniversary of the execution of Charles I., it was drawn on a sledge from Holborn to Tyburn, together with the bodies of Ireton and Bradshaw, accompanied by the universal outcry and curses of the people. There it was hanged on a gallows, and in the evening taken down, when the head was cut off and set up upon Westminster Hall, where it remained till as late as 1684, the trunk being thrown into a pit underneath the gallows. According to various legends Cromwells last burial place is stated to be Westminster Abbey, Naseby Field or Newburgh Abbey; but there appears to be no evidence to support them, or to create any reasonable doubt that the great Protectors dust lies now where it was buried, in the neighborhood of the present Connaught Square. [article continues, on Cromwell's military accomplishments]" - Encyclopedia Britannica, 1911

http://capecodhistory.us/genealogy/getperson.php?personID=I7882&tree=Nauset

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Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland's Timeline

1599
April 25, 1599
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
April 29, 1599
St. Johns Church, Huntingdon, England
April 29, 1599
St. Johns Church, Huntingdon, England
1620
August 22, 1620
Age 21
London, Middlesex, England
1621
1621
Age 21
1623
1623
Age 23
1624
August 1, 1624
Age 25
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire (Present Cambridgeshire), England, (Present UK)
1626
October 4, 1626
Age 27
Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire, England
1628
January 20, 1628
Age 28
January 20, 1628
Age 28
Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, England