Owain Fawr ap Gruffudd, King of Gwynedd

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Owain Fawr ap Gruffudd (ap Gruffydd), King of Gwynedd

Birthdate:
Birthplace: Caernarvonshire, Wales, (Present UK)
Death: Died in Caernarvonshire, Wales, (Present UK)
Place of Burial: Bangor Cathedral, Is Gwyrfai, Bangor, Caernarvonshire, Wales, United Kingdom
Immediate Family:

Son of Gruffydd ap Cynan and Angharad verch Owain
Husband of Gwenllian Verch Ednywain; Angharad ferch Peredur; Morfudd Verch ELFAN; Gwladys Queen of Gwynedd and Cristin I ferch verch Gronwy
Partner of Anedd Verch Gwrgi and Ffynnod (Pyfog) Wyddeles
Father of Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd; Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd; Gwenllian verch Owain Gwynedd; Iorwerth ab Owain, Prince in Wales; Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd, Brenin of Gwynedd and 10 others
Brother of Gwenllian verch Gruffydd; Gwenllian II verch Gruffydd; Rhanullt verch Gruffydd; Susanna verch Gruffydd; Elen Verch Gruffydd and 12 others
Half brother of Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd

Occupation: Prince of North Wales; claimed to be King of Wales., King of Gwynedd, king of gwynedd, Prince of North Wales, King of Wales
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Owain Fawr ap Gruffudd (ap Gruffydd), King of Gwynedd

  • Owain "Fawr" ap Gruffydd Prince of Gwynedd

born about 1087 Caernarvonshire, Wales

died December 1169 Caernarvonshire, Wales

buried Bangor Cathedral, Is Gwyrfai, Caernarvonshire, Wales

father:

  • Gruffydd ap Cynan Prince of Gwynedd

born 1055 Dublin, Ireland

died 1137 Caernarvonshire, Wales

buried Bangor Cathedral, Is Gwyrfai, Caernarvonshire, Wales

mother:

  • Angharad verch Owain of Tegaingl

born about 1065 Tegaingl, Flintshire, Wales

died 1162

married about 1082

siblings:

  • Rhanullt verch Gruffydd born about 1083 Caernarvonshire, Wales
  • Susanna verch Gruffydd born about 1095 Caernarvonshire, Wales
  • Gwenllian verch Gruffydd born about 1085 Aberffraw Castle, Caernarvonshire, Wales

died 1136 Battle of Maes

  • Yslani verch Gruffudd born about 1104 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Membyr "Ddu" ap Gruffydd born about 1114 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Rhael verch Gruffydd born about 1116 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Annes verch Gruffydd born about 1118 Caernarvonshire, Wales

  • Margred verch Gruffydd born about 1120 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Tudwal ap Gruffydd born about 1122 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Elen verch Gruffydd born about 1089 Aberffraw Castle, Anglesey, Wales

Merinedd verch Gruffydd born about 1091 Aberffraw Castle, Anglesey, Wales

  • Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd born about 1096 Caernarvonshire, Wales

died March 1172 buried Bangor, Caernarvonshire, Wales

Cadwallon ap Gruffydd born about 1097 Caernarvonshire, Walesey, Wales died 1132

spouse (1st):

  • Gwladus verch Llywarch

born about 1098 Arwystli, Montgomeryshire, Wales

married about 1126

children (from 1st marriage):

  • Iorwerth "Drwyndwn" ap Owain born 1145? Aberffraw Castle, Aberffraw, Anglsy, Wales

died about 1184

  • Gwenllian I verch Owain born about 1124 Caernarvonshire, Wales
  • Cynan ap Owain born about 1140? Caernarvonshire, Wales died 1173

Rhirid ap Owain born about 1132 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Einion ap Owain born about 1144 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Madog ap Owain born about 1142 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Cynwrig I ap Owain born about 1145 Caernarvonshire, Wales died after 1165

Cadell ap Owain born about 1143 Caernarvonshire, Wales

Maelgwn ap Owain born about 1126 Caernarvonshire, Wales died afert 1174

spouse (2nd):

  • Cristin verch Gronwy

born about 1105 Tegaingl, Flintshire, Wales

children (from 2nd marriage):

  • Angharad verch Owain of Gwynedd

Marared verch Owain of Gwynedd

Ievan ap Owain of Gwynedd

Gwenllian II verch Owain born about 1130 Caernarvonshire, Wales

  • Rhodri ap Owain born about 1136 Caernarvonshire, Wales

died 1195 buried Holyhead, Talybolion, Anglesey, Wales

Dafydd ap Owain Prince of Gwynedd

Cynwrig II ap Owain born about 1147 Caernarvonshire, Wales

biographical and/or anecdotal:

notes or source:

LDS

--------------------

  1. ID: I4377
  2. Name: Owain Gwynedd Ap Gruffudd
  3. Given Name: Owain Gwynedd Ap
  4. Surname: Gruffudd
  5. Suffix: King Of Gwynedd 1 2
  6. Sex: M
  7. Birth: Abt 1100 in The Forgotten Monarchy of Scotland" 3
  8. Death: 28 Nov 1170 in Bangor Cathedral, Is Gwyrfai, Caernarvonshire, Wales 1 1 2 2
  9. Burial: Bangor Cathedral
  10. Change Date: 21 Sep 2005 at 15:22

Father: Gruffudd ap Cyan b: 1055 in Dublin, Ireland

Mother: Angharat verch Owain b: Abt 1065 in Tegeingl, Flintshire, Wales

Marriage 1 Gwladus Verch Llywarch b: Abt 1100 in Arwystli, Montgomeryshire, Wales

   * Married: Bef 1125 in <, , Caernarvonshire, Wales>
   * Change Date: 21 Sep 2005

Children

  1. Has Children Gwenllian verch Owain b: Abt 1125 in Caernarvonshire, Wales
  2. Has Children LOWERTH "Drwyndwn" Ap Owain b: 1145 in Aberfraw Castle, Aberfraw, Anglsy, Wales

Sources:

  1. Abbrev: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
     Title: Encyclopedia Britannica, Treatise on
     Date: 13 Nov 2000
     Page: UK-Wales Macropaedia p 124
     Quality: 3
  2. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots Of Sixty Colonists Who Came To New Englan d Between 1623 And 1650
     Title: Ancestral Roots Of Sixty Colonists Who Came To New England Between 1623And 1650
     Author: Weis, Frederick Lewis
     Publication: Genealogical Publishing Co. Inc., 1992
     Date: 7 Jun 2004
     Repository:
     Page: 176-5
     Quality: 3
  3. Abbrev: Ancestral Roots Of Sixty Colonists Who Came To New Englan d Between 1623 And 1650
     Title: Ancestral Roots Of Sixty Colonists Who Came To New England Between 1623And 1650
     Author: Weis, Frederick Lewis
     Publication: Genealogical Publishing Co. Inc., 1992
     Date: 7 Jun 2004
     Repository:
     Page: 239-6
     

Owain Gwynedd

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | 2008 | The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright 2008 Columbia University Press. (Hide copyright information) Copyright

Owain Gwynedd , d. 1170, prince of North Wales (1137-70). During the troubled reign of King Stephen of England, Owain and other Welsh princes were able to reoccupy much territory earlier wrested from them by the Anglo-Normans. Henry II of England invaded North Wales in 1157 and, though his expedition was a military failure, compelled Owain to do homage. In 1165, however, Owain inspired a general Welsh revolt, and the English army that attempted to quell it was forced to turn back because of bad weather and short supplies. Owain continued to expand his possessions and enjoyed independence until his death.

...

Read entire entry

Owain Gwynedd , d. 1170, prince of North Wales (1137-70). During the troubled reign of King Stephen of England, Owain and other Welsh princes were able to reoccupy much territory earlier wrested from them by the Anglo-Normans. Henry II of England invaded North Wales in 1157 and, though his expedition was a military failure, compelled Owain to do homage. In 1165, however, Owain inspired a general Welsh revolt, and the English army that attempted to quell it was forced to turn back because of bad weather and short supplies. Owain continued to expand his possessions and enjoyed independence until his death.

--------------------

Owain Gwynedd

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Owain Gwynedd (in English, "Owen") (c. 1100–November 28, 1170), alternatively known by the patronymic "Owain ap Gruffydd". He is occasionally referred to as Owain I of Gwynedd, or Owain I of Wales on account of his claim to be King of Wales. He is considered to be the most successful of all the north Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He was known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from another contemporary Owain ap Gruffydd, ruler of part of Powys who was known as Owain Cyfeiliog. Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, a descendant of the senior branch from Rhodri Mawr.

Early life

Owain's father, Gruffydd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign, using the island of Anglesey as his power base. His mother, Angharad ferch Owain, was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin. Owain was the second of three sons of Gruffydd and Angharad.

Owain is thought to have been born on Anglesey about the year 1100. By about 1120 Gruffydd had grown too old to lead his forces in battle and Owain and his brothers Cadwallon and later Cadwaladr led the forces of Gwynedd against the Normans and against other Welsh princes with great success. His elder brother Cadwallon was killed in a battle against the forces of Powys in 1132, leaving Owain as his father's heir. Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, won a major victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and annexed Ceredigion to their father's realm.

[edit]Accession to the throne and early campaigns

On Gruffydd's death in 1137, therefore, Owain inherited a portion of a well-established kingdom, but had to share it with Cadwaladr. In 1143 Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Anarawd ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth, and Owain responded by sending his son Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd to strip him of his lands in the north of Ceredigion. Though Owain was later reconciled with Cadwaladr, from 1143, Owain ruled alone over most of north Wales. In 1155 Cadwaladr was driven into exile.

Owain took advantage of the civil war in England between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda to push Gwynedd's boundaries further east than ever before. In 1146 he captured the castle of Mold and about 1150 captured Rhuddlan and encroached on the borders of Powys. The prince of Powys, Madog ap Maredudd, with assistance from Earl Ranulf of Chester, gave battle at Coleshill, but Owain was victorious.

[edit]War with King Henry II

All went well until the accession of King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry invaded Gwynedd in 1157 with the support of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys and Owain's brother Cadwaladr. The invasion met with mixed fortunes. King Henry was nearly killed at the Battle of Ewloe near Basingwerk and the fleet accompanying the invasion made a landing on Anglesey where it was defeated. Owain was however forced to come to terms with Henry, being obliged to surrender Rhuddlan and other conquests in the east.

Madog ap Maredudd died in 1160, enabling Owain to regain territory in the east. In 1163 he formed an alliance with Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth to challenge English rule. King Henry again invaded Gwynedd in 1165, but instead of taking the usual route along the northern coastal plain, the king's army invaded from Oswestry and took a route over the Berwyn hills. The invasion was met by an alliance of all the Welsh princes, with Owain as the undisputed leader. However, appart from a small melee at the Battle of Crogen there was little fighting, for the Welsh weather came to Owain's assistance as torrential rain forced Henry to retreat in disorder. The infuriated Henry mutilated a number of Welsh hostages, including two of Owain's sons.

Henry did not invade Gwynedd again and Owain was able to regain his eastern conquests, recapturing Rhuddlan castle in 1167 after a siege of three months.

[edit]Disputes with the church and succession

The last years of Owain's life were spent in disputes with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, over the appointment of a new Bishop of Bangor. When the see became vacant Owain had his nominee, Arthur of Bardsey, elected. The archbishop refused to accept this, so Owain had Arthur consecrated in Ireland. The dispute continued, and the see remained officially vacant until well after Owain's death. He was also put under pressure by the Archbishop and the Pope to put aside his second wife, Cristin, who was his first cousin, this relationship making the marriage invalid under church law. Despite being excommunicated for his defiance, Owain steadfastly refused to put Cristin aside. Owain died in 1170, and despite having been excommunicated was buried in Bangor Cathedral by the local clergy. The annalist writing Brut y Tywysogion recorded his death "after innumerable victories, and unconquered from his youth".

He is believed to have commissioned the propaganda text, The Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan, an account of his father's life. Following his death, civil war broke out between his sons. Owain was married twice, first to Gwladus ferch Llywarch ap Trahaearn, by whom he had two sons, Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd and Iorwerth Drwyndwn, the father of Llywelyn the Great, then to Cristin, by whom he had three sons including Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd and Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd. He also had a number of illegitimate sons, who by Welsh law had an equal claim on the inheritance if acknowledged by their father.

[edit]Heirs and Successors

Owain had originally designated Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor. Rhun was Owain's favourite son, and his premature death in 1147 plunged his father into a deep melancholy, from which he was only roused by the news that his forces had captured Mold castle. Owain then designated Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor, but after his death Hywel was first driven to seek refuge in Ireland by Cristin's sons, Dafydd and Rhodri, then killed at the battle of Pentraeth when he returned with an Irish army. Dafydd and Rhodri split Gwynedd between them, but a generation passed before Gwynedd was restored to its former glory under Owain's grandson Llywelyn the Great.

According to legend, one of Owain's sons was Prince Madoc, who is popularly supposed to have fled across the Atlantic and colonised America.

Altogether, the prolific Owain Gwynedd is said to have had the following children from two wives and at least four mistresses:

Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Iorwerth ab Owain Gwynedd (from first wife Gwladys (Gladys) ferch Llywarch)

Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Ynys Môn

Gwenllian ferch Owain Gwynedd

Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (from second wife Cristina (Christina) ferch Gronw)

Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd

Angharad ferch Owain Gwynedd

Margaret ferch Owain Gwynedd

Iefan ab Owain Gwynedd

Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Meirionnydd (illegitimate)

Rhirid ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Madoc ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Cynwrig ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Gwenllian II ferch Owain Gwynedd (also shared the same name with a sister)

Einion ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Iago ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Ffilip ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Cadell ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Rotpert ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Idwal ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Other daughters

[edit]Fiction

Owain is a recurring character in the Brother Cadfael series of novels by Ellis Peters, often referred to, and appearing in the novels Dead Man's Ransom and The Summer of the Danes. He acts shrewdly to keep Wales's borders secure, and sometimes to expand them, during the civil war between King Stephen and Maud, and sometimes acts as an ally to Cadfael and his friend, Sheriff Hugh Beringar. Cadwaladr also appears in both these novels as a source of grief for his brother.

[edit]References

John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.)

K.L. Maund (ed) (1996). Gruffudd ap Cynan : a collaborative biography. Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-389-5.

Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 176B-25, 239-6

Owain ap Gruffyd, King of Gwynedd was born circa 1100.1 He was the son of Gruffydd  ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd and Angharad  ferch Owain.1  He married, firstly, Gwladus ferch Llywarch, daughter of Llywarch  ap Trahaearn.  He married, secondly, Cristin  ferch Goronwy, daughter of Goronwy ap Owain.1  He died on 28 November 1170.
    Owain ap Gruffyd, King of Gwynedd was also known as Owain Gwynedd. He succeeded to the title of King of Gwynedd in 1137.

http://thepeerage.com/p10260.htm#i102594

--------------------

Owain Gwynedd

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Owain Gwynedd (in English, "Owen") (c. 1100–November 28, 1170), alternatively known by the patronymic "Owain ap Gruffydd". He is occasionally referred to as Owain I of Gwynedd, or Owain I of Wales on account of his claim to be King of Wales. He is considered to be the most successful of all the north Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He was known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from another contemporary Owain ap Gruffydd, ruler of part of Powys who was known as Owain Cyfeiliog. Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, a descendant of the senior branch from Rhodri Mawr.

Early life

Owain's father, Gruffydd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign, using the island of Anglesey as his power base. His mother, Angharad ferch Owain, was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin. Owain was the second of three sons of Gruffydd and Angharad.

Owain is thought to have been born on Anglesey about the year 1100. By about 1120 Gruffydd had grown too old to lead his forces in battle and Owain and his brothers Cadwallon and later Cadwaladr led the forces of Gwynedd against the Normans and against other Welsh princes with great success. His elder brother Cadwallon was killed in a battle against the forces of Powys in 1132, leaving Owain as his father's heir. Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, won a major victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and annexed Ceredigion to their father's realm.

Accession to the throne and early campaigns

On Gruffydd's death in 1137, therefore, Owain inherited a portion of a well-established kingdom, but had to share it with Cadwaladr. In 1143 Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Anarawd ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth, and Owain responded by sending his son Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd to strip him of his lands in the north of Ceredigion. Though Owain was later reconciled with Cadwaladr, from 1143, Owain ruled alone over most of north Wales. In 1155 Cadwaladr was driven into exile.

Owain took advantage of the civil war in England between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda to push Gwynedd's boundaries further east than ever before. In 1146 he captured the castle of Mold and about 1150 captured Rhuddlan and encroached on the borders of Powys. The prince of Powys, Madog ap Maredudd, with assistance from Earl Ranulf of Chester, gave battle at Coleshill, but Owain was victorious.

War with King Henry II

All went well until the accession of King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry invaded Gwynedd in 1157 with the support of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys and Owain's brother Cadwaladr. The invasion met with mixed fortunes. King Henry was nearly killed in a skirmish near Basingwerk and the fleet accompanying the invasion made a landing on Anglesey where it was defeated. Owain was however forced to come to terms with Henry, being obliged to surrender Rhuddlan and other conquests in the east.

Madog ap Maredudd died in 1160, enabling Owain to regain territory in the east. In 1163 he formed an alliance with Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth to challenge English rule. King Henry again invaded Gwynedd in 1165, but instead of taking the usual route along the northern coastal plain, the king's army invaded from Oswestry and took a route over the Berwyn hills. The invasion was met by an alliance of all the Welsh princes, with Owain as the undisputed leader. However there was little fighting, for the Welsh weather came to Owain's assistance as torrential rain forced Henry to retreat in disorder. The infuriated Henry mutilated a number of Welsh hostages, including two of Owain's sons.

Henry did not invade Gwynedd again and Owain was able to regain his eastern conquests, recapturing Rhuddlan castle in 1167 after a siege of three months.

Disputes with the church and succession

The last years of Owain's life were spent in disputes with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, over the appointment of a new Bishop of Bangor. When the see became vacant Owain had his nominee, Arthur of Bardsey, elected. The archbishop refused to accept this, so Owain had Arthur consecrated in Ireland. The dispute continued, and the see remained officially vacant until well after Owain's death. He was also put under pressure by the Archbishop and the Pope to put aside his second wife, Cristin, who was his first cousin, this relationship making the marriage invalid under church law. Despite being excommunicated for his defiance, Owain steadfastly refused to put Cristin aside. Owain died in 1170, and despite having been excommunicated was buried in Bangor Cathedral by the local clergy. The annalist writing Brut y Tywysogion recorded his death "after innumerable victories, and unconquered from his youth".

He is believed to have commissioned the propaganda text, The Life of Gruffydd ap Cynan, an account of his father's life. Following his death, civil war broke out between his sons. Owain was married twice, first to Gwladus ferch Llywarch ap Trahaearn, by whom he had two sons, Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd and Iorwerth Drwyndwn, the father of Llywelyn the Great, then to Cristin, by whom he had three sons including Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd and Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd. He also had a number of illegitimate sons, who by Welsh law had an equal claim on the inheritance if acknowledged by their father.

Heirs and Successors

Owain had originally designated Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor. Rhun was Owain's favourite son, and his premature death in 1147 plunged his father into a deep melancholy, from which he was only roused by the news that his forces had captured Mold castle. Owain then designated Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor, but after his death Hywel was first driven to seek refuge in Ireland by Cristin's sons, Dafydd and Rhodri, then killed at the battle of Pentraeth when he returned with an Irish army. Dafydd and Rhodri split Gwynedd between them, but a generation passed before Gwynedd was restored to its former glory under Owain's grandson Llywelyn the Great.

According to legend, one of Owain's sons was Prince Madoc, who is popularly supposed to have fled across the Atlantic and colonised America. Altogether the prodigous Owain Gwynedd is said to have had the following children from two wives and at least four mistresses:

Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Iorwerth ab Owain Gwynedd (from first wife Gwladys (Gladys) ferch Llywarch)

Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Ynys Môn

Gwenllian ferch Owain Gwynedd

Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (from second wife Cristina (Christina) ferch Gronw)

Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd

Angharad ferch Owain Gwynedd

Margaret ferch Owain Gwynedd

Iefan ab Owain Gwynedd

Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Meirionnydd (illegitimate)

Rhirid ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Madoc ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Cynwrig ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Gwenllian II ferch Owain Gwynedd (also shared the same name with a sister!)

Einion ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Iago ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Ffilip ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Cadell ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Rotpert ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Idwal ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Other daughters

Fiction

Owain is a recurring character in the Brother Cadfael series of novels by Ellis Peters, often referred to, and appearing in the novels Dead Man's Ransom and The Summer of the Danes. He acts shrewdly to keep Wales's borders secure, and sometimes to expand them, during the civil war between King Stephen and Maud, and sometimes acts as an ally to Cadfael and his friend, Sheriff Hugh Beringar. Cadwaladr also appears in both these novels as a source of grief for his brother.

References

John Edward Lloyd (1911) A history of Wales from the earliest times to the Edwardian conquest (Longmans, Green & Co.)

K.L. Maund (ed) (1996). Gruffudd ap Cynan : a collaborative biography. Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-389-5.

Ancestral Roots of Certain American Colonists Who Came to America Before 1700 by Frederick Lewis Weis, Lines: 176B-25, 239-6

--------------------

Owain Gwynedd (in English, "Owen") (c. 1100–November 28, 1170), alternatively known by the patronymic "Owain ap Gruffydd". He is occasionally referred to as Owain I of Gwynedd, or Owain I of Wales on account of his claim to be King of Wales. He is considered to be the most successful of all the north Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He was known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from another contemporary Owain ap Gruffydd, ruler of part of Powys who was known as Owain Cyfeiliog. Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, a descendant of the senior branch from Rhodri Mawr.

Owain's father, Gruffydd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign, using the island of Anglesey as his power base. His mother, Angharad ferch Owain, was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin. Owain was the second of three sons of Gruffydd and Angharad.

Owain is thought to have been born on Anglesey about the year 1100. By about 1120 Gruffydd had grown too old to lead his forces in battle and Owain and his brothers Cadwallon and later Cadwaladr led the forces of Gwynedd against the Normans and against other Welsh princes with great success. His elder brother Cadwallon was killed in a battle against the forces of Powys in 1132, leaving Owain as his father's heir. Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, won a major victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and annexed Ceredigion to their father's realm.

Owain had originally designated Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor. Rhun was Owain's favourite son, and his premature death in 1147 plunged his father into a deep melancholy, from which he was only roused by the news that his forces had captured Mold castle. Owain then designated Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor, but after his death Hywel was first driven to seek refuge in Ireland by Cristin's sons, Dafydd and Rhodri, then killed at the battle of Pentraeth when he returned with an Irish army. Dafydd and Rhodri split Gwynedd between them, but a generation passed before Gwynedd was restored to its former glory under Owain's grandson Llywelyn the Great.

According to legend, one of Owain's sons was Prince Madoc, who is popularly supposed to have fled across the Atlantic and colonised America.

Altogether, the prolific Owain Gwynedd is said to have had the following children from two wives and at least four mistresses:

Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Iorwerth ab Owain Gwynedd (from first wife Gwladys (Gladys) ferch Llywarch)

Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Ynys Môn

Gwenllian ferch Owain Gwynedd

Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (from second wife Cristina (Christina) ferch Gronw)

Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd

Angharad ferch Owain Gwynedd

Margaret ferch Owain Gwynedd

Iefan ab Owain Gwynedd

Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Meirionnydd (illegitimate)

Rhirid ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Madoc ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Cynwrig ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Gwenllian II ferch Owain Gwynedd (also shared the same name with a sister!)

Einion ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Iago ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Ffilip ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Cadell ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Rotpert ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Idwal ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Other daughters -------------------- Owain Gwynedd (in English, "Owen") (c. 1100–November 28, 1170), alternatively known by the patronymic "Owain ap Gruffydd". He is occasionally referred to as Owain I of Gwynedd, or Owain I of Wales on account of his claim to be King of Wales. He is considered to be the most successful of all the north Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He was known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from another contemporary Owain ap Gruffydd, ruler of part of Powys who was known as Owain Cyfeiliog. Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, a descendant of the senior branch from Rhodri Mawr.

Owain's father, Gruffydd ap Cynan, was a strong and long-lived ruler who had made the principality of Gwynedd the most influential in Wales during the sixty-two years of his reign, using the island of Anglesey as his power base. His mother, Angharad ferch Owain, was the daughter of Owain ab Edwin. Owain was the second of three sons of Gruffydd and Angharad.

Owain is thought to have been born on Anglesey about the year 1100. By about 1120 Gruffydd had grown too old to lead his forces in battle and Owain and his brothers Cadwallon and later Cadwaladr led the forces of Gwynedd against the Normans and against other Welsh princes with great success. His elder brother Cadwallon was killed in a battle against the forces of Powys in 1132, leaving Owain as his father's heir. Owain and Cadwaladr, in alliance with Gruffydd ap Rhys of Deheubarth, won a major victory over the Normans at Crug Mawr near Cardigan in 1136 and annexed Ceredigion to their father's realm.

Owain had originally designated Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor. Rhun was Owain's favourite son, and his premature death in 1147 plunged his father into a deep melancholy, from which he was only roused by the news that his forces had captured Mold castle. Owain then designated Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd as his successor, but after his death Hywel was first driven to seek refuge in Ireland by Cristin's sons, Dafydd and Rhodri, then killed at the battle of Pentraeth when he returned with an Irish army. Dafydd and Rhodri split Gwynedd between them, but a generation passed before Gwynedd was restored to its former glory under Owain's grandson Llywelyn the Great.

According to legend, one of Owain's sons was Prince Madoc, who is popularly supposed to have fled across the Atlantic and colonised America.

Altogether, the prolific Owain Gwynedd is said to have had the following children from two wives and at least four mistresses:

Rhun ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Iorwerth ab Owain Gwynedd (from first wife Gwladys (Gladys) ferch Llywarch)

Maelgwn ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Ynys Môn

Gwenllian ferch Owain Gwynedd

Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd (from second wife Cristina (Christina) ferch Gronw)

Rhodri ab Owain Gwynedd

Angharad ferch Owain Gwynedd

Margaret ferch Owain Gwynedd

Iefan ab Owain Gwynedd

Cynan ab Owain Gwynedd, Lord of Meirionnydd (illegitimate)

Rhirid ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Madoc ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Cynwrig ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Gwenllian II ferch Owain Gwynedd (also shared the same name with a sister!)

Einion ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Iago ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Ffilip ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Cadell ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Rotpert ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Idwal ab Owain Gwynedd (illegitimate)

Other daughters -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owain_Gwynedd -------------------- Owain Gwynedd (in English, "Owen"), alternatively known by the patronymic "Owain ap Gruffydd," is occasionally referred to as Owain I of Gwynedd, or Owain I of Wales on account of his claim to be King of Wales. He is considered to be the most successful of all the north Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He was known as Owain Gwynedd to distinguish him from another contemporary Owain ap Gruffydd, ruler of part of Powys who was known as Owain Cyfeiliog.

In 1137 Owain inherited a portion of a well-established kingdom of Gwynedd, but he had to share it with his brother Cadwaladr. In 1143 Cadwaladr was implicated in the murder of Anarawd ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth, and Owain responded by sending his son Hywel ab Owain Gwynedd to strip him of his lands in the north of Ceredigion. Though Owain was later reconciled with Cadwaladr, from 1143, Owain ruled alone over most of north Wales. In 1155 Cadwaladr was driven into exile.

Owain took advantage of the civil war in England between King Stephen and the Empress Matilda to push Gwynedd's boundaries further east than ever before. In 1146 he captured the castle of Mold and about 1150 captured Rhuddlan and encroached on the borders of Powys. The prince of Powys, Madog ap Maredudd, with assistance from Earl Ranulf of Chester, gave battle at Coleshill, but Owain was victorious.

All went well until the accession of King Henry II of England in 1154. Henry invaded Gwynedd in 1157 with the support of Madog ap Maredudd of Powys and Owain's brother Cadwaladr. The invasion met with mixed fortunes. King Henry was nearly killed in a skirmish near Basingwerk and the fleet accompanying the invasion made a landing on Anglesey where it was defeated. Owain was however forced to come to terms with Henry, being obliged to surrender Rhuddlan and other conquests in the east.

Madog ap Maredudd died in 1160, enabling Owain to regain territory in the east. In 1163 he formed an alliance with Rhys ap Gruffydd of Deheubarth to challenge English rule. King Henry again invaded Gwynedd in 1165, but instead of taking the usual route along the northern coastal plain, the King's army invaded from Oswestry and took a route over the Berwyn hills. The invasion was met by an alliance of all the Welsh princes, with Owain as the undisputed leader. However there was little fighting, for the Welsh weather came to Owain's assistance as torrential rain forced Henry to retreat in disorder. The infuriated Henry mutilated a number of Welsh hostages, including two of Owain's sons.

Henry did not invade Gwynedd again and Owain was able to regain his eastern conquests, recapturing Rhuddlan castle in 1167 after a siege of three months.

The last years of Owain's life were spent in disputes with the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, over the appointment of a new Bishop of Bangor. When the see became vacant Owain had his nominee, Arthur of Bardsey, elected. The archbishop refused to accept this, so Owain had Arthur consecrated in Ireland. The dispute continued, and the see remained officially vacant until well after Owain's death. He was also put under pressure by the Archbishop and the Pope to put aside his second wife, Cristin, who was his first cousin, this relationship making the marriage invalid under church law. Despite being excommunicated for his defiance, Owain steadfastly refused to put Cristin aside. Owain died in 1170, and despite having been excommunicated was buried in Bangor Cathedral by the local clergy. The annalist writing Brut y Tywysogion recorded his death "after innumerable victories, and unconquered from his youth."

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owain_Gwynedd for considerably more information.

-------------------- Also called OWAIN AP GRUFFYDD, GRUFFYDD also spelled GRUFFUDD (d. 1170), last great king of North Wales (Gwynedd) who helped advance Welsh independence against Norman and English dominance.

Together with his brother Cadwaladr, Owain led three expeditions (1136-37) against the English stronghold of Ceredigion to the south. The brothers ravaged the region and established themselves there. Upon his father's death in 1137, Owain took the throne of North Wales. During the reign of the English king Stephen, Owain extended the boundaries of northern Wales almost to the city of Chester. Henry II, who succeeded to the English throne in 1154, challenged Owain in 1157. Both sides fared badly, and an agreement was reached whereby Owain withdrew to Rhuddlan and the River Clwyd and rendered homage. He kept the terms of the agreement until 1165, when he combined forces with Rhys ap Gruffydd, his nephew and the prince of South Wales, and with Owain Cyfeiliog (of the Powys region) against Henry. Thwarted by bad weather and unequal knowledge of the region, Henry was forced to turn back and yield the region to the Welsh. Owain once more regained the castles of Basingwerk and Rhuddlan and pushed the borders of Gwynedd to the estuary of the River Dee. He maintained northern Welsh independence throughout his lifetime, but succeeding generations were unequal to the task, and Gwynedd officially fell to the English in 1283.

See "The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan," Arthur Jones (Manchester, 1910).

Spouses

1Gwladus (or Gladys) verch Llywarch

FatherLlywarch ap Trahearn Prince of South Wales (~1070-1129)

MotherDyddgy of Builth

ChildrenIorworth (-1174)

Gwenllian I

2Cristin verch Gronwy

FatherGronwy ap Owain (~1073-1124)

MotherGenilles verch Hoedlyn

ChildrenAngharad

-------------------- From:

Owain ap Gruffudd (c. 1080 – 28 November 1170) was King of Gwynedd, north Wales, from 1137 until his death in 1170, succeeding his father Gruffudd ap Cynan. He was the first to be styled "Prince of Wales".[1] He is considered to be the most successful of all the North Welsh princes prior to his grandson, Llywelyn the Great. He became known as Owain Gwynedd (Middle Welsh: Owain Gwyned, "Owain of Gwynedd") to distinguish him from the contemporary king of southern Powys Owain ap Gruffydd ap Maredudd, who became known as "Owain Cyfeiliog". Owain Gwynedd was a member of the House of Aberffraw, the senior branch of the dynasty of Rhodri the Great.

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Owain Fawr ap Gruffudd, King of Gwynedd's Timeline

1100
1100
Caernarvonshire, Wales, (Present UK)
1120
1120
Age 20
Caenarvonshire, Wales, (Present UK)
1120
Age 20
Wales
1126
1126
Age 26
Castle Aberffraw, Anglesey, Wales, (Present UK)
1129
1129
Age 29
Aberffraw Castle, Aberffraw, Anglesey, Wales
1130
1130
Age 30
Caernarvonshire, Wales
1132
1132
Age 32
Caernarvonshire, Wales
1135
1135
Age 35
Arwystli, Montgomeryshire, Wales, (Present UK)
1136
1136
Age 36
Wales
1144
1144
Age 44
Caernarvonshire, Wales