About Patrick Joseph Hogan
From his British Army enlistment papers and from his stated age at death, Patrick Joseph Hogan was born in Knockhay near Limerick, Ireland in 1836. Knockhay has not been positively identified; the best match from Griffith's Valuation is Knockea in the parish of Cahernarry in the County of Limerick.
A Baptism record has not been positively identified; there are 9 Patrick Hogan's listed as being born/baptised in Limerick in 1836 on the rootsireland.ie website, though a parish called Cahernarry is not listed in the list of parish records indexed.
The names listed are:
- Patrick Hogan - father Cornelius Hogan, mother Johanna Donohue, baptised 6 February 1836, St John's parish;
- Patrick Hogan - father John Hogan, mother Bridget O'Neill, born 23 February 1836, St Michael's parish;
- Patrick Hogan - father John Hogan, mother Catherine Duhig, baptised 25 February 1836, Pullasgrean & Templebredon parish;
- Patrick Hogan - father Patrick Hogan, mother Catherine Comba, baptised 7 March 1836, Bruff parish;
- Patrick Hogan - father Thomas Hogan, mother Mary Finnerty, baptised 7 March 1836, Patrickswell parish;
- Patrick Hogan - father Kevin Hogan, mother Mary Benn, born 14 March 1836, St Michael's parish;
- Patrick Hogan - father Patrick Hogan, mother Catherine Dinahan, baptised 18 March 1836, St John's parish;
- Patrick Hogan - father Thomas Hogan, mother Mary Power, baptised 18 March 1836, Galbally & Aherlow parish.
As no baptism record has been identified, Patrick’s parents and siblings are unknown, except for a brother John Hogan (who wrote a letter to Patrick in 1860 and whose death in 1892 in Western Australia is recorded in a newspaper article).
Patrick survived the Irish Famine of the 1840's, which was a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration between October 1845, when the potato crop was destroyed by disease, and 1852. During the famine approximately 1 million people died of starvation and disease and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%. The potato was the principal food for the bulk of the population and the failure of the crop and British government actions and inactions to help the population through food supplies and public works had a lasting impact on the Irish society and countries such as the USA where many Irish emigrated to.
Patrick was 9 when the Famine commenced and 16 when it is considered to have ended. He joined the British Army aged 17.
From the British Army service records:
No. 3122, Private Patrick Hogan, born in the parish of Knockhay, in or near the town of Limerick in the county of Limerick, Ireland. Was attested for the 30th Regiment of Foot at Limerick in the county of Limerick on 15 January 1853 at the age of 17 years, so it is estimated he was born in 1836. He enlisted for a bounty of £4. He was illiterate as he signed the enlistment form with his mark.
Patrick was a member of the 30th Regiment of Foot from 15 January to 31 September 1853, though records show the Regiment was at Gibraltar at this time so he was probably in training in Ireland. He was transferred to the 41st Regiment on 1 October 1853, though again the 41st Regiment was in Malta with a depot company in Ireland; and finally he was transferred to the 33rd Regiment on 1 March 1854. The 33rd Regiment was in Ireland at Athone (border of counties Roscommon (province of Connacht) and Westmeath (province of Leinster). From Ireland the Regiment sailed for Scutari in Turkey before sailing for Calamita Bay on the Crimean Peninsular to take part in the Crimean War against Russia.
The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856) was a conflict between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Most of the conflict took place on the Crimean peninsula. Patrick participated in the Battle of Alma (20 September 1854), which is usually considered the first battle of the Crimean War (1853–1856), which took place just south of the River Alma in the Crimea.
The British, French and Turkish forces landed on the Crimean Peninsular on 14th September 1854 intending to capture the Russian naval base of Sevastopol on the South West of the Crimea.
The Anglo-French forces had landed on the western coast of the Crimean peninsula some 35 miles (56 km) north of Sevastopol, on the 13 September 1854, at Calamita Bay ("Calamity Bay"). Although disorganised and weakened by disease (mostly cholera and dysentery), the lack of opposition to these landings by the Russians allowed a beachhead of four miles (6 km) inland to be made. Six days later the two armies headed south. The allied army (British, French and Turkish) began the march south from the landing site on 19th September 1854. The French army marched by the coast with the Turkish contingent in its midst. The British in two columns took the inland flank. The Light Brigade of cavalry provided a screen to the front and left flank. Ships of the British and French navies sailed parallel and in advance of the armies.
A skirmish took place as the allied army crossed the Bulganek river on the first day of the 35 mile march to Sevastopol. As the Russians withdrew from the hills beyond the river, Lord Lucan sought to pursue them with the Light Brigade but was ordered to withdraw by Lord Raglan. The allied armies encamped on the high ground beyond the river.
The following day, 20 September 1854, at the second river, the River Alma, the Russians decided to stand. The battle plan was for the French forces on the western (nearest the sea) side to cross the river and scale the cliffs, while the British would attack in the centre and east. The British army was arranged in two lines; the first had the Light Division (which included the 33rd Foot) on the left under Sir George Brown and the 2nd Division under Sir George de Lacy Evans on the right. Unfortunately, the Light Division had not extended its line far enough to the left and as it advanced it did so at a slight angle. Soon the troops on the right of the Light Division and the left of the 2nd Division were merging. The parade ground precision with which the British had set off had now been lost. The Russians were now faced, not with a disciplined British formation, but by something with the outward appearance of a mob. As they charged, numerous Russian troops came down the slope to meet them. The British halted and fired, causing so many casualties the Russians were forced to retreat. The British line reorganised and moved up the slope towards the Great Redoubt, with the 33rd being the first to attack the defence works. The 33rd suffered heavy casualties in the hand-to-hand combat that ensued.
A contemporary newspaper records 'The 33rd regiment crossed the river in deep water up to their armpits under a shower of balls, and were first to reach the opposite bank' (Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette, Thursday 19 October 1854, p2).
Patrick was wounded in the battle, shot through the right thigh which also fractured his femur.
Contemporary newspaper accounts record 'the neglect of the wounded at Alma'. A naval officer reported 'The morning after the battle all the assistant surgeons of the fleet were sent to assist, and boats were sent to bring the wounded back to transports. ... The wounded had to be bought a distance of 5 miles to the boats, and only fancy, they had not the slightest means of conveyance for the poor fellows. The much talked about ambulance corps are left at Varna. The cars, which are perfect, are also left behind, and there are scarcely any stretchers. Immediately is was known to the Admiral he sent 50 from each ship to bring them down an a rough kind of stretchers made for the purpose. (Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette, Thursday 19 October 1854, p2).
The wounded were transported back to the Scutari Barracks (now known as the Selimiye Barracks), located in the Üsküdar district on the Asian part of Istanbul, Turkey. He survived the horrific conditions for the wounded, which resulted in the setting up of a hospital in the Barracks by Florence Nightingale. The barracks had been originally build in 1800 and rebuilt between 1825-1828 by the Turkish Army and during the Crimean War they were allocated to the British Army. After the troops of the 33rd and 41st regiments had left for the front, the barracks were converted into a temporary military hospital.
On November 4, 1854, Florence Nightingale arrived in Scutari with 38 volunteer nurses. They cared for thousands of wounded and infected soldiers until she returned home in 1857 as a heroine. Around 6,000 soldiers died in the Barracks during the war, mostly as the result of a cholera epidemic.
When they had recovered, the wounded were transported back to Britain and Patrick was discharged at Chatham, Kent, on 12 February 1856. "Rendered unfit for service by permanent and shortening of the right thigh after being shot and fracture of the femur received in action at the Crimea."
Patrick was awarded the Crimea War medal with the Alma clasp. This medal is held by Vincent Stone.
Church Marriage record for Patrick Hogan marrying Catherine O'Brien on 10 June 1857, St. Michael's, Limerick, Co. Limerick, Ireland. (from the rootsireland.ie site). Patrick married in Limerick and his first two children Thomas (born 1858) and Mary (born 1860) were born there.
The British Government had decided to use army pensioners as guards on convict ships to Australia instead of regular soldiers. The government offered military pensioners free transport for their families and a grant of land in return for guarding the convicts on the voyage and being available for the defence of the colony.
Patrick took the opportunity and the family, wife Catherine and children Thomas and Mary Jane, sailed on the convict ship Lincelles to Western Australia. The ship was said to have embarked convicts at Sheerness on 13 September 1861, Spithead, Portsmouth on 18 September with 80 convicts from the prison at Portsmouth and Portland on 23 September, finally leaving Portland, on 5 October 1861 with 306 convicts and 78 pensioner guards and their families bound for Fremantle. It is not known at which port Patrick and the family joined the ship, as a contemporary letter just records they left Portland on 5 October. The Lincelles arrived at Simon's Bay, Cape of Good Hope on 20 December 1861 for fresh provisions, departing on 29 December, arriving at Fremantle on 28 January 1862.
It is assumed the family lived in Perth until 1865 (daughter Catherine born in Perth in 1863), as there is an 1865 newspaper shipping notice for a P Hogan and family travelling to Champion Bay (Geraldton) (son John born in Geraldton in 1866).
The Perth Gazette and Western Australian Times, Friday 3 March 1865, p2.
Same day [ie 28 February 1865] -Les Trois Amis, 44 tons, Green, master, for Champion Bay. Passengers-Mr. C. Von Bibra, J. Eakins and family, P. Hogan and family, J. Tracy and family, P. Bagley and family. Cargo-20 cases gin (under bond), 13 bags potatoes and onions, and 49 pkgs. sundries.
Catholic education and Catholic schools was an issue in the 1860's and 70's after the colonial government had adopted a new government education policy in 1857 and ceased providing a grant for Catholic Education. In 1870 it was proposed the grant be reinstated, but this was rejected by the Legislative Council. The 22 March 1871 issue of the Enquirer and Commercial News, p3 includes an account of a meeting at Geraldton, chaired by the Catholic priest, Rev. Father Lecaille. A number of motions were passed including one seconded by P. Hogan that a petition be presented to the next session of the Legislative Council.
The 17 April 1872 issue of the Enquirer and Commercial News, p2 includes a list of donations for the construction of the new Catholic Church at Geraldton. Mr P. Hogan donated £1 12s.
22 September 1874, the Enquirer and Commercial News, p3 carried an advertisement from a group of electors, which included Patrick Hogan, nominating Maitland Brown for the Legislative Council election representing Geraldton.
The Western Australian Times, Tuesday 3 November 1874, P2, lists P. Hogan as among the list of guests to the luncheon for the Governor's visit to the Greenough.
Data from : The Veterans : a history of the enrolled Pensioner Force in Western Australia, 1850-1880 / F.H. Broomhall.
Hogan, Patrick Private 33rd Reg. @ 9d. per diem.
- 25 Feb 1863 Subscribed to Lancashire Relief Fund (Inquirer p2a)
- 29 Jan 1864 Subscribed to Greenough Fire Fund (Aid for the sufferers of the disastrous fire at the Greenough Flats, Pensioner Force - Perth district, Private P. Hogan, 1s. Perth Gazette p2b)
- 1868 Granted Greenough locations G.38 and G.39 totalling 40 acres
- 4 May 1874 Grant of Greenough Loc. G.38 confirmed.
- 6 Nov 1880 Will made
- 7 Nov 1880 Died. One Trustee, Martin Commerford, witness Susan Commerford, postmistress Geraldton. Wife Catherine, sons Thomas, John, Patrick and "my infant children".
There is also a second entry for Patrick Joseph Hogan, based on information provided by Hilda Lindsay, however both entries are for the same person.
"Stated to have arrived in "Lincelles" (29 Jan 1862). Wounded in Battle of the Alma [Crimean War]. Quartered in Fremantle Barracks. Married katherine - (who was born in Limerick). We have a letter written to her people from the Lincelles. She died in her ninties." Letter from Hilda Lindsay , 24 Oct 1970.
In the book there is a section on Champion Bay (which later became Geraldton). It shows a list of Pensioners who took up land. Listed is P.J. Hogan, granted Loc Sub 58 of 3 acres in 1858. Also listed is M Commerford (trustee to Patrick's will), also late of the 33rd Regiment. Martin is further described as being both a civil servant and a military servant as he was the 'tide waiter' (customs officer) and Post Master at Geraldton.
1874-75 there are advertisements in the Western Australian Times (eg Tuesday 12 January 1875, p6) from P Hogan, Acting Poundkeeper, Geraldton, regarding horses impounded in the public pound. By February 1875 he is recorded as Poundkeeper.
Patrick Hogan's farm at Bootnell near Geraldton was called Alma farm (after the Battle of Alma where he had been wounded). After his death the farm passed on to his wife and son Patrick Joseph Hogan and then to Patrick Joseph (Jo) Stone.
Death record for Patrick Joseph Hogan, died aged 44, No. 10684 of 1880.
The West Australian, Friday 19 November 1880, p3.
Geraldton, November 13. Another death has occurred during the past week. Patrick Hogan, a pensioner, who belonged to Her Majesty's 33rd Foot, died at his residence on Sunday, at noon, and was buried on the following day at 4 p.m. The deceased was long and favourably known at Geraldton and at the Greenough, and had won for himself the respect of all who were acquainted with him. He was a member of the G. R. Volunteers [Greenough River Volunteers], who, under the command of Lieut. Shenton, followed his remains to the grave, marching to the solemn strains of the Adeste Fideles and the ' Dead March' from Saul - played very creditably by the Band. The funeral ceremony was conducted by the Rev. Father Delaney, who spoke in the highest terms of Hogan's character, and of the commendable manner in which he had endeavoured to bring up his numerous family.
Buried in plot 113 St Francis Xavier Cemetery, located in the South West quarter of the large cemetery in Urch Street, Geraldton, now referred to as the APEX Park Cemetery, with son John buried in the same plot in 1897.
Probate record at WA State Record Office Consignment 3403 item 1881/607
Patrick Hogan's Timeline
Limerick, Co. Limerick, Ireland
June 10, 1857
Limerick, Co. Limerick, Ireland
June 14, 1858
Limerick, Co . Limerick, Ireland
May 5, 1860
Limerick, Co. Limerick, Ireland
July 21, 1863
Perth, WA, Australia
Geraldton, WA, Australia
Geraldton, WA, Australia
November 7, 1880
Geraldton, WA, Australia
Geraldton, WA, Australia