Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbon, I Imperador do Brasil e IV Rei de Portugal
|Nicknames:||"O Rei Soldado", "The Soldier King", "Dom Pedro I", "D. Pedro I"|
|Birthplace:||Palácio de Queluz, Lisboa, Portugal|
|Death:||Died in Lisboa, Portugal|
|Cause of death:||Tuberculose|
|Place of Burial:||Trasladado em 1972 para o Museu do Ipiranga, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil|
Son of D. João VI, Rei de Portugal e Imperador do Brasil and Carlota Joaquina Bourbon
|Occupation:||Roi du Portugal, Empereur du Brâesil (Pedro I), Emperor of Brazil 1822-1831, King of Portugal March 1826-May 1826|
|Managed by:||Henn Sarv|
About Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbon, I Imperador do Brasil e IV Rei de Portugal
Pedro I do Brasil e IV de Portugal, cujo nome completo era Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbon (Queluz, 12 de outubro de 1798 — Queluz, 24 de setembro de 1834) foi o primeiro imperador e também o primeiro chefe de Estado e de governo do Brasil (de 1822 a 1831), além de ter sido o 28º Rei de Portugal, durante sete dias de 1826.
Recebeu os títulos de Infante de Portugal, grão-prior do Crato, Príncipe da Beira, príncipe real do reino unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves, príncipe-regente do reino unido de Portugal, Brasil e Algarves, além de primeiro imperador do Brasil, como Dom Pedro I, de 12 de outubro de 1822 a 7 de abril de 1831, e ainda 28º Rei de Portugal, durante um período de sete dias (entre 26 de abril e 2 de maio de 1826), como Dom Pedro IV.
Em Portugal é conhecido como O Rei-Soldado, por combater o irmão D. Miguel na Guerra Civil de 1832-34 ou O Rei-Imperador. É também conhecido, de ambos os lados do oceano Atlântico, como O Libertador — Libertador do Brasil do domínio português e Libertador de Portugal do governo absolutista.
D. Pedro I abdicou de ambas as coroas: da portuguesa para a filha D. Maria da Glória e da brasileira para o filho D. Pedro II. D. Pedro I era o quarto filho (segundo varão) do Rei D. João VI e de sua consorte, Dona Carlota Joaquina de Bourbon, infanta de Espanha por nascimento, primogênita do rei espanhol Dom Carlos IV de Bourbon. Tornou-se herdeiro depois da morte do seu irmão mais velho, Dom Francisco de Bragança (1795 - 1801).
D. Pedro teve ao todo 19 filhos. De sua esposa em primeiras núpcias, a Imperatriz Leopoldina, Arquiduquesa da Áustria, nasceram:
- D. Maria II, rainha de Portugal (1819-1853), casada por procuração com seu tio, D. Miguel I, rei de Portugal, em primeiras núpcias com Augusto de Beauharnais, duque de Leuchtenberg, e em segundas núpcias com o príncipe Fernando de Saxe-Coburgo-Gota, rei consorte de Portugal;
- Infante D. Miguel de Bragança (1820), príncipe da Beira;
- Infante D. João Carlos de Bragança (1821–1822), príncipe da Beira;
- D. Januária Maria (1822–1901), princesa imperial do Brasil, casada com o príncipe Luís de Bourbon e Duas Sicílias, conde de Áquila;
- D. Paula Mariana (1823–1833);
- D. Francisca (1824–1898), princesa do Brasil, casada com o Francisco Fernando de Orléans, príncipe de Joinville;
- D. Pedro II (1825–1891), imperador do Brasil, casado com D. Teresa Cristina de Bourbon e Duas Sicílias, princesa de Duas Sicílias.
De sua esposa em segundas núpcias, Dona Amélia de Leuchtenberg, imperatriz do Brasil (1829–1831), duquesa de Leuchtenberg e de Bragança:
- D. Maria Amélia de Bragança (1831–1853), princesa do Brasil.
De sua amante, Domitília de Castro e Canto Melo, marquesa de Santos:
- rapaz (1823), menino natimorto;
- Isabel Maria de Alcântara Brasileira (1824–1898), duquesa de Goiás, casada com Ernesto José João Fischler von Treuberg, conde de Treuberg;
- Pedro de Alcântara Brasileiro (1825–1826);
- Maria Isabel de Alcântara Brasileira (1827–1828), duquesa do Ceará;
- Maria Isabel II Alcântara Brasileira (1830–1896), que se casou com Pedro Caldeira Brant, conde de Iguaçu.
Com a francesa Noémi Thierry teve:
- Pedro, falecido antes de completar um ano;
- Menina, falecida antes de completar um ano.
Com Maria Benedita de Castro Canto e Melo, baronesa de Sorocaba e irmã da marquesa de Santos, teve:
- Rodrigo Delfim Pereira.
Com a uruguaia María del Carmen García teve:
- uma criança natimorta.
De sua amante francesa Clémence Saisset teve:
- Pedro de Alcântara Brasileiro.
Com a monja portuguesa Ana Augusta teve:
- outro menino de nome Pedro.
Muitos de seus biógrafos consideram D. Pedro um pai zeloso pelo menos com a maior parte de sua prole, fosse ela legítima ou não. Procurou, na medida do possível, cuidar pessoalmente da educação de todos, chegando inclusive a se indispor com D. Leopoldina quando exigiu que a duquesa de Goiás fosse educada juntamente com as princesas imperiais. Ainda sobre a duquesa, já exilado em Paris, fez com que viesse a viver juntamente com D. Maria da Glória e Amélia de Leuchtenberg - que finalmente a aceitara após uma primeira rejeição, ainda no Brasil.
D. Pedro I voltou tuberculoso da campanha de reconquista do trono português para sua filha e morreu em 24 de setembro de 1834, pouco depois da Convenção de Évoramonte (que selara a vitória da causa liberal, de que se fizera paladino), no palácio de Queluz, no mesmo quarto e na mesma cama onde nascera 35 anos antes. Ao seu lado, na hora da morte, estavam D. Amélia e D. Maria II.
Foi sepultado no Panteão dos Braganças, na Igreja de São Vicente de Fora em Lisboa. O seu coração foi doado, por decisão testamentária, à Igreja da Lapa, no Porto, onde se encontra conservado, como relíquia, num mausoléu na capela-mor da igreja, ao lado do Evangelho. Em 1972, no sesquicentenário da Independência, seus despojos foram trasladados do panteão de São Vicente de Fora para a cripta do Monumento à Independência, localizado no Museu do Ipiranga em São Paulo, Brasil.
Fonte: Wikipédia. Leia mais em http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_I_do_Brasil#Ascend.C3.AAncia
Trecho extraído do livro 'A Maçonaria e a Independência do Brasil', de A. TENÓRIO D'ALBUQUERQUE, 3a ed., Editora Aurora, Rio de Janeiro, páginas 227 e seguintes:
D. PEDRO TOMA POSSE DO GRÃO MESTRADO
PROCLAMADO PRIMEIRO IMPERADOR DO BRASIL
"Na mesma noite de sua chegada de São Paulo, sete dias depois do grito do Ipiranga, D. Pedro dirigui-se à Maçonaria, a fim de tomar posse do cargo de Grão-Mestre."
No vigor de uma juventude ambiciosa, transbordante de entusiasmo, em estado de exaltação, a D. Pedro, depois do grito do Ipiranga, dominava um anseio: regressar ao Rio.
Em quatro dias, apenas, transpõe a distância que mediava entre São Paulo e Rio. Os mais dextros cavaleiros cobriam-na em oito dias. Numa cavalgada infrene, a arrebentar animais, desmontando de uma para ginetear outros, D. Pedro venceu léguas e léguas.
No dia 14 de setembro, atingia o Rio, então sob estarrecente aguaceiro. Chovia, chovia, desdemidamente. Imperiosamente, uma preocupação ele trazia. Era um dever de maçom a cumprir e ele o cumpriu.
Vejamos as palavras de um historiador digno de respeito:
"Na noite da própria chegada, molhado do aguaceiro, o capote de cabeção encharcado, o príncipe comparecera ao Grande Oriente. Aí a opinião do Rio cristalizara em retórica; os sacerdotes do rito patriótico aí se reuniam, maiores, pelo mistério de que se rodeavam, com conspiradores que movem na sombra, transida de um segredo místico, as molas do Estado. Os maçons cercaram-no enternecidos, custando-lhe crer que em quatro dias fizesse uma jornada de oito, pasmados, como se o céu se abrisse para cair ali um daqueles heróis instalados pelas boas letras no altar revolucionário...As aclamações romperam espontâneas, eletrizou-se o ambiente. D. Pedro contou calorosamente, que proclamara a independência e Alves Branco, num arremesso sobre um banco, a estourar de santo regozijo, gritou: 'Viva o Imperador', 'Viva o Sr. D. Pedro I !'. (Pedro Calmon: 'Vida de D. Pedro I', pág. 121 e 122).
D. Pedro compareceu ao Grande Oriente do Brasil, com dois objetivos. Primeiro: Prestar contas aos Irmãos expondo-lhes os seus atos que culminaram com o grito do Ipiranga, proclamando a Independência do Brasill, "de acordo com o resolvido em sessão de 20 de agosto"; segundo, tomar posse do cargo de Grão-Mestre.
Bem sabia D. Pedro o que era a força indominável da Maçonaria, o seu valor excepcional. Compreendeu que, sem delongas, devia assumir-lhe a direção.
Como Primeiro Vigilante, Gonçalves Ledo presidia a sessão, de vez que José Bonifácio, Grão-Mestre Adjunto, não comparecera. José Bonifácio não ocultava o seu ressentimento com Gonçalves Ledo, em sessão "particular da Grande Loja e não em Assembléia Geral, como era preciso" propôs a elevação de D. Pedro a Grão-Mestre, cargo ocupado por José Bonifácio, que não estava presente, e que o antigo, Grão-Mestre, passasse a Grão-Mestre Adjunto, isto é, substituto. "Era um golpe que Ledo desferia contro o seu adversário". (Mário Melo, 'Livro Maçônico do Centenário', pág. 199). Sentiu-se, José Bonifácio, ofendido com o rebaixamento e afastado do Grande Oriente. Assim, o Gonçalves Ledo, como Primeiro Vigilante, passou a ser, hierarquicamente, a segunda figura do Grande Oriente do Brasil.
O Barão do Rio Branco, em nota apensa às páginas 214 e 215 da 'História da Independência do Brasil', de Varnhagen assim narrou a sessão do Grande Oriente do Brasil:
"Na noite de 14 de setembro, D. Pedro tomou posse do cargo de grão-mestre, proferindo nessa ocasião o Brigadeiro Muniz Barreto, um discurso de que o autor dá notícia adiante. O seguinte extrato da ata, feito pelo Grande Secretário Possolo, refere o que ocorreu quanto à aclamação: "...depois de várias providências, dadas a respeito de negócios de Pernambuco, obtendo a palavra o mesmo Grande Vigilante (Gonçalves Ledo), e aproveitando o entusiasmo geral da assembléia, faz sentir, em um enérgico discurso, as boas disposições em que se achava o povo brasileiro, manifestadas por seus atos de adesão à augusta pessoa de seu defensor perpétuo, e que, sendo o Grande Oriente, a primeira corporação que tomou a iniciativa da independência do Brasil dando todas as providências ao seu alcance por meio dos seus membros para ser levada a efeito em todas as províncias, cumpria que também a tomasse na aclamação no seu monarca, aclamando-o rei e defensor perpétuo, firmando a realeza na dua augusta dinastia. Recebida com a maior satisfação e entusiasmo uma tal moção e orando no mesmo sentido vários membros....o maçom Domingos Alves Branco (Muniz Barreto), tomando a palavra, declarou que o augusto defensor perpétuo devia ser aclamadoo imperador constitucional, e não rei, e subindo sobre a mesa aclamou por três vezes, e com voz forte: 'Viva o Senhor Dom Pedro de Alcântara, Primeiro Imperador e Defensor Perpétuo do Brasil' - o que foi repetido pela assembléia. Em seguida, resolveu a assembléia que a aclamação civil tivesse lugar no dia 1o de outubro e que todos os maçons se espalhassem pelos lugares de maior concurso, principalmente no campo de Santana, onde deveria efetuar-se o mesmo solene ato...Por esta razão propôs o maçom José Clemente Pereira, os vivas que, como presidente do Senado da Câmara, tencionava dar."
Golden Fleece - Knights: Spanish Branch
-------------------- Pedro I of Brazil
Reign 12 October 1822 - 7 April 1831
Coronation 1 December 1822
Consort Maria Leopoldina of Austria
Amélia of Leuchtenberg
Father John VI of Portugal
Mother Charlotte of Spain
Born October 12, 1798
Queluz Palace, Lisbon
Died September 24, 1834 (aged 35)
Queluz Palace, Lisbon
Pedro I, known as "Dom Pedro Primeiro" (October 12, 1798 – September 24, 1834), proclaimed Brazil independent from Portugal and became Brazil's first Emperor. He also held the Portuguese throne briefly as Pedro IV of Portugal, the Soldier-King (Port. o Rei-Soldado), 28th (or 29th according to some historians) king of Portugal and the Algarves. He was also a Freemason.
Pedro I was born October 12, 1798, at Palace of Queluz, near Lisbon. His father was the prince regent at the time and would later become King John VI of Portugal (João VI); his mother was Charlotte of Spain (Carlota Joaquina), daughter of Charles IV of Spain. Under the full name Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Machado e Bragança e Bourbon, he was the second son born to the royal couple. When his elder brother the Infante Antonio Francisco died in 1801, Pedro was made Prince of Beira as he was the heir-apparent of the then-Prince of Brazil, his father. In 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family left Portugal as an invading French army approached Lisbon. (See Napoleonic Wars.) They arrived in Brazil with a British escort in early 1808. The family would remain in the country for 13 years. Their presence made Rio de Janeiro the de facto capital of the Portuguese Empire, and led to Brazil's elevation to the status of a kingdom co-equal with Portugal.
It is said that Pedro was João's favorite son, although the same could not be said about Carlota, who cherished her second son Miguel. The education of Pedro I was very much neglected. Both Pedro and his brother Miguel were brought up haphazardly. Pedro and Miguel would often run away from their tutors to mingle with stable boys and spent their days running around the streets with uneducated children. This led the boys to pick-up habits that may have been considered uncouth by some of their contemporaries, and the colloquialisms of the so-called 'plebeian' classes. As a result of his familiarity with the street life, Pedro grew up with little respect for the symbols and conventions of his age. Because of this he felt himself to be the son of the people rather than the son of royalty. All his life he would become familiar with individuals in every different aspect of life.
Pedro adapted well to the Brazilian milieu. He was an excellent horseman, enjoyed the military life, and could compete with common soldiers and officers equally. Also, he early demonstrated musical talents and later composed some music of creditable amateur quality. Besides music, he displayed a knack for drawing, sculpture, the manual crafts and even poetry. He was considered to be handsome, and was soon to be the talk of the town. Riding on horseback, he would often be brave enough to draw back the curtains of passing coaches, in search of beautiful women. His young endeavors with these women would give him a bad reputation that he would not be able to shed in the future.
In 1817 Pedro married an Austrian archduchess named Carolina Josefa Leopoldina. Although she married him for imperial reasons, she loved her husband even if it wasn’t reciprocal. Throughout Pedro’s difficult days, she proved to be a devoted collaborator. Carolina’s intelligence, consideration, and personality quickly earned her the respect and admiration of the Portuguese and Brazilians, as well as of her husband, but she was unable to distract him from his amorous affairs. Carolina lacked many of the feminine traits which appealed to Pedro. She was very modest in her appearance and had little interest in personal adornment. As she began to get to know the Brazilians better and understand their noble qualities of freedom and independence, she started to love the Brazilians and considered herself as being one.
João VI returned to Lisbon in 1821, leaving his son, Prince Pedro, behind in Rio to watch the Brazilian situation. Some of the duties that came with being regent were the task of appointing and dismissing ministers, administering justice, handling finances, commuting or pardoning death sentences, making war and concluding peace, and conferring honors and decorations. At the time, the Brazilian elites were scared of recolonization and the loss of control over the provinces. The elites discovered a sense of patriotic pride of native birth and popular sovereignty. Observing what was happening in the New world, João VI advised Pedro to declare Brazil independent and take the throne for himself rather than allow a usurper to take over the country. This way there would still be a Portuguese king in power in Brazil. By the year’s end, Pedro had officially declared Brazil an independent constitutional monarchy with himself as monarch.
When King João VI finally returned to Portugal, in the early 1820s, most of the privileges that had been accorded to Brazil were rescinded, sparking the ire of local nationalists. Pedro, who had remained in the country as regent, sided with the nationalist element and even supported the Portuguese Constitutionalist movement that led to the revolt in Porto in 1820. When pressed by the Portuguese court to return, he refused. For that, he was demoted from regent to a mere representative of the Lisbon court in Brazil. This news reached him on September 7, 1822, when he had just arrived in São Paulo, from a visit to the port of Santos. On the banks of the Ipiranga River, he unsheathed his sword, removed the blue and white Portuguese shield from his coat, and declared "Independence or death!" This later became his famous speech "O grito do Ipiranga" (The Cry of Ipiranga). He was proclaimed Emperor of Brazil on October 12, his 24th birthday, and crowned on December 1.
The early years of Brazilian independence were very hard ones. Dom Pedro I assumed the title of Emperor instead of King, both to underline the diversity of the Brazilian provinces and to emulate Napoleon, who linked the idea of Empire — as opposed to that of Kingdom — to the French Revolution and modernity. Nevertheless, Dom Pedro I had to navigate between the relatively cosmopolitan society of Rio de Janeiro and the more conservative and patriarchal rest of the country.
In early 1823, the first problem that Pedro I faced was drafting the constitution. Brazil was divided between the Brazilian Party, which included the land aristocracy and who favored a constitutional monarchy, and the Portuguese party, which included the commercial class, office holders and families of Portuguese origin, and who wanted an absolutist monarchy. In 1822, during the struggle for independence, Dom Pedro I had considered himself a liberal and had promised Brazil a constitution. He soon appeared to forget his liberal ideals by enacting a Constitution that gave him substantial power. This was seen as necessary to keep control of the interior, particularly in the yet-feudal North and to prevent the instability and democratic fractioning that was occurring in the rest of Latin America at the time. The Brazilian party, which dominated the assembly, refused to give the emperor so much power. Conflict increased further, after Muniz Tavares, a Brazilian assemblyman, attacked the Portuguese party, which he believed resented Brazilian independence. Also the Sentinella and the Tamoyo, two constitutionalist papers, were written to attack Portuguese born officials. In response to the dispute, Dom Pedro dissolved the assembly on November 12, 1823. He exiled many assemblymen and jailed a few. Upholding his promise for a constitution he then gathered a committee of ten, who then ratified a new but very similar constitution on March 25, 1824, which would remain in effect until the end of the Brazilian empire in 1889.
The new constitution established a conservative centralized monarchy, but not absolutist, sought to maintain stability and protect property. Powers were divided into executive, legislative, judiciary, and moderating branches. The legislative branch contained the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies, both of which members were elected to power. Unlike the Chamber of Deputies, the Senate remained in office for life. The Council of State, or the judicial branch, consisted of a counsel of respected elders whom the emperor appointed for life and gave executive powers to make judgments in important issues such as war. The emperor held supremacy or moderating power. He could therefore veto all resolutions; appoint a senator from a group of elected senators, appoint councils of state, replace elected deputies, presidents of provinces, ministers, bishops, senators, pardon criminals, and review judicial decisions. Pedro’s failure to put the constitution in effect immediately, however, left many Brazilians suspicious that Pedro did not favor a constitution in the first place.
During 1824 and 1825, many Brazilians became opposed to the accumulated powers of the emperor and the unpopular provincial presidents he appointed. Secret opposition papers attacked the emperor, his ministers, his servants and his mistresses, particularly Domitilla Marqueza de Santos. Dissatisfaction climaxed with the revolt of liberal urban forces in Pernambuco. Friar Joaquim do Amor Divino led the revolt in response to the election of an unpopular governor, Manuel de Carvalho. In July 1824, Carvalho sought to unite several republics in the formation of the Equatorial Confederation. The Confederation failed to take hold and the emperor put many revolutionaries to death, including Divino.
In foreign affairs, Pedro I sought to achieve recognition of Brazil’s independence from other nations. At first European nations were reluctant because of the hesitance of Portugal. The United States became the first to recognize its independence. By 1825 Britain, realizing the importance of Brazil’s market, convinced Portugal to accept Brazil’s independence. In exchange, Pedro agreed to pay a loan to Britain for the war of Portugal and Brazil. The loan implied that Pedro would inherit the Portuguese throne. He also signed a treaty with Britain, continuing the 15% import tariff and abolishing the slave trade within three years. The concessions to end slavery especially made Pedro I unpopular with the land aristocracy, much of the Brazilian party.
Republican sentiment soared, and in 1825, during a war with Argentina, the Cisplatine province seceded to become Uruguay.The war lasted for two years and as a result Brazil suffered great military and financial devastation. During the war, in November 1826, when Pedro visited the troops, the beloved empress Leopoldina, died. Pamphlets were published accusing Dom Pedro of imposing physical violence on her during her pregnancy, while having an affair with Domitilla.
On the death of his father, Pedro chose to inherit his title as King of Portugal (Pedro IV) on March 10, 1826, ignoring the restrictions of his own Constitution. He promulgated the Portuguese liberal constitution of April 26, but was forced to abdicate on May 28 from the Portuguese crown in favor of his daughter Maria II. Since she was then only 7 years old, he nominated his brother Dom Miguel as steward, on the promise that he would marry her. Meanwhile, his apparent indecision between Brazil and Portugal further damaged his waning popularity.
On October 17, 1829 Pedro married his second wife, Princess Amélie de Beauharnais von Leuchtenberg in Rio de Janeiro. Amélie was the daughter of Eugène de Beauharnais, and the granddaughter of the Empress Josephine. She was also the sister of Charles Auguste Eugène Napoléon de Beauharnais, who married his (Pedro's) daughter Maria II.
Domestically, Pedro was accused of mismanaging financial affairs. During his reign, debt rose, inflation grew, the exchange rate sunk, and the bank issued ineffective paper money, which drove gold and silver out of circulation. The cost of living rose in the cities. The upheld British tariffs troubled the elite and middle class, who demanded imported consumer goods. The production of tobacco, leather, cocao, cotton, and even coffee declined. Anti Portuguese feelings ran higher than ever as the Portuguese still controlled most of the retail market. As a result of the wars, revolts, and the economy most of the urban elite, who had been absolutists, sided with liberals. Even the army, discontent with Portuguese commanders and military defeats, distanced itself from the emperor.
In the aftermath of a political crisis that followed the dismissal of his ministers, and amid a growing economic crisis, Pedro abdicated his throne in Brazil in favor of his son Pedro II on April 7, 1831, who was only 5 at the time. Pedro reasserted his use of his old title, 18th Duke of Braganza.
With the death of João VI on March 10, 1826, Pedro, as the rightful heir, briefly inherited as Pedro IV of Portugal. He abdicated the throne to his seven year old daughter Maria da Gloria. However there was a key condition, when she became of age (14 years), she would marry Pedro's brother Miguel. This announcement led to a revision to the 1822 constitution. Pedro then returned to Brazil leaving his sister Isabel Maria as regent. Miguel accepted this solution and distanced himself from the absolutists, some of whom staged a rebellion, failed, and fled to Spain.
In 1827 Miguel attempted to put a claim on the regency over Isabel Maria, although nobody accepted the suggestion out of fear of the absolutists. On February 22, 1828 Miguel returned to Portugal, and four days later he took the oath to his brother and the charter and was installed as lieutenant-general. This loyalty lasted long. Margirita and his mother, Carlota Joaquina, immediately began to oust the liberals and demonstrations in favor of Pedro or the constitution were prohibited.
A group of exiled liberals landed at Porto from the English ship, the Belfast, and raised a rebellion. The rebellion failed and the senior liberals were forced to take refuge back on the Belfast, and leave again for England. Of all of Portuguese territory, only the Azores remained faithful to Pedro, partly because the garrison stayed loyal. On July 11, 1828 Miguel was proclaimed king. The United States and Mexico were the only two countries to recognize him as king. The Holy See, Great Britain, Austria, France, Naples and Spain protested against the illegal suppression of the constitution.
In August 1829, Miguel sent a squadron of 22 ships to the Azores, which were controlled by Pedro. After a day of battle the liberals under the Count of Vila Flor emerged victorious, taking hundreds of prisoners. In April 1831 Pedro abdicated the throne in Brazil in favor of his son, Pedro II, and sailed for Britain where he began to organize a military expedition against his brother Miguel.
Pedro entered Porto on July 9, 1832, and was attacked by the Miguelite army. In the subsequent weeks the absolutist besieged the city. The Siege of Porto lasted over a year, with many failed assaults and battles. Pedro took a risk and sent an expedition to the Algarve by sea (June 1833) despite the fact Porto was still under siege. This proved a war winning strategy as although the siege of Porto continued it became a secondary theatre of operations. Marshal Saldanha eventually broke the siege in August 1833 and later that month the city was free. On July 1833, Pedro arrived in Lisbon. This gave the liberals both of Portugal's major cities, Lisbon and Porto, where they commanded a sizeable following among the middle classes. In contrast, the absolutists controlled the rural areas, where they were supported by the aristocracy, and by a peasantry that was galvanized by the Church. A stalemate of nine months ensued. During this time Maria da Glória was proclaimed Queen, with Dom Pedro as Regent. Pedro dismissed Miguelite ministers and clergy and appropriated church property. On August 25, 1833 Lisbon was under siege. The most active period seemed to be between September 5 and 14, but the liberal lines held. Saldanha broke the siege on October 10, 1833, and forced the Miguelites east toward Santarém.
On April 22, 1834 the Quadruple Alliance was signed. Portugal, Spain, Great Britain and France agreed to banish Dom Miguel from Portugal and Don Carlos from Spain. Spain committed to keep troops in Portugal until the end of the Portuguese Liberal War, England promised naval support for Dom Pedro and Isabel of Spain, and Portugal agreed to supply an auxiliary force for operations against Don Carlos in Spain. This nearly signalled the end of the war. On May 27, 1834 Miguel's officers were unwilling to risk a final battle after nearly two years of warfare, despite still having 18,000 men in the ranks. Miguel was induced to seek terms of capitulation and eventually renounced all claims to the throne of Portugal and agreed to go into exile.
Pedro had finally put his daughter Maria da Gloria back on the throne but this would be his last act. He had returned to his homecountry, Portugal, to fight for his political ideologies and personal interests, after he had abdicated his throne in Brazil in favor of his son in 1831. He died in Queluz, the palace of his birth, aged 35, of tuberculosis. In 1972, his remains were returned to Brazil and re-interred in the present Ipiranga Museum.
-------------------- Pedro I (suomeksi myös Pietari I; Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim de Bragança e Bourbon, 12. lokakuuta 1798 – 24. syyskuuta 1834) oli itsenäisen Brasilian ensimmäinen keisari. Hän oli Portugalin kuninkaan Juhana VI:n (João VI) poika ja Portugalin kuningas Pietari IV. Kuningas Juhana VI pakeni vuonna 1807 Napoleonin valloituksia Brasiliaan, jolloin Rio de Janeirosta tuli tosiasiallisesti Portugalin imperiumin pääkaupunki. Kuninkaan palattua 1820-luvulla Portugaliin maa menetti monet etuoikeuksistaan, mikä raivostutti kansallismieliset. Kruununperijä Pedro, joka oli jäänyt maahan, asettui kansallismielisten puolelle ja tuki jopa 1820 puhjennutta kapinaa Portossa. Kieltäydyttyään palaamasta Portugaliin hän menetti asemansa kruununperillisenä, ja hänet alennettiin hovin edustajaksi Brasiliassa. Pedron saatua uutisen hän julisti "Itsenäisyys tai kuolema!" ja hänet julistettiin Brasilian keisariksi 12. lokakuuta 1822 ja kruunattiin keisari Pedro I:ksi 1. joulukuuta. Pedro I kuoli Queluzissa synnyinpalatsissaan 36 vuoden ikäisenä. Hänellä oli kaikkiaan viisi tunnustettua lasta ja yhdeksän avioliiton ulkopuolista. Hänen jäänteensä palautettiin Brasiliaan 1972
D. Pedro, I Imperador do Brasil e IV Rei de Portugal's Timeline
October 12, 1798
October 19, 1798
Capela Palacio Real, Queluz, Lisboa, Portugal
November 5, 1817
Rio de Janiero, Brazil
April 4, 1819
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
April 26, 1820
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
March 6, 1821
Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
March 11, 1822
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
February 17, 1823
November 4, 1823
Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil