Pedro I 'el Cruel' de Castilla y León, rey de Castilla y León (1334 - 1369) MP

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Nicknames: "the Cruel", "Pedro I 'el cruel' de Castilla y León; Pedro I de Borgoña", ""The Cruel"", "King Pedro I of /Castille/", "'The /Cruel'/", "Pedro I //", "The Cruel", "King of Castile and Leon", "King of Castile & Leon"
Birthplace: Burgos, Castille and Leon, Spain
Death: Died in Montiel, Castille La Mancha, Spain
Cause of death: Murdered
Occupation: Rey de Castilla, Toledo, León, Galicia, Sevilla, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, el Algarve, Algeciras y Señor de Vizcaya y de Molina, King of Castile, KING OF CASTILE, 'THE CRUEL', Pedro the Cruel, Rey de Castilla. Apodado Pedro "El Cruel".
Managed by: Margaret, (C)
Last Updated:

About Pedro I 'el Cruel' de Castilla y León, rey de Castilla y León

Pedro I de Castilla

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_I_de_Castilla

Pedro I de Castilla (Burgos, Castilla, 30 de agosto de 1334 – Montiel, Castilla, 23 de marzo de 1369), llamado el Cruel por sus detractores y el Justiciero por sus partidarios, fue rey de Castilla[1] desde el 26 de marzo de 1350, poco antes de tener 16 años, hasta su muerte con 35.

Dejó tres hijas y un hijo de María de Padilla:

1) Beatriz, (1353 - 1369), jurada para suceder en el trono; pero ingresó en el Real monasterio de Santa Clara en Tordesillas.

2) Constanza (1354 - 1394), esposa de Juan de Gante, duque de Láncaster e hijo de Eduardo III de Inglaterra y madre de Catalina, mujer del futuro Enrique III de Castilla.

3) Isabel (1355 - 1392), que dio su mano a Edmundo, duque de York e hijo de Eduardo III de Inglaterra.

4) Alfonso (1359 - 19 de octubre de 1362).

Juana de Castro le dio otro hijo:

5) Juan (1355 - 1405), iniciador de la línea sucesoria del infante don Juan de Castilla; casó con doña Elvira de Eril y de Falces.

María González de Hinestrosa, hija de Juan Fernández de Hinestrosa y Sancha González de Villega, prima hermana de María de Padilla, le dio un hijo:

6) Fernando, a quien su padre hizo señor de Niebla, pero que debió de morir en la niñez.

Teresa de Ayala, hija de Diego Gómez de Toledo e Inés de Ayala, y sobrina del canciller Pero López de Ayala, le dio una niña:

7) María; religiosa y priora en el Monasterio de Santo Domingo el Real de Toledo, donde su madre también profesó y fue priora.

Isabel de Sandoval, aya del niño Alfonso, le dio dos hijos:

8) Sancho, que murió soltero y sin sucesión, preso en el castillo de Toro.

9) Diego, fundador de la línea de los Guadalajara.

Según parece, dejó el monarca algunos otros hijos naturales, cuyos nombres no han llegado hasta nosotros.

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Peter (or Pedro; August 30, 1334 – March 23, 1369), sometimes called the Cruel (el Cruel) or the Lawful (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI and Maria of Portugal, daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal. He was the last ruler of the main branch of the House of Burgundy.

Popular memory generally views Pedro as vicious monster. Much of Pedro's reputation comes from the works of the chronicler López de Ayala who served Pedro's usurper. After time passed, there was a reaction in Pedro's favour, and an alternative name was found for him. It became a fashion to speak of him as El Justiciero, the executor of justice (the Lawful). Apologists were found to say that he had only killed men who themselves would not submit to the law or respect the rights of others. Pedro did have his supporters. Even Ayalla confessed that the king's fall was regretted by the merchants and traders, who enjoyed security under his rule. The English, who backed Pedro, also remembered the king positively. Geoffrey Chaucer visited Castile during Pedro's reign and lamented the monarch's death in The Monk's Tale, part of The Canterbury Tales. (Chaucer's patron, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, fought on Pedro's side in his struggle to reclaim the throne.)

Pedro began to reign at the age of sixteen, and found himself subjected to the control of his mother and her favourites. Pedro was to be married to Joan Plantagenet, the daughter of Edward III of England, but on the way to Castile, she travelled through cities infested with plague, ignoring townspeople who had warned her not to enter the town. Joan soon contracted the disease and died.

He was unfaithful to his wife, as his father had been. But Alfonso XI did not imprison his wife, or cause her to be murdered, which Pedro did. He had not even the excuse that he was passionately in love with his mistress, María de Padilla; for, at a time when he asserted that he was married to her, and when he was undoubtedly married to Blanca of Bourbon, he went through the form of marriage with a lady of the family of Castro, who bore him a son, and then deserted her. María de Padilla was the only lady of his harem of whom he never became quite tired.

At first he was controlled by his mother, but emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Albuquerque and became attached to María de Padilla, marrying her in secret in 1353. María turned him against Albuquerque. In the summer of 1353 the king was practically coerced by his mother and the nobles into marrying Blanca of Bourbon, but deserted her at once. This marriage necessitated Pedro's denying that he had married María, but his relationship with her continued and she bore him four children. A period of turmoil followed in which the king was for a time overpowered and in effect imprisoned. The dissension within the party striving to coerce him enabled him to escape from Toro, where he was under observation, to Segovia.

From 1356 to 1366 he engaged in constant wars with Aragon in the "War of the Two Peters", in which he showed neither ability nor daring. It was during this period that he perpetrated the series of murders which made him notorious. In 1366 began the calamitous Castilian Civil War which would see him dethroned. He was assailed by his bastard brother Henry of Trastamara at the head of a host of soldiers of fortune, including Bertrand du Guesclin and Hugh Calveley, and abandoned the kingdom without daring to give battle, after retreating several times (first from Burgos, then from Toledo, and lastly from Seville) in the face of the oncoming armies. Peter fled, with his treasury, to Portugal, where he was coldly received by his uncle, King Pedro I of Portugal, and thence to Galicia, in northern Iberian Peninsula, where he ordered the murder of Suero, the archbishop of Santiago, and the dean, Peralvarez.

Henry continuously depicted Pedro as "King of the Jews," and had some success in taking advantage of Castilian anti-Semitism. He instigated pogroms, beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversions in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390. Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five leaders of a riot by boiling and roasting.

In the summer of 1366 Peter took refuge with Edward the Black Prince, who restored him to his throne in the following year after the Battle of Najera. But he disgusted his ally with his faithlessness and ferocity, as well as his failure to repay the costs of the campaign, as he had promised to do. The health of the Black Prince broke down, and he left Iberian Peninsula. Left to his own resources, Peter was soon overthrown by his brother Henry, with the aid of Bertrand du Guesclin and a body of French and English free companions. After Pedro's decisive loss at the Battle of Montiel, he was murdered by Henry in du Guesclin's tent on March 23, 1369.

Pedro's daughters by María de Padilla, Constance and Isabella, were both married to sons of Edward III, king of England, Constance to John of Gaunt and Isabella to Edmund of Langley.

The great original but hostile authority for the life of Pedro the Cruel is the Chronicle of the Chancellor Pedro López de Ayala (Madrid 1779-1780). To put it in perspective there is a biography by Prosper Mérimée, Histoire de Don Pedro I, roi de Castille (Paris, 1848), and a modern history setting Peter in the social and economic context of his time by Clara Estow (Pedro the Cruel of Castile (1350-1369), 1995).

Strictly speaking, Pedro was not defeated by Henry but by the opposing aristocracy; the nobles accomplished their objective of enthroning a weaker dynasty (the House of Trastámara), much more amenable to their interests. Most of the bad stories about Pedro are likely to be colored by Black Legend, coined by his enemies, who finally succeeded in their rebellion. The Chancellor López de Ayala, the main source for Pedro's reign, was the official chronicler of the Trastámara, a servant of the new rulers and of Pedro's aristocratic adversaries.

The change of dynasty can be considered as the epilogue of the first act of a long struggle between the Castilian monarchy and the aristocracy; this struggle was to continue for more than three centuries and come to an end only under Charles I of Spain, the grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile) and Isabella of Castile (The Catholic Kings), in the first quarter of the 16th century.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_of_Castile

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Pedro I the Cruel (1334-1369), king of Castile and Leon (1350-1369). Son of Alfonso XI and Maria of Portugal, inherited the throne in the midst of a complex political situation and a deep economic crisis. His father had ten children bastards with Leonor de Guzman, one of which was the Count of Trastámara, the future Henry II. During the period 1351 to 1353, the reign of Pedro I was chaired by the figure of Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque, whose actions worsened the political crisis of the moment and prepared the outbreak of civil strife. During the administration of Alburquerque, Leonor de Guzman was killed, was prepared by the alliance with France Castilla, and agreed for the marriage of Pedro I of Bourbon with White, which was held in mid-1353. However, the Castilian king, just know that the agreed dowry could not be paid, left and returned with his wife Maria de Padilla, who was sentimentally attached since 1352. From this moment, and taking advantage of the detention order which the king issued on doña Blanca, a rebellion led by the aristocratic bastard of Henry Trastámara, which claimed the Castilian throne, the master of Santiago Fadrique Don Juan Alfonso de Alburquerque . The civil war started soon, along with the bloody repression that the king ordered the rebels and that earned him the label of Cruel. Pedro I in 1354 he married Juana de Castro in the early repudiated as well.

During the civil conflict Pedro I had the support of small nobles and cities, while many of the noble rebels took refuge in Aragon, Pedro IV where the Ceremonious offered their help. The Spanish war, which lasted from 1356 until 1369, became a peninsular conflict between Castile and Aragon.

During these years, and in the midst of many battles were signed several truces. In July 1363 was concluded by the Peace Murviedro the Calatayud, Tarazona Teruel and passed into the hands of Castile, and Fernando Infante, brother of the Aragonese king, who also aspired to the Castilian throne, was assassinated. However, in 1364 Pedro I resumed the struggle, and conflict Peninsula became part of the Hundred Years War.

In January 1366 French and Aragonese mercenaries came to Spain to help the Count of Trastámara in its claims to the throne. With this support, Henry was proclaimed king in Calahorra (March 1366) and took over the entire kingdom with the exception of Galicia. For its part, Pedro I asked for help to England and agreed with Edward the Black Prince, the Spanish intervention in the conflict. In this way trastamaristas armies were defeated at Nájera (1367). But the final victory went to Henry, who got the help of French troops sent by Bertrand du Guesclin. They finally defeated in Montiel Pedro I in March 1369. In the same place Peter King was assassinated and the bastard took the throne with the name of Henry II.

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Pedro I de Castilla, también conocido como Pedro I de Borgoña (Burgos, Castilla, 30 de agosto de 1334 – Montiel, Castilla, 23 de marzo de 1369), llamado el Cruel por sus detractores y el Justiciero por sus partidarios, fue rey de Castilla y de León desde el 26 de marzo de 1350, poco antes de tener dieciséis años, hasta su muerte con treinta y cinco.

Al final de su reinado ostentaba los títulos de rey de Castilla, Toledo, León, Galicia, Sevilla, Córdoba, Murcia, Jaén, el Algarve, Algeciras y señor de Vizcaya y de Molina. (See http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pedro_I_de_Castilla.)

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Peter of Castile

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Peter (or Pedro; August 30, 1334 – March 23, 1369), sometimes called the Cruel (el Cruel) or the Lawful (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI and Maria of Portugal, daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal. He was the last ruler of the main branch of the House of Burgundy.

Popular memory generally views Pedro as vicious monster. Much of Pedro's reputation comes from the works of the chronicler López de Ayala who served Pedro's usurper. After time passed, there was a reaction in Pedro's favour, and an alternative name was found for him. It became a fashion to speak of him as El Justiciero, the executor of justice (the Lawful). Apologists were found to say that he had only killed men who themselves would not submit to the law or respect the rights of others. Pedro did have his supporters. Even Ayalla confessed that the king's fall was regretted by the merchants and traders, who enjoyed security under his rule. The English, who backed Pedro, also remembered the king positively. Geoffrey Chaucer visited Castile during Pedro's reign and lamented the monarch's death in The Monk's Tale, part of The Canterbury Tales. (Chaucer's patron, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, fought on Pedro's side in his struggle to reclaim the throne.)

Pedro began to reign at the age of sixteen, and found himself subjected to the control of his mother and her favourites. Pedro was to be married to Joan Plantagenet, the daughter of Edward III of England, but on the way to Castile, she travelled through cities infested with plague, ignoring townspeople who had warned her not to enter the town. Joan soon contracted the disease and died.

He was unfaithful to his wife, as his father had been. But Alfonso XI did not imprison his wife, or cause her to be murdered, which Pedro did. He had not even the excuse that he was passionately in love with his mistress, María de Padilla; for, at a time when he asserted that he was married to her, and when he was undoubtedly married to Blanca of Bourbon, he went through the form of marriage with a lady of the family of Castro, who bore him a son, and then deserted her. María de Padilla was the only lady of his harem of whom he never became quite tired.

At first he was controlled by his mother, but emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Albuquerque and became attached to María de Padilla, marrying her in secret in 1353. María turned him against Albuquerque. In the summer of 1353 the king was practically coerced by his mother and the nobles into marrying Blanca of Bourbon, but deserted her at once. This marriage necessitated Pedro's denying that he had married María, but his relationship with her continued and she bore him four children. A period of turmoil followed in which the king was for a time overpowered and in effect imprisoned. The dissension within the party striving to coerce him enabled him to escape from Toro, where he was under observation, to Segovia.

From 1356 to 1366 he engaged in constant wars with Aragon in the "War of the Two Peters", in which he showed neither ability nor daring. It was during this period that he perpetrated the series of murders which made him notorious. In 1366 began the calamitous Castilian Civil War which would see him dethroned. He was assailed by his bastard brother Henry of Trastamara at the head of a host of soldiers of fortune, including Bertrand du Guesclin and Hugh Calveley, and abandoned the kingdom without daring to give battle, after retreating several times (first from Burgos, then from Toledo, and lastly from Seville) in the face of the oncoming armies. Peter fled, with his treasury, to Portugal, where he was coldly received by his uncle, King Pedro I of Portugal, and thence to Galicia, in northern Iberian Peninsula, where he ordered the murder of Suero, the archbishop of Santiago, and the dean, Peralvarez.

Henry continuously depicted Pedro as "King of the Jews," and had some success in taking advantage of Castilian anti-Semitism. He instigated pogroms, beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversions in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390. Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five leaders of a riot by boiling and roasting.

In the summer of 1366 Peter took refuge with Edward the Black Prince, who restored him to his throne in the following year after the Battle of Najera. But he disgusted his ally with his faithlessness and ferocity, as well as his failure to repay the costs of the campaign, as he had promised to do. The health of the Black Prince broke down, and he left Iberian Peninsula. Left to his own resources, Peter was soon overthrown by his brother Henry, with the aid of Bertrand du Guesclin and a body of French and English free companions. After Pedro's decisive loss at the Battle of Montiel, he was murdered by Henry in du Guesclin's tent on March 23, 1369.

Pedro's daughters by María de Padilla, Constance and Isabella, were both married to sons of Edward III, king of England, Constance to John of Gaunt and Isabella to Edmund of Langley.

The great original but hostile authority for the life of Pedro the Cruel is the Chronicle of the Chancellor Pedro López de Ayala (Madrid 1779-1780). To put it in perspective there is a biography by Prosper Mérimée, Histoire de Don Pedro I, roi de Castille (Paris, 1848), and a modern history setting Peter in the social and economic context of his time by Clara Estow (Pedro the Cruel of Castile (1350-1369), 1995).

Strictly speaking, Pedro was not defeated by Henry but by the opposing aristocracy; the nobles accomplished their objective of enthroning a weaker dynasty (the House of Trastámara), much more amenable to their interests. Most of the bad stories about Pedro are likely to be colored by Black Legend, coined by his enemies, who finally succeeded in their rebellion. The Chancellor López de Ayala, the main source for Pedro's reign, was the official chronicler of the Trastámara, a servant of the new rulers and of Pedro's aristocratic adversaries.

The change of dynasty can be considered as the epilogue of the first act of a long struggle between the Castilian monarchy and the aristocracy; this struggle was to continue for more than three centuries and come to an end only under Charles I of Spain, the grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile) and Isabella of Castile (The Catholic Kings), in the first quarter of the 16th century.

--------------------

Peter (Spanish: Pedro; 30 August 1334 – 23 March 1369), sometimes called the Cruel (el Cruel or O Cruel,) or the Lawful (Spanish: 'el Justiciero', Galician: 'O Justiçeyro') (Old Spanish- El Iusteçero), was the king of Castile from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Maria of Portugal, daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal. He was the last ruler of the main branch of the House of Burgundy.

Legacy and reputation

Popular memory generally views Peter as a vicious monster. Much of Peter's reputation comes from the works of the chronicler López de Ayala who served Peter's usurper. After time passed, there was a reaction in Peter's favour, and an alternative name was found for him. It became a fashion to speak of him as El Justiciero, the executor of justice (the Lawful).[2] Apologists were found to say that he had only killed men who themselves would not submit to the law or respect the rights of others. Peter did have his supporters. Even Ayala confessed that the king's fall was regretted by the merchants, who enjoyed security under his rule. The English, who backed Peter, also remembered the king positively. Geoffrey Chaucer visited Castile during Peter's reign and lamented the monarch's death in The Monk's Tale, part of The Canterbury Tales. (Chaucer's patron, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, fought on Peter's side in his struggle to reclaim the throne.)

From The Monk's Tale

O noble, O worthy PETRO, glorie OF SPAYNE, Whom Fortune heeld so hye in magestee,

Wel oughten men thy pitous death complayne!

Out of thy land thy brother made thee flee,

And after, at a seege, by subtiltee,

Thou were bitraysed and lad unto his tente,

Where as he with his owene hand slow thee,

Succedynge in thy regne and in thy rente.

—Chaucer, The Canterbury Tales

Early life

Peter began to reign at the age of sixteen, and found himself subjected to the control of his mother and her favourites. Peter was to be married to Joan, the daughter of Edward III of England, but on the way to Castile, she travelled through cities infested with plague, ignoring townspeople who had warned her not to enter the town. Joan soon contracted the disease and died.

He was unfaithful to his wife, as his father had been. But Alfonso XI did not imprison his wife, or cause her to be murdered, which Peter did. He had not even the excuse that he was passionately in love with his mistress, María de Padilla; for, at a time when he asserted that he was married to her, and when he was undoubtedly married to Blanche of Bourbon, he went through the form of marriage with a lady of the family of Castro, who bore him a son, and then deserted her. María de Padilla was the only lady of his harem of whom he never became quite tired.

At first he was controlled by his mother, but emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Albuquerque and became attached to María de Padilla, marrying her in secret in 1353. María turned him against Albuquerque. In the summer of 1353 the king was practically coerced by his mother and the nobles into marrying Blanche of Bourbon, but deserted her at once. This marriage necessitated Peter's denying that he had married María, but his relationship with her continued and she bore him four children. A period of turmoil followed in which the king was for a time overpowered and in effect imprisoned. The dissension within the party striving to coerce him enabled him to escape from Toro, where he was under observation, to Segovia.

Children

Peter being crowned, by Simon Bening, now in the British Museum, London

Peter's daughters by María de Padilla;

   * Constance, married John of Gaunt
   * Isabella, married Edmund of Langley

Wars with Aragon

From 1356 to 1366 he engaged in constant wars with Aragon in the "War of the Two Peters", in which he showed neither ability nor courage. It was during this period that he perpetrated the series of murders which made him notorious. In 1366 began the calamitous Castilian Civil War which would see him dethroned. He was assailed by his bastard brother Henry of Trastamara at the head of a host of soldiers of fortune, including Bertrand du Guesclin and Hugh Calveley, and abandoned the kingdom without daring to give battle, after retreating several times (first from Burgos, then from Toledo, and lastly from Seville) in the face of the oncoming armies. Peter fled, with his treasury, to Portugal, where he was coldly received by his uncle, King Peter I of Portugal, and thence to Galicia, in the northern Iberian Peninsula, where he ordered the murder of Suero, the archbishop of Santiago, and the dean, Peralvarez.

The battle of Nájera in a 15th century manuscript (Peter and the English are on the left)

Peter fights anti-Semitism

Peter's rival Henry of Trastamara continuously depicted Peter as "King of the Jews," and had some success in taking advantage of Castilian anti-Semitism. Henry of Trastamara instigated pogroms, beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversions in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390. Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five anti-Jewish leaders of a riot.

Death

In the summer of 1366, Peter took refuge with Edward the Black Prince, who restored him to his throne in the following year after the Battle of Nájera. But he disgusted his ally with his faithlessness and ferocity, as well as his failure to repay the costs of the campaign, as he had promised to do. The health of the Black Prince broke down, and he left the Iberian Peninsula. Left to his own resources, Peter was soon overthrown by his brother Henry,[8] with the aid of Bertrand du Guesclin and a body of French and English free companions. After Peter's decisive loss at the Battle of Montiel, he was murdered by Henry in du Guesclin's tent on March 23, 1369.

Sources

The great original but hostile authority for the life of Pedro the Cruel is the Chronicle of the Chancellor Pedro López de Ayala (Vitoria, Spain 1332–1407). To put it in perspective there is a biography by Prosper Mérimée, Histoire de Don Pedro I, roi de Castille (Paris, 1848), and a modern history setting Peter in the social and economic context of his time by Clara Estow (Pedro the Cruel of Castile (1350–1369), 1995).

Peter's beheading, from a 14th century French manuscript

Strictly speaking, Pedro was not defeated by Henry but by the opposing aristocracy; the nobles accomplished their objective of enthroning a weaker dynasty (the House of Trastámara), much more amenable to their interests. Most of the bad stories about Peter are likely to be colored by Black Legend, coined by his enemies, who finally succeeded in their rebellion. The Chancellor López de Ayala, the main source for Pedro's reign, was the official chronicler of the Trastámara, a servant of the new rulers and of Pedro's aristocratic adversaries.

The change of dynasty can be considered as the epilogue of the first act of a long struggle between the Castilian monarchy and the aristocracy; this struggle was to continue for more than three centuries and come to an end only under Charles I of Spain, the grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile) and Isabella I of Castile (The Catholic Kings), in the first quarter of the 16th century.BIOGRAPHY: He was killed by his half-brother, Enrique. In the Monk's Tale, Geoffrey Chaucer described Peter's death: "O noble, o worthy Petro, glorie of Spayne, whom fortune heeld so hy in magestee, Wel oughten men thy piteous death complayne!"

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BIOGRAPHY: He was killed by his half-brother, Enrique. In the Monk's Tale, Geoffrey Chaucer described Peter's death: "O noble, o worthy Petro, glorie of Spayne, whom fortune heeld so hy in magestee, Wel oughten men thy piteous death complayne!"

-------------------- Peter (Spanish: Pedro) (30 August 1334 – 23 March 1369), sometimes called the Cruel (el Cruel or O Cruel,) or the Lawful (Spanish: 'el Justiciero', Galician: 'O Xusticeiro') (Old Spanish- El Iusteçero), was the king of the Castilian Crown from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI of Castile and Maria of Portugal,[1] daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal. He was the last ruler of the main branch of the House of Burgundy.

Early Life

Peter began to reign at the age of sixteen, and found himself subjected to the control of his mother and her favourites. Peter was to be married to Joan, the daughter of Edward III of England, but on the way to Castile, she travelled through cities infested with plague, ignoring townspeople who had warned her not to enter the town. Joan soon contracted the disease and died.[2]

At first he was controlled by his mother, but emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Albuquerque and became attached to María de Padilla, marrying her in secret in 1353. María turned him against Albuquerque. In the summer of 1353 the king was practically coerced by his mother and the nobles into marrying Blanche of Bourbon, but deserted her at once. This marriage necessitated Peter's denying that he had married María, but his relationship with her continued and she bore him four children. He also apparently went through the form of marriage with a lady of the family of Castro, who bore him a son, and then deserted her. A period of turmoil followed in which the king was for a time overpowered and in effect imprisoned. The dissension within the party striving to coerce him enabled him to escape from Toro, where he was under observation, to Segovia.

In 1361 Blanche died in Medina Sidonia. Legend states that Peter murdered her. One version of the story says she was poisoned, another that she was shot with a crossbow.[3]

Wars with Aragon

From 1356 to 1366 he engaged in constant wars with Aragon in the "War of the Two Peters", in which he showed neither ability nor courage. It was during this period that he perpetrated the series of murders which made him notorious. In 1366 began the calamitous Castilian Civil War which would see him dethroned. He was assailed by his bastard brother Henry of Trastamara at the head of a host of soldiers of fortune,[4] including Bertrand du Guesclin and Hugh Calveley, and abandoned the kingdom without daring to give battle, after retreating several times (first from Burgos, then from Toledo, and lastly from Seville) in the face of the oncoming armies. Peter fled, with his treasury, to Portugal, where he was coldly received by his uncle, King Peter I of Portugal, and thence to Galicia, in the northern Iberian Peninsula, where he ordered the murder of Suero, the archbishop of Santiago, and the dean, Peralvarez.

Peter fights anti-Semitism

Peter's rival Henry of Trastamara continuously depicted Peter as "King of the Jews," and had some success in taking advantage of Castilian anti-Semitism. Henry of Trastamara instigated pogroms, beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversions in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390. Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five anti-Jewish leaders of a riot.

Death

In the summer of 1366, Peter took refuge with Edward the Black Prince, who restored him to his throne in the following year after the Battle of Nájera. But he disgusted his ally with his faithlessness and ferocity, as well as his failure to repay the costs of the campaign, as he had promised to do. The health of the Black Prince broke down, and he left the Iberian Peninsula.

Meanwhile Henry of Trastamara returned to Castile in September of 1368. The cortes of Burgos recognized him as King of Castile. Others followed, including Cordoba, Palencia, Valladolid, and Jaen. Galicia and Asturias, on the other hand, continued in their support of Peter. As Henry made his way toward Toledo, Peter, who had retreated to Andalusia, chose to confront him in battle. On March 14, 1369, the forces of Peter and Henry met at Montiel, a fortress then controlled by the Order of Santiago. Henry prevailed with the assistance of Bertrand du Guesclin. Peter took refuge in the fortress, which being controlled by a military order of Galician origin, remained faithful to Peter. Negotiations were opened between the holed-up Peter and his besieger, Henry. Peter met with du Guesclin, who was acting as Henry's envoy. Peter appealed to du Guesclin's well-known treacherous side. He offered du Guesclin 200,000 gold coins and several towns, including Soria, Almazan, and Atienza to betray Henry. Ever vigilant in his opportunistic ways, du Guesclin informed Henry of the offer and immediately bargained for greater compensation from Henry to betray the conspiracy proposed to him by the imprisoned monarch.

Having made a deal with Henry, Du Guesclin returned to Peter. Under the guise of accepting his proposal to betray Henry, du Guesclin led Peter to his tent on the night of March 23, 1369. Henry was waiting. The historian Lopez de Ayala described the encounter as follows: Upon entering du Guesclin's tent, Henry "saw King Peter. He did not recognize him because they had not seen each other for a long time. One of Bertrand's men said 'This is your enemy.' But King Henry asked if it was he and ... King Peter said twice, 'I am he, I am he.' Then King Henry recognized him and hit him in the face with a knife and they ... fell to the ground. King Henry struck him again and again." Having dispatched his half brother, Henry left Peter's body unburied for three days, during which time it was subjected to ridicule and abuse.

Legacy and Reputation

Popular memory generally views Peter as a vicious monster. Much of Peter's reputation comes from the works of the chronicler López de Ayala who served Peter's usurper. After time passed, there was a reaction in Peter's favour, and an alternative name was found for him. It became a fashion to speak of him as El Justiciero, the executor of justice (the Lawful).[5] Apologists were found to say that he had only killed men who themselves would not submit to the law or respect the rights of others. Peter did have his supporters. Even Ayala confessed that the king's fall was regretted by the merchants, who enjoyed security under his rule. The English, who backed Peter, also remembered the king positively. Geoffrey Chaucer visited Castile during Peter's reign and lamented the monarch's death in The Monk's Tale, part of The Canterbury Tales. (Chaucer's patron, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, fought on Peter's side in his struggle to reclaim the throne.)

Children

Peter's children by María de Padilla were:

   * Beatrice, nun at the Abbey of Santa Clara at Tordesillas
   * Constance, married John of Gaunt[6]
   * Isabella, married Edmund of Langley[7]
   * Alfonso, died young

Peter had one son with Juana de Castro:

   * John, married doña Elvira de Eril, has issue

[edit] Sources

The great original but hostile authority for the life of Pedro the Cruel is the Chronicle of the Chancellor Pedro López de Ayala (1332–1407). To put it in perspective there is a biography by Prosper Mérimée, Histoire de Don Pedro I, roi de Castille (1848), and a modern history setting Peter in the social and economic context of his time by Clara Estow (Pedro the Cruel of Castile (1350–1369), 1995).

Strictly speaking, Pedro was not defeated by Henry but by the opposing aristocracy; the nobles accomplished their objective of enthroning a weaker dynasty (the House of Trastámara), much more amenable to their interests. Most of the bad stories about Peter are likely to be colored by Black Legend, coined by his enemies, who finally succeeded in their rebellion. The Chancellor López de Ayala, the main source for Pedro's reign, was the official chronicler of the Trastámara, a servant of the new rulers and of Pedro's aristocratic adversaries.

The change of dynasty can be considered as the epilogue of the first act of a long struggle between the Castilian monarchy and the aristocracy; this struggle was to continue for more than three centuries and come to an end only under Charles I of Spain, the grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile) and Isabella I of Castile (The Catholic Monarchs), in the first quarter of the 16th century.

-------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_of_Castile -------------------- Peter of Castile.


Peter or Pedro of Castile. August 30, 1324 – March 23, 1369), sometimes called the Cruel (el Cruel) or the Lawful (el Justiciero), was the king of Castile from 1350 to 1369. He was the son of Alfonso XI and Maria of Portugal, daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal. He was the last ruler of the main branch of the House of Burgundy.

Popular memory generally views Pedro as vicious monster. Much of Pedro's reputation comes from the works of the chronicler López de Ayala who served Pedro's usurper. After time passed, there was a reaction in Pedro's favour, and an alternative name was found for him. It became a fashion to speak of him as El Justiciero, the executor of justice (the Lawful). Apologists were found to say that he had only killed men who themselves would not submit to the law or respect the rights of others. Pedro did have his supporters. Even Ayalla confessed that the king's fall was regretted by the merchants and traders, who enjoyed security under his rule. The English, who backed Pedro, also remembered the king positively. Geoffrey Chaucer visited Castile during Pedro's reign and lamented the monarch's death in The Monk's Tale, part of The Canterbury Tales. (Chaucer's patron, John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, fought on Pedro's side in his struggle to reclaim the throne.)


Pedro began to reign at the age of sixteen, and found himself subjected to the control of his mother and her favourites. Pedro was to be married to Joan Plantagenet, the daughter of Edward III of England, but on the way to Castile, she travelled through cities infested with plague, ignoring townspeople who had warned her not to enter the town. Joan soon contracted the disease and died.

He was unfaithful to his wife, as his father had been. But Alfonso XI did not imprison his wife, or cause her to be murdered, which Pedro did. He had not even the excuse that he was passionately in love with his mistress, María de Padilla; for, at a time when he asserted that he was married to her, and when he was undoubtedly married to Blanca of Bourbon, he went through the form of marriage with a lady of the family of Castro, who bore him a son, and then deserted her. María de Padilla was the only lady of his harem of whom he never became quite tired.

At first he was controlled by his mother, but emancipated himself with the encouragement of the minister Albuquerque and became attached to María de Padilla, marrying her in secret in 1353. María turned him against Albuquerque. In the summer of 1353 the king was practically coerced by his mother and the nobles into marrying Blanca of Bourbon, but deserted her at once. This marriage necessitated Pedro's denying that he had married María, but his relationship with her continued and she bore him four children. A period of turmoil followed in which the king was for a time overpowered and in effect imprisoned. The dissension within the party striving to coerce him enabled him to escape from Toro, where he was under observation, to Segovia.

From 1356 to 1366 he engaged in constant wars with Aragon in the "War of the Two Peters", in which he showed neither ability nor daring. It was during this period that he perpetrated the series of murders which made him notorious. In 1366 began the calamitous Castilian Civil War which would see him dethroned. He was assailed by his bastard brother Henry of Trastamara at the head of a host of soldiers of fortune, including Bertrand du Guesclin and Hugh Calveley, and abandoned the kingdom without daring to give battle, after retreating several times (first from Burgos, then from Toledo, and lastly from Seville) in the face of the oncoming armies. Peter fled, with his treasury, to Portugal, where he was coldly received by his uncle, King Pedro I of Portugal, and thence to Galicia, in northern Iberian Peninsula, where he ordered the murder of Suero, the archbishop of Santiago, and the dean, Peralvarez.

Henry continuously depicted Pedro as "King of the Jews," and had some success in taking advantage of Castilian anti-Semitism. He instigated pogroms, beginning a period of anti-Jewish riots and forced conversions in Castile that lasted approximately from 1370 to 1390. Peter took forceful measures against this, including the execution of at least five leaders of a riot by boiling and roasting.

Battle of Najera from 15th century manuscript (Pedro and the English on the left)In the summer of 1366 Peter took refuge with Edward the Black Prince, who restored him to his throne in the following year after the Battle of Najera. But he disgusted his ally with his faithlessness and ferocity, as well as his failure to repay the costs of the campaign, as he had promised to do. The health of the Black Prince broke down, and he left Iberian Peninsula. Left to his own resources, Peter was soon overthrown by his brother Henry, with the aid of Bertrand du Guesclin and a body of French and English free companions. After Pedro's decisive loss at the Battle of Montiel, he was murdered by Henry in du Guesclin's tent on March 23, 1369.

Pedro's daughters by María de Padilla, Constance and Isabella, were both married to sons of Edward III, king of England, Constance to John of Gaunt and Isabella to Edmund of Langley.

The great original but hostile authority for the life of Pedro the Cruel is the Chronicle of the Chancellor Pedro López de Ayala (Madrid 1779-1780). To put it in perspective there is a biography by Prosper Mérimée, Histoire de Don Pedro I, roi de Castille (Paris, 1848), and a modern history setting Peter in the social and economic context of his time by Clara Estow (Pedro the Cruel of Castile (1350-1369), 1995).


Pedro's beheading (14th century French manuscript) Strictly speaking, Pedro was not defeated by Henry but by the opposing aristocracy; the nobles accomplished their objective of enthroning a weaker dynasty (the House of Trastámara), much more amenable to their interests. Most of the bad stories about Pedro are likely to be colored by Black Legend, coined by his enemies, who finally succeeded in their rebellion. The Chancellor López de Ayala, the main source for Pedro's reign, was the official chronicler of the Trastámara, a servant of the new rulers and of Pedro's aristocratic adversaries.

The change of dynasty can be considered as the epilogue of the first act of a long struggle between the Castilian monarchy and the aristocracy; this struggle was to continue for more than three centuries and come to an end only under Charles I of Spain, the grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile) and Isabella of Castile (The Catholic Kings), in the first quarter of the 16th century.

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Pedro I el Cruel, rey de Castilla y León's Timeline

1334
August 30, 1334
Burgos, Castille and Leon, Spain
1350
1350
- 1369
Age 15
REIGN
1350
- 1369
Age 15
REIGN
1352
1352
Age 17
1353
1353
Age 18
Burgos, Burgos, Spain
1354
April, 1354
Age 19
Cuéllar, Castille and Leon, Spain
1354
Age 19
Castrojeriz, Castille and Leon, Spain
1354
Age 19
Cordova, Andalusia, Spain
1355
January, 1355
Age 20
1355
Age 20
Morales de Toro, Castille and Leon, Spain