Pedro I o Justiceiro, rei de Portugal

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Pedro I 'o Justiceiro' de Portugal, rei de Portugal

Also Known As: "The Cruel", "King Peter I of Portugal", "Pedro I "el cuel"", "Pedro I "el justiciero"", "the Just", "April 19", "1320", "Rei de Portugal"
Birthplace: Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
Death: Died in Estremoz, Évora, Portugal
Cause of death: killed
Place of Burial: Alcobaça, Leiria, Portugal
Immediate Family:

Son of Afonso IV o Ousado, rei de Portugal and Beatriz de Castela, rainha consorte de Portugal
Husband of Branca, infanta de Castilha; Constanza Manuel de Villena y Barcelona, infanta de Castilla and Inês de Castro, Rainha-póstuma de Portugal
Partner of Teresa Gille Gil Lourenço
Father of Luís de Portugal; Maria Borgonha Infante de Portugal; Fernando I o Gentil, rei de Portugal; Brites de Portugal; Afonso de Borgonha e Castro and 3 others
Brother of María de Portugal, reina consorte de Castilla y León; Joana de Portugal, Princess Of Portugal; Afonso Borgonha de Portugal; Diniz Borgonha, Infante de Portugal; Isabel Borgonha de Portugal and 2 others
Half brother of Maria Afonso de Portugal

Occupation: Rei de Portugal (1357 - 1367), Rey de Portugal, King of Portugal and the Algarve, Roi de Portugal et Algarve, Rei de Portugal
Managed by: Private User
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About Pedro I o Justiceiro, rei de Portugal

Peter I (Portuguese: Pedro, IPA pron. ['ped?u]; 8 April 1320 – 18 January 1367), called the Just (Portuguese: o Justiceiro), was the eighth King of Portugal and the Algarve from 1357 until his death. He was the third but only surviving son of Afonso IV of Portugal and his wife, princess Beatrice of Castile.

Afonso IV married his daughter Maria to Alfonso XI of Castile, but quickly learned that she was being mistreated by her husband. Alfonso's cousin, Juan Manuel, had also been rebuffed by the king when his daughter Constanza was rejected in favor of the Portuguese princess. Feeling as though his daughter was being dishonored, Afonso was glad to enter into an alliance with Juan Manuel and married Pedro to Constanza. When Constanza arrived in Portugal, Inês de Castro, the daughter of a Castilian landed aristocrat accompanied her as her lady-in-waiting. Pedro fell in love with Inês very quickly and the two conducted an affair until Constanza's death in 1345. The scandal of this affair caused Afonso to banish Inês from court, but this did not end the relationship since the two began living together in secret. According to the chronicle of Fernão Lopes, this period was when Pedro began giving Inês' brothers important positions at court. This behavior alarmed Afonso and made him believe that upon his death the Portuguese throne would fall to Castilians. This is the official motive behind Afonso's next actions: he sent three men to find Inês and murder her in 1355. Pedro's rage at the murder of his love is what supposedly sparked his desire to revolt against his father. This revolt lasted from 1355 until 1356 when Afonso defeated his son. One year later, in 1357, Afonso died and Pedro succeeded the throne.

Fernão Lopes labels Pedro as "the Just" and said that Pedro loved justice, especially the dispensing of it, something which he enjoyed doing himself. Inês' assassins were the recipients of his harshest punishment. The three had escaped to Castile, but Pedro arranged for them to be exchanged with Castilian fugitives residing in Portugal with his nephew, the Castilian Pedro I. One man escaped, but the other two were brought to justice, and Lopes said that Pedro ripped their hearts out with his own bare hands. There is a possibility that Pedro of Portugal has been confused with Pedro I of Castile: they are both Pedro I, they both lived at the same time, the two were closely related, and are both credited with committing violent acts towards their subjects. Despite his gruesome legacy, Pedro of Portugal did lead a peacful reign and managed to install a system of justice which was relatively fair for the times. He attempted this with his Beneplácito Régio in 1361, which forbade any Papal Bulls to be published without his prior consent. This was a result of the number of fake papal documents that had been entering the country. He also began the "nationalization" of the military orders by placing his youngest son João (the illegitimate son born after the death of Inês) as the Master of the Order of Avis. He did attempt to claim that he and Inês had been married and therefore their four children were legitimate, but nothing ever came of this, and Inês' children went to live in Castile.

Legend holds that Pedro later had Inês' body exhumed and placed on a throne, dressed in rich robes and jewels, and required all of his vassals to kiss the hand of the deceased "queen". This has never been proven, but what is known is that Pedro did have Inês' body exhumed from her resting place in Coimbra and taken to Alcobaça where her body was laid to rest in the monastery. Pedro had two tombs commissioned for the monastery, one for each of them. The tombs still exist today; they are images of Pedro and Inês facing each other, and inscribed on the marble is "Até o fim do mundo..." or "Until the end of the world..."

Pedro was also the father of Fernando I and João I. João was the Master of the military order of Avis, and he would become the founder of the Avis dynasty in 1385 after defeating an attempt by Juan I to usurp the Portuguese throne.

[edit] Ancestors Peter's ancestors in three generations Peter I of Portugal Father: Afonso IV of Portugal Father's father: Denis of Portugal Father's father's father: Afonso III of Portugal Father's father's mother: Beatrix of Castile Father's mother: Elizabeth of Aragon Father's mother's father: Peter III of Aragon Father's mother's mother: Constance of Sicily Mother: Beatrice of Castile Mother's father: Sancho IV of Castile Mother's father's father: Alfonso X of Castile Mother's father's mother: Yolande of Hungary Mother's mother: María de Molina Mother's mother's father: Infante Afonso, Lord of Molina Mother's mother's mother: Mayor Alonso Telles, Lady of Meneses

[edit] Marriage and descendants Name Birth Death Notes Blanca of Castile (c. 1315-1375; married in 1325; annulled in 1333) Constance of Penafiel (c. 1320-1349; married in 1320) Infante Luís (Louis) 1340 1340 Infanta Maria April 6, 1342 a. 1367 Marchioness Consort of Tortosa by marriage to Infante Fernando of Aragon, Marquis of Tortosa. Infante Fernando (Ferdinand) October 31, 1345 October 22, 1383 Succeeded him as Ferdinand I, 9th King of Portugal. By Inés de Castro (c. 1320-1355; possibly married in 1354) Afonso 1346 1346 Died shortly after his birth. Infanta Beatriz (Beatrice) 1347 1381 Countess Consort of Alburquerque by marriage to Sancho of Castile, Count of Alburquerque y Haro. Infante João (John) 1349 1397 Lord of Porto de Mós, Ceia and Montelonso, and also Duke of Valencia de Campos. Claimant to the throne during the 1383-1385 Crisis. Infante Dinis, Lord of Cifuentes 1354 1397 Lord of Villar-Dompardo. And later, Cifuentes, Escalona and Alvar de Tormes. Claimant to the throne during the 1383-1385 Crisis. By Teresa Lourenço (c. 1330-?) João (John) April 11, 1357 August 14, 1433 Natural son. Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. Succeeded his half-brother Ferdinand I after the 1383-1385 Crisis as John I, 10th King of Portugal, the first of the House of Aviz.

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Pedro I o Justiceiro, rei de Portugal's Timeline

April 18, 1320
Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
February 27, 1340
Age 19
Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
April 6, 1342
Age 21
Of, Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal
October 31, 1345
Age 25
Santarem, Portugal
Age 25
Coimbra, Portugal
Age 26
Ledesma, Salamanca, Espana
Age 28
Coimbra, Portugal