Pedro IV 'el Ceremonioso' de Aragón, rey de Aragón (1319 - 1387) MP

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Nicknames: "Pietro IV "lo Zeremonioso" d'Aragón; Pedro IV "El Ceremonioso" de Aragón; Pere IV "el del Punyalet"; Pere II de València i d'Empúries; Pere III de Barcelona; Pere I de Mallorca i de Sardenya", "King Pedro I of /Valencia/", "The Ceremonious", "a kegyelen"
Birthplace: Balaguer, Lérida, Spain
Death: Died in Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
Occupation: Rey de Aragon, Rey de Aragón (1336-1387)
Managed by: Noah Gregory Tutak
Last Updated:

About Pedro IV 'el Ceremonioso' de Aragón, rey de Aragón

Infante don PEDRO de Aragón (Balaguer 5 Sep 1319-Barcelona 5 Jan 1387, bur Nuestra Señora de Poblet). The Crónica de San Juan de la Peña names "el primero…Don Pedro…el otro Don Jayme" as the two sons of Alfonso IV King of Aragon and his wife Teresa[305]. He succeeded his father in 1336 as PEDRO IV "el Ceremonioso" King of Aragon and Valencia, PERE III Conde de Barcelona.

Infante don PEDRO de Aragón, son of don ALFONSO IV "el Benigne" King of Aragon & his first wife doña Teresa de Entenza Condesa de Urgel (Balaguer 5 Sep 1319-Barcelona 5 Jan 1387, bur Nuestra Señora de Poblet). He succeeded his father in 1336 as PEDRO IV "el Ceremonioso" King of Aragon, PERE III Conde de Barcelona, PEDRO II King of Valencia, crowned at Zaragoza 1336. He crowned himself, the first king of Aragon since 1204 not to have been crowned by the Papal representative[311]. After his accession, his stepmother dowager Queen Leonor continued to plot to advance the interests of her own sons. Pedro IV was obliged to confirm his stepbrothers in their possessions in 1338, not wishing to antagonise Castile when Sultan Abu al-Hassan was threatening a new invasion of the peninsular. Following a lengthy dispute with his brother-in-law Jaime III King of Mallorca, Pedro IV annexed Mallorca 29 Mar 1343, declaring himself PEDRO I King of Mallorca, Comte de Roussillon & Cerdanya. He successfully invaded Mallorca in May 1343 and conquered Roussillon and Cerdanya in 1344. His brother Infante don Jaime Conde de Urgel became the leader of an opposition movement in Aragon, was joined by his half-brothers, and forced compromises from Pedro IV at a Cortes in Zaragoza in late summer 1347. After Infante don Jaime's death later in 1347, his half-brother Infante don Fernando assumed leadership of the opposition encouraged by his maternal uncle Alfonso XI King of Castile. Fernando inflicted a military defeat on Pedro IV's Valencian supporters and obliged Pedro IV to recognise him as his heir. In July 1348, Pedro IV defeated don Fernando and reaffirmed his power. Aragonese relations with Castile continued to be tense, with war breaking out in March 1357 when Pedro I "el Cruel" King of Castile captured Tarragona. Pedro IV supported Enrique de Trastámara in his rebellion in Castile, confirming the alliance at Binéfar in October 1363 when Pedro agreed to transfer the Kingdom of Murcia to Enrique. However, when Enrique succeeded to the throne of Castile, Pedro IV allied himself with Fernando I King of Portugal to oppose him, continuing to retain Murcia. Hostilities were successively suspended by peace treaties signed at Alcañiz in 1371, at Almazán 12 Apr 1374 and at Lérida 10 May 1375, under which Molina and Murcia were transferred to Castile and Pedro IV's daughter Infanta Leonor betrothed to Enrique II's son Juan.

m firstly (contract 6 Jan 1337, Alagón 23 Jul 1338) Infanta doña MARÍA de Navarra, daughter of don FELIPE III King of Navarre Comte d’Evreux [Capet] & his wife doña Juana II Queen of Navarre [Capet] ([1335]-Valencia 29 Apr 1347, bur Valencia San Vicente, transferred to Nuestra Señora de Poblet). A document dated 23 Jul 1338 at Alagón certifies that "Pedro…Rey de Aragon de Valencia de Cerdennya de Corcegua e comte de Barçalona" married "dona Maria filla del…princep e sennyor don Phelip…Rey de Navarra conte de Euroux de Engolesme de Morentayn e de Longauilla et de la…sennyora dona Johannya…Reyna del dicto Reyno"[312]. She died in childbirth.

m secondly (by proxy Santarem 11 Jun 1347 in person Barcelona 15 Nov 1347) Infanta dona LEONOR de Portugal, daughter of dom AFONSO IV King of Portugal & his wife Infanta doña Beatrix de Castilla (1328-Teruel 29 Oct 1348, bur Nuestra Señora de Poblet). She died of plague.

m thirdly (Valencia 13 Jun 1349) LEONOR of Sicily, daughter of PIETRO II King of Sicily [Aragon] & his wife Elisabeth of Carinthia [Görz] ([1325]-Lérida 20 Apr 1375). She became a powerful influence at court, replacing Bernat de Cabrera as King Pedro IV's chief adviser. In 1357, faced with mounting opposition in Sicily, her brother King Federigo proposed that Athens and Neopatras be transferred to Queen Leonor in return for military help from her husband in Sicily, a proposal which was refused[313].

m fourthly (Barcelona 11 Oct 1377) as her second husband, SIBILLA de Fortià, widow of ARTAL de Foces, daughter of BERNAT de Fortià & his wife --- (-Barcelona 4 or 24 Nov 1406). Daughter of a minor baron in the Empordà, she became King Pedro IV's mistress before marrying him. She established her family in positions of power at court, her brother Bernat de Fortià becoming Pedro IV's chamberlain. Crowned Queen at Zaragoza Jan 1381. After fleeing to Sant Martí Sarroca after her husband died, she was captured but allowed a pension in return for giving up her endowments.

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Peter IV of Aragon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Peter IV (5 September 1319,[1] Balaguer[2] – 5 January 1387), called the Ceremonious (el Cerimoniós) or El del Punyalet ("the one of the little dagger"), was the King of Aragon, King of Sardinia and Corsica (as Peter I), King of Valencia (as Peter II), and Count of Barcelona (and the rest of the Principality of Catalonia as Peter III) from 1336 until his death. He deposed James III of Majorca and made himself King of Majorca in 1344. His reign was occupied with attempts to strengthen the crown against the Union of Aragon and other such devices of the nobility, with their near constant revolts, and with foreign wars, in Sardinia, Sicily, the Mezzogiorno, Greece, and the Balearics. His wars in Greece made him Duke of Athens and Neopatria in 1381.

Succession conflicts

Peter was the eldest son and heir of Alfonso IV, then merely Count of Urgell, and his first wife, Teresa d'Entença. Peter was designated to inherit all of his father's title save that of Urgell, which went to his younger brother James.

Upon succeeding his father he called a cort in Zaragoza for his coronation. He crowned himself, disappointing the Archbishop of Zaragoza and thus rejecting the surrender Peter II had made to the Papacy, in an otherwise traditional ceremony. According to his own later reports, this act caused him some "distress".[2] He did, however, affirm the liberties and privileges of Aragon.[3] Also while he was at Zaragoza an embassy from Castile had met him and asked that he promise to uphold the donations of land his father had made to his step-mother Eleanor, but he refused to give a clear answer as to the legitimacy of the donations.[3]

After the festivities in Zaragoza, Peter began on his way to Valencia to receive coronation there. On route he stopped at Lleida to affirm the Usatges and Constitucions of Catalonia and receive the homage of his Catalan subjects. This offended Barcelona, at which the ceremony had usually been performed, and the citizens of that city complained to the king, who claimed that Lleida was on his way to Valencia.[4] While in Valencia he decided on the case of his step-mother's inheritance, depriving her of income and outlawing her Castilian protector, Pedro de Ejérica.[3] However, Pedro had enough supporters within Peter's domains that Peter was unable to maintain his position and in 1338, through papal mediation, Pedro was reconciled to the king and Eleanor received her land and jurisdictional rights.[5] Peter was largely forced to capitulate by a new invasion from Morocco aimed at Castile and Valencia.

In 1338 he married Maria, second daughter of Philip III and Joan II of Navarre.[5] In May 1339 he allied with Alfonso XI of Castile against Morocco, but his contribution of a fleet had no effect at the pivotal Battle of the Río Salado (October 1340).[4]

[edit]Conquest of Majorca

Early on in his reign, a thorn in Peter's side had been James III of Majorca, his brother-in-law, the husband of his sister Constance. James had twice postponed performing the ceremony of homage to Peter, his feudal overlord, and when he finally performed it in 1339 it was on his terms.[4] The rising economic star of Majorca, whose merchants were establishing independent markets and gaining trading privileges in the western Mediterranean, threatened the supremacy of Barcelona.[4] The gold coinage of Majorca and the diplomatic equality granted it by the powers of France and Italy irked Peter further, while James also allied with Abu al-Hassan, the king of Morocco and Peter's enemy.[4] Peter's outrage, however, was given no outlet until 1341, when James, threatened with invasion by the French over disputed rights to the Lordship of Montpellier, called on his suzerain Aragon for aid.[6][7] In order not to offend France nor to support James, Peter summoned the king of Majorca to a cort at Barcelona, to which he knew he would not come, and when James or a representative of his failed to appear, Peter declared himself free from the obligations of an overlord to James.[6][7]

Peter then opened a legal process against James, with the intent of dispossessing him of his kingdom. He alleged that the circulation of James' coinage in the Counties of Roussillon and Cerdagne to be an infringement on the royal right of monopoly of coinage.[6][7] This was open to question, considering the ancient customs of Roussillon and Cerdagne, but Peter was prepared to move forward anyway. The interference of Pope Clement VI, however, granted James a hearing in Barcelona in front of papal delegates.[6][7] Peter, for his part, spread rumours that James was seeking to capture him.[6][7] James, fearing that Peter would stoop to invading Majorca and seizing it by force, returned to the island to prepare its defence.[8] In February 1343 Peter declared James a contumacious vassal and his kingdom and lands forfeit.[6][8]

The legal process being terminated, Peter went to war, on the advice that the islanders were burdened by taxes and would readily rise in his support.[8] In May a Catalan fleet which had been blockading Algeciras landed at Majorca and quickly defeated James' army at the Battle of Santa Ponça.[6][8] Peter received the submission of all the Balearics and confirmed the privileges of the islands as they had been under James I.[9] Though James sued for peace and Pope Clement attempted to mediate it, Peter returned to Barcelona prepared to invade Roussillon and Cerdagne.[6][8] After these were finally conquered in 1344 James surrendered on a safe conduct, only to find himself ignominiously reduced to the status of a petty lord.[6][8] In March Peter had declared his realm incorporated into the Crown of Aragon in perpetuity and ceremoniously had himself crowned its king.[9][8]

[edit]Military career

By the Pact of Madrid, Peter was constrained to aid Alfonso XI of Castile in his successful attack on Algeciras (1344) and his failed attempt on Gibraltar (1349) by defending against a Moroccan counterattack.

He found himself facing a rebellion among the nobles which would fail after he defeated the nobles in the Battle of Epila in 1348.

In 1356, he engaged with Peter I of Castile in what was called the "War of the Two Peters". It ended in 1375 with the Treaty of Almazán, without a winner due to the Black Death and several natural disasters.

He conquered Sicily in 1377 but the possession was given to his son Martin.

Throughout his reign, Peter IV had frequent conflicts with the inquisitor general of Aragon, Nicolau Aymerich.

In 1349, James invaded Majorca, but was soundly defeated by Peter's troops at the Battle of Llucmajor, in which he died. After James' death, Peter allowed James IV, his successor, to retain his royal title on purely formal terms until his death in 1375. After that date, Peter assumed the titular. Majorca remained one of the component crowns of the Crown of Aragon until the Nueva Planta decrees.

[edit]Generalitat

At a cortes celebrated at Barcelona, Vilafranca del Penedès and Cervera in 1358–1359, Peter instituted the Generalitat. Castile had recently invaded Aragon and Valencia and the cortes decided to streamline the government by designating a dozen deputies to oversee the fiscal and material policies of the Crown. The first "President of the Generalitat" was Berenguer de Cruïlles, Bishop of Girona (1359).

Toward the end of his reign (c. 1370) Peter ordered the compilation of the Chronicle of San Juan de la Peña to record the historical basis for the authority of the crown.

[edit]Marriage and children

On 1338, he married Maria of Navarre (1329-1347), daughter of Joan II of Navarre. She bore him two daughters:

Constança of Aragon (1343-1363), who married Frederick III of Sicily.

Joan, Countess of Empuries (b.c. 1346).

In 1347, he married Leonor of Portugal (1328-1348), daughter of Afonso IV of Portugal. She died one year later of the Black Death.

His third marriage was to Eleanor of Sicily (1325-1375), daughter of Peter II of Sicily. Four children were born from this marriage:

Juan I

Martí I

Eleanor, who married Juan I of Castile and was the mother of Ferdinand I of Aragon.

Alfonso (died young).

His last marriage, in 1377, was to Sibila of Fortià, who bore him a daughter:

Elizabeth (1376-1424), who married her cousin James (Jaime), Count of Urgell.

[edit]References

Bisson, Thomas N. The Medieval Crown of Aragon: A Short History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986. ISBN 0 19 821987 3.

Chaytor, H. J. A History of Aragon and Catalonia. London: Methuen, 1933.

Setton, Kenneth M. Catalan Domination of Athens 1311–1380. Revised edition. London: Variorum, 1975.

-------------------- Pedro IV de Aragão (5 de Setembro de 1319, Balaguer - 5 de Janeiro de 1387), chamado de Ceremonious (el Cerimoniós) ou El del Punyalet ("um dos poucos com punhal"), foi rei de Aragão, rei de Sardenha e Córsega (como Pedro I), rei de Valência (como Pedro II), e Conde de Barcelona (e no resto do Principado de Catalunha como Pedro III), de 1336 até à sua morte. Ele foi deposto por Jaime III de Maiorca e fez-se rei de Maiorca em 1344. O seu reinado foi ocupado com as tentativas de reforçar a união contra a coroa de Aragão e de outros tais dispositivos da nobreza, com constantes revoltas e guerras com o estrangeiro, na Sardenha, Sicília, no Mezzogiorno, na Grécia, e nas Baleares. A sua guerra na Grécia fê-lo Duque de Atenas e de Neopatria, em 1381.

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Хронология Pedro IV el Ceremonioso, rey de Aragón

1319
September 5, 1319
Balaguer, Lérida, Spain
1338
July 25, 1338
Age 18
Zaragoza, Aragón
1340
1340
Age 20
Tarragona, Spain
1344
November 7, 1344
Age 25
Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
1345
1345
Age 25
Spain
1347
April 28, 1347
Age 27
Valencia, Valencia (Región), Spain
September 19, 1347
Age 28
Barcelona, Catalunya
1349
June 13, 1349
Age 29
Valencia, Valencia, Spain
1350
December 27, 1350
Age 31
Perpignan, Languedoc-Roussillon, France
1356
1356
Age 36
Girona, Catalonia, Spain