Petar Krešimir IV 'Veliki' Trpimirović

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Petar Krešimir IV 'Veliki' Trpimirović

Death: Died
Immediate Family:

Son of Stjepan I (Stjepan III Dobroslav) Krešimirović Trpimirović and Joscella (Hicela) Trpimirović
Father of Neda Krešimirova Trpimirović
Brother of Tišemir Častimir Trpimirović
Half brother of Čika Opatica (The Nun) Medijevac

Occupation: hrvatski kralj 1058. -1074.
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Petar Krešimir IV 'Veliki' Trpimirović

Petar Krešimir IV. (lat. Petrus Cressimerus) je srednjovjeki hrvatski kralj iz vladarske dinastije Trpimirovića, koji je vladao od 1058. do 1074. godine.

Rodjen je kao sin ranijega hrvatskog kralja, Stjepana III. Dobroslava (1035-1050) i mletačke majke-kraljice Hicele Orseolo.

Bio je bez sina-nasljednika i imao je samo kćerku Nedu Krešimirovu, koja se udala za kasnijeg kralja Marijana II. Slavca (1073-1076) kojem je rodila Krešimirova unuka i zadnjega domaćeg bana Petra Slavića (1089-1093).

Peter Krešimir IV, called the Great (Croatian: Petar Krešimir IV Veliki) (died 1075), was a notably energetic King of Croatia from 1059 to his death in 1074/1075[2]. He was the last great ruler of the Krešimirović branch of the House of Trpimirović. Under his rule the Croatian realm reached its peak territorially, earning him the sobriquet "the Great," otherwise unique in Croatian history.[3] He kept his seat at Nin and Biograd na Moru[1], however, the city of Šibenik holds a statue of him and is often called Krešimir's city ("Krešimirov grad", in Croatian) because he is generally credited as the founder.[4][5]

Contents [hide] 1 Reign 1.1 Religious policy 1.2 Territorial policy 1.3 Relations with Byzantium and the Normans 1.4 Death and succession 1.5 Ancestors 2 Legacy 3 Notes 4 See also 5 External links

[edit] Reign[edit] Religious policy Peter Krešimir IV. being recognized as a king by the diocese of Split.Peter Kresimir was born as one of two children to king Stephen I and his wife Joscella (Hicela) Orseolo of Venicei[›][6], the daughter of the Venetian doge Pietro II Orseolo.[7][8] Raised in Venice, Krešimir succeeded his father Stephen I upon his death in 1058 and was crowned the next year. It is not known where his coronation took place, but some historians suggest Biograd as a possibility.[7] From the outset, he continued the policies of his father, but was immediately commanded by Pope Nicholas II first in 1059. and then in 1060 to reform the Croatian church in accordance with the Roman rite. This was especially significant to the papacy in the aftermath of the Great Schism of 1054, when a papal ally in the Balkans was a necessity. Kresimir and the upper nobility lent their support to the pope and the church of Rome.

The lower nobility and the peasantry, however, were far less well-disposed to reforms. The Croatian priesthood was aligned towards Byzantine orientalism, including having long beards and marrying. More so, the ecclesiastical service was likely practiced in the native Slavonic (Glagolitic), whereas the pope demanded practice in Latin. This caused a rebellion of the clergy against celibacy and the Latin liturgy in 1063, but they were proclaimed heretical at a synod of 1064. and excommunicated, a decision which Kresimir supported. He harshly quelled all opposition and sustained a firm alignment towards western Romanism, with the intent of more fully integrating the Dalmatian populace into his realm. In turn, he could then use them to balance the power caused by the growing feudal class. By the end of Krešimir's reign, feudalism had made permanent inroads into Croatian society and Dalmatia had been permanently associated with the Croatian state.[9]

The income from the cities further strengthened Krešimir's power, and he subsequently fostered the development of more cities, such as Biograd, Nin, Šibenik, Karin, and Skradin. He also had several monasteries constructed, like the Benedictine monastery of St. John the Evangelist in Biograd[10], and donated much land to the Church. In 1066, he granted a charter to the new monastery of St.Mary in Zadar, where the founder and first nun was his cousin, the Abbess Čika. This remains the oldest Croatian monument in the city of Zadar, and became a spearhead for the reform movement. Several other Benedictine monasteries were also founded during his reign, including the one in Skradin.

[edit] Territorial policy King's confirmation of donating land parcels to the diocese of Rap.[1]Krešimir greatly expanded Croatia along the Adriatic coastland and in the mainland eastwards.[7] He made the ban of Slavonia, Dmitar Zvonimir, of the related Svetoslavić brand of his house, his principal adviser with the title Duke (or ban) of Croatia. This act brought Slavonia into the Croatian fold definitively.

It is notable that, according to some royal documents, he ruled with three of his bans, each having a jurisdiction over a major part of the kingdom; Zvonimir as a Ban of Slavonia (c.1065–1075), Gojčo (1060–1069), who was a Ban of Littoral Croatia, and a Ban of Bosnia.[10]

In 1069., he gave the island of Maun, near Nin, to the monastery of St. Krševan in Zadar, in thanks for the "expansion of the kingdom on land and on sea, by the grace of the omnipotent God" (quia Deus omnipotenus terra marique nostrum prolungavit regnum). In his surviving document, Krešimir nevertheless did not fail to point out that it was "our own island that lies on our Dalmatian sea" (nostram propriam insulam in nostro Dalmatico mari sitam, que vocatur Mauni).[11]

Croatia in the mid-11th century[edit] Relations with Byzantium and the NormansIn 1069, he had the Byzantine Empire recognize him as supreme ruler of the parts of Dalmatia Byzantium had controlled since the Croatian dynastic struggle of 997.[12] At the time, the empire was at war both with the Seljuk Turks in Asia and the Normans in southern Italy, so Krešimir took the opportunity and, avoiding an imperial nomination as proconsul or eparch, consolidated his holdings as the regnum Dalmatiae et Chroatia. This was not a formal title, but it designated a unified political-administrative territory, which had been the chief desire of the Croatian kings.[11]

During Krešimir's reign, the Normans first became involved in Balkan politics and Krešimir soon came in contact with them. After the 1071 Battle of Manzikert, where the Seljuk Turks routed the Eastern Imperial army, the Serbs instigated a rebellion of Slavic boyars in Macedonia. In 1072, Krešimir lent his aid to the uprising. However, against all odds, the empire relatively quickly retaliated in 1074. In 1075., the Norman Count Amico invaded Croatia from southern Italy, either at the command of Constantinople or on behalf of the Dalmaitan cities (by invitation to protect them from Croatian domination). Amico besieged Rab for almost a month (late April to early May). He failed to take the island, but he allegedly did manage to capture the Croatian king himself at an unidentified location. In return for liberation, he was forced to relinquish many cities, including both his capitals, as well as Zadar, Split, and Trogir. His followers also collected a large ransom. However, he was not liberated. Over the next two years, the Republic of Venice banished the Normans and secured the cities for themselves.[13]

[edit] Death and successionNearing the end of his reign, Krešimir had no sons, but only a daughter by the name of Neda. His brothers were dead, so the end of Krešimir IV meant the end of the usurper Krešimir III of Croatia branch of Trpimirović dynasty. Krešimir designated his cousin and duke of Slavonia, Demetrius Zvonimir, as his heir with which he has restored Svetoslav Suronja branch of dynasty. According to some historians, Zvonimir deposed him and is uncertain whether he died in a Norman prison during the first half of 1075 or not.[10] It is suggested by Johannes Lucius that an usurpator king, called Slavac, succeeded the throne somewhere during 1074 and reigned only for a year before getting taken down and Zvonimir taking over.[12][14]

Krešimir was buried in the church of St. Stephen[15] in Solin, together with the other dukes and kings of Croatia. Unfortunately, several centuries later the Ottoman Turks destroyed the church, banished the monks who had preserved it, and destroyed the graves.[16]

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