Petronius Maximus, Roman Emperor

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Flavius Anicius Petronius Maximus, Western Roman Emperor

Also Known As: "Anicius Petronius Maximus Caesar"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Roma, Tuscia et Umbria, Italia Suburbica, Roman Empire
Death: Died in Roma, Tuscia et Umbria, Italia Suburbica, Western Roman Empire
Cause of death: Killed by Romans while attempting to flee Rome ahead of the arrival of the Vandals
Immediate Family:

Son of Anicius Probinus; Anicius Probianus consul de Roma; Ennodia Magna and Ennodia
Husband of Eparchia Avita; Volusiana; Lincina Eudoxia Augusta "the Elder"; (Eparchia) and Volusiana
Father of Audentia; Maria; Palladius Caesar; Anicius Probus and Maria

Occupation: Western Roman Emperor (455), Praefectus Urbis Romae (420 CE), Consul of Rome (433, 443 CE), Praetorian Praefect of Italy (439 CE), Patrician (445 CE), and Emperor of Rome (455 CE), cesarz
Managed by: Henn Sarv
Last Updated:

About Petronius Maximus, Roman Emperor

Anicius Petronius Maximus Caesar, Consul of Rome (433, 443 CE), Praetorian Praefect of Italy (439 CE), Patrician (445 CE), and Emperor of Rome (455 CE). He seized power after the death of Valentinian III, and married Valentinian's widow Eudoxia against her will. She invited the Vandal king Gaiseric to come to her rescue. He did, looting the city of Rome. After a reign of 77 days, Maximus was torn to pieces and thrown into the Tiber river by palace slaves. He was succeeded by Avitus. There has been some speculation that Petronius Maximus might have been a descendant of Magnus Maximus. (Justin Swanström, 2010).


From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Medlands page on Italy Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#_Toc203638163

PETRONIUS MAXIMUS ([396]-murdered 27 May 455).

Theophanes names "Maximus Maximi nepos" when recording that he murdered Emperor Valentinian[139]. A member of the Roman Anicii family[140]. Iordanes records that Maximus murdered Emperor Valentinian after invading the empire[141].

He succeeded in 455 as Emperor PETRONIUS MAXIMUS, Emperor in the West. After his accession, he forced his predecessor's widow to marry him, and her daughter Eudoxia to marry his son, triggering the invasion by Genseric King of the Vandals to whom the younger Eudoxia had been promised in marriage for his son.

He was killed by the Romans after he attempted to flee[142], although the primary sources on which this is based have not yet been identified.

m firstly ---.

  • The first wife of Petronius Maximus was lured to the palace of Emperor Valentinian III who raped her[143], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.

m secondly ([Mar] 455) as her second husband, EUDOXIA, widow of Emperor VALENTINIAN III, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS II, Emperor in the East & his wife Eudoxia --- (422-after 462).

  • After the murder of her first husband, she was forced to marry his successor, but was captured during the Vandal invasion and taken to north Africa with her two daughters[144]. Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Eudoxia Augusta, Valentiniani Regis vidua" and "Maximo Tyranno"[145].

Emperor Petronius Maximus & his first (unknown) wife had one child:

i) PALADIUS (-[murdered May 455]).

  • The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Maximus installed “filio suo ex priore coniuge Palladio” as cæsar in 455[146]. It is assumed that he was killed at the same time as his father[147].
  • m ([Apr] 455) as her first husband, EUDOXIA, daughter of Emperor VALENTINIAN III, Emperor in the West & his wife Eudoxia . The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Maximus arranged the marriage of “filio suo ex priore coniuge Palladio” and “Valentiniani filiam” in 455[148]. After the death of her father, his successor forced Eudoxia to marry his son, but she was captured by Genseric King of the Vandals during his attack on Rome and taken back to north Africa with her mother and sister[149]. The primary source which records her first marriage has not so far been identified. She married secondly ([455]) as his second wife, Huneric. The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "Hugnericus" married "Valentiniani filiam" who had been abducted from Rome in captivity[150].

References:

  • [139] Theophanes Vol. II, 5945/445, p. 71.
  • [140] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
  • [141] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 118.
  • [142] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
  • [143] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
  • [144] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
  • [145] Ioannes Malalas XIV, p. 365.
  • [146] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 369.
  • [147] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
  • [148] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 369.
  • [149] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
  • [150] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 464, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 187.

Anicius Petronius Maximus Caesar, Consul of Rome (433, 443 CE), Praetorian Praefect of Italy (439 CE), Patrician (445 CE), and Emperor of Rome (455 CE). He seized power after the death of Valentinian III, and married Valentinian's widow Eudoxia against her will. She invited the Vandal king Gaiseric to come to her rescue. He did, looting the city of Rome. After a reign of 77 days, Maximus was torn to pieces and thrown into the Tiber river by palace slaves. He was succeeded by Avitus. There has been some speculation that Petronius Maximus might have been a descendant of Magnus Maximus. (Justin Swanström, 2010).


From the Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Medlands page on Italy Kings:

http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/ITALY,%20Kings%20to%20962.htm#_Toc203638163

PETRONIUS MAXIMUS ([396]-murdered 27 May 455).

Theophanes names "Maximus Maximi nepos" when recording that he murdered Emperor Valentinian[139]. A member of the Roman Anicii family[140]. Iordanes records that Maximus murdered Emperor Valentinian after invading the empire[141].

He succeeded in 455 as Emperor PETRONIUS MAXIMUS, Emperor in the West. After his accession, he forced his predecessor's widow to marry him, and her daughter Eudoxia to marry his son, triggering the invasion by Genseric King of the Vandals to whom the younger Eudoxia had been promised in marriage for his son.

He was killed by the Romans after he attempted to flee[142], although the primary sources on which this is based have not yet been identified.

m firstly ---.

   The first wife of Petronius Maximus was lured to the palace of Emperor Valentinian III who raped her[143], although the primary source on which this is based has not yet been identified.

m secondly ([Mar] 455) as her second husband, EUDOXIA, widow of Emperor VALENTINIAN III, daughter of Emperor THEODOSIUS II, Emperor in the East & his wife Eudoxia --- (422-after 462).

   After the murder of her first husband, she was forced to marry his successor, but was captured during the Vandal invasion and taken to north Africa with her two daughters[144]. Ioannes Malalas records the marriage of "Eudoxia Augusta, Valentiniani Regis vidua" and "Maximo Tyranno"[145].

Emperor Petronius Maximus & his first (unknown) wife had one child:

i) PALADIUS (-[murdered May 455]).

   The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Maximus installed “filio suo ex priore coniuge Palladio” as cæsar in 455[146]. It is assumed that he was killed at the same time as his father[147].
   m ([Apr] 455) as her first husband, EUDOXIA, daughter of Emperor VALENTINIAN III, Emperor in the West & his wife Eudoxia . The Chronicon of Bishop Idatius records that Maximus arranged the marriage of “filio suo ex priore coniuge Palladio” and “Valentiniani filiam” in 455[148]. After the death of her father, his successor forced Eudoxia to marry his son, but she was captured by Genseric King of the Vandals during his attack on Rome and taken back to north Africa with her mother and sister[149]. The primary source which records her first marriage has not so far been identified. She married secondly ([455]) as his second wife, Huneric. The Victoris Tonnennensis Epsicopi Chronicon records that "Hugnericus" married "Valentiniani filiam" who had been abducted from Rome in captivity[150].

References:

   [139] Theophanes Vol. II, 5945/445, p. 71.
   [140] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
   [141] Iordanes Getarum, MGH Auct. ant. V.1, p. 118.
   [142] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
   [143] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
   [144] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
   [145] Ioannes Malalas XIV, p. 365.
   [146] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 369.
   [147] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
   [148] Idatii Episcopi Chronicon, España Sagrada III, p. 369.
   [149] Zosso and Zingg (1995), p. 192.
   [150] Victoris Tonnennensis Episcopi Chronicon 464, MGH Auct. ant. XI, p. 187.

http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/emperors/a/imperialdates.htm

Rome was originally the capital of the Roman emperor. Later, it moved to Milan, and then Ravenna (A.D. 402-476). After the fall of Romulus Augustulus, in A.D. 476, Rome continued to have an emperor for almost another millennium, but that Roman emperor ruled from the East.

Julio-Claudians

(31 or) 27 B.C. - 14 A.D. Augustus 14 - 37 Tiberius 37 - 41 Caligula 41 - 54 Claudius 54 - 68 Nero Year of the 4 Emperors

(ends with Vespasian) 68 - 69 Galba 69 Otho 69 Vitellius

Flavian Dynasty

69 - 79 Vespasian 79 - 81 Titus 81 - 96 Domitian 5 Good Emperors

96 - 98 Nerva 98 - 117 Trajan 117 - 138 Hadrian 138 - 161 Antoninus Pius 161 - 180 Marcus Aurelius (161 - 169 Lucius Verus)

(The next cluster of emperors is not part of a specific dynasty or other common grouping, but includes 4 from the year of the 5 emperors, 193.) 177/180 - 192 Commodus 193 Pertinax 193 Didius Julianus 193 - 194 Pescennius Niger 193 - 197 Clodius Albinus

Severans

193 - 211 Septimius Severus 198/212 - 217 Caracalla 217 - 218 Macrinus 218 - 222 Elagabalus 222 - 235 Severus Alexander (More emperors without a dynastic label, although it includes the year of the 6 emperors, 238.) For more on this age of chaos, read Brian Campbell's excellent synopsis in The Romans and Their World.

235 - 238 Maximinus 238 Gordian I and II 238 Balbinus and Pupienus 238 - 244 Gordian III 244 - 249 Philip the Arab 249 - 251 Decius 251 - 253 Gallus 253 - 260 Valerian 254 - 268 Gallienus 268 - 270 Claudius Gothicus 270 - 275 Aurelian 275 - 276 Tacitus 276 - 282 Probus 282 - 285 Carus Carinus Numerian

Tetrarchy

285-ca.310 Diocletian 295 L. Domitius Domitianus 297-298 Aurelius Achilleus 303 Eugenius 285-ca.310 Maximianus Herculius 285 Amandus 285 Aelianus Iulianus 286?-297? British Emperors 286/7-293 Carausius 293-296/7 Allectus

293-306 Constantius I Chlorus Dynasty of Constantine

293-311 Galerius 305-313 Maximinus Daia 305-307 Severus II 306-312 Maxentius 308-309 L. Domitius Alexander 308-324 Licinius 314? Valens 324 Martinianus 306-337 Constantinus I 333/334 Calocaerus 337-340 Constantinus II 337-350 Constans I 337-361 Constantius II 350-353 Magnentius 350 Nepotian 350 Vetranio 355 Silvanus 361-363 Julianus 363-364 Jovianus

(More emperors without a dynastic label) 364-375 Valentinianus I 375 Firmus 364-378 Valens 365-366 Procopius 366 Marcellus 367-383 Gratian 375-392 Valentinianus II 378-395 Theodosius I 383-388 Magnus Maximus 384-388 Flavius Victor 392-394 Eugenius

[See: Table of Eastern and Western Emperors]

395-423 Honorius [Division of the Empire - Honorius' brother Arcadius ruled the East 395-408] 407-411 Constantine III usurper 421 Constantius III 423-425 Johannes 425-455 Valentinian III 455 Petronius Maximus 455-456 Avitus 457-461 Majorian 461-465 Libius Severus 467-472 Anthemius 468 Arvandus 470 Romanus 472 Olybrius 473-474 Glycerius 474-475 Julius Nepos 475-476 Romulus Augustulus

Table of Eastern and Western Emperors

Print Resources Chris Scarre: Chronicle of the Roman Emperors Adkins and Adkins: Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome

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Petronius Maximus, Roman Emperor's Timeline

396
396
Roma, Tuscia et Umbria, Italia Suburbica, Roman Empire
420
420
Age 24
420
Age 24
(Gaul), France
435
435
Age 39
Rome, Roma, Italy
455
May 27, 455
Age 59
Roma, Tuscia et Umbria, Italia Suburbica, Western Roman Empire
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