Philippe d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans (1674 - 1723) MP

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Birthplace: Château Saint Cloud, Saint-Cloud, Ile-de-France, France
Death: Died in Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
Occupation: Régent de France, Philippe II, Duc d'Orléans, regent in France (1715-23), *St.Cloud 2.8.1674, +Versailles 2.12.1723, bur St.Denis, Hertig av Orleans, Duke of Órleans
Managed by: Hanne Caulk
Last Updated:

About Philippe d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans

Philippe d'Orléans

Golden Fleece - Knights: Spanish Branch

Royal house

House d'Orléans

Philippe d’Orléans, né le 2 août 1674 à Saint-Cloud et mort le 2 décembre 1723 à Versailles.

Petit-fils de Louis XIII, il est duc de Chartres, duc d'Orléans (1701), duc de Valois, duc de Nemours et duc de Montpensier, régent du royaume de France pendant la minorité de Louis XV, il est appelé le Régent.

Sommaire

1 Biographie

1.1 Les jeunes années

1.2 Le mariage

1.3 Le militaire

1.4 Le Régent

1.5 Le sacre de Louis XV et la mort de Philippe d’Orléans

2 L’artiste

3 Notes et Références

4 Voir aussi

5 Articles connexes

5.1 Bibliographie

5.2 Au cinéma


Biographie
Les jeunes années

Fils de Philippe de France (Monsieur), frère de Louis XIV, et de la princesse Charlotte-Élisabeth de Bavière (1652-1722), Philippe d’Orléans est d’abord titré duc de Chartres. Il reçoit une éducation soignée, principalement tournée vers la fonction militaire et diplomatique, comme il sied à un petit-fils de France. Il s’intéresse particulièrement à l’histoire, la géographie, la philosophie et aux sciences. Contrairement à son oncle et à son père, il monte mal, se montre mauvais danseur et n’aime pas la chasse. En revanche, il a la prodigieuse mémoire de son oncle : très tôt, il connaît sur le bout des doigts les mémoires et généalogies des grandes familles de la cour. Il a aussi une grande capacité de travail et d'intelligence.

Le mariage

Néanmoins, avec la naissance des trois fils du Grand Dauphin, fils aîné de Louis XIV – le duc de Bourgogne en 1682, le duc d’Anjou en 1683, le duc de Berry en 1686 – le duc de Chartres se retrouve sixième dans la ligne de succession au trône, ce qui ne lui laisse que bien peu d’espérances de régner et ne le place pas dans la meilleure situation pour faire un mariage avantageux. De plus, la France est en guerre avec la presque-totalité de l’Europe, ce qui rend impossible un mariage étranger.

Aussi, dès 1688, Louis XIV fait allusion à Mademoiselle de Blois, bâtarde légitimée. Ce mariage parachèverait la politique d’abaissement des branches cadettes de la maison de Bourbon voulue par le Roi Soleil. Mais Monsieur et sa femme, la Princesse Palatine, jugent une telle union tout simplement scandaleuse, indigne et pour tout dire inimaginable.

Le duc de Chartres est plus hésitant, d’autant que l’idée est soutenue par son précepteur, l’abbé Dubois. Au début de 1692, Louis XIV convoque son neveu et lui déclare qu’il ne peut mieux lui témoigner son affection qu’en lui donnant sa propre fille en mariage, ce à quoi le jeune homme ne sait répondre qu’en balbutiant un remerciement embarrassé. La Palatine, apprenant l’issue de l’entrevue, jette de hauts cris mais ne peut affronter le roi, d’autant qu’elle sait ne pouvoir compter sur le soutien de son mari (qui ne se révolta que peu de temps avant sa mort, lançant à son frère que : « Sans tirer aucun profit de ce mariage, Chartres n’en gardera que la honte et le déshonneur »). Elle borne l’expression de son mécontentement à tourner le dos au Roi après lui avoir fait une profonde révérence ; mais ensuite, prétend seul le duc de Saint Simon, elle donne à son fils une énorme gifle devant toute la cour. Le mariage n’en a pas moins lieu, le 9 janvier 1692.

Ce mariage arrangé, non désiré, ne fut guère heureux. Philippe, devenu duc d’Orléans en 1701 à la mort de son père, appelait sa femme « Madame Lucifer ». Ils eurent huit enfants dont un seul fils :

N... d’Orléans, « Mademoiselle de Valois » (17 décembre 1693 – 17 octobre 1694) ;

Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans (20 août 1695 – 21 juillet 1719), épouse (1710) Charles, duc de Berry ;

Louise Adélaïde d’Orléans (13 août 1698 – 10 février 1743), « Mademoiselle d’Orléans » ;

Charlotte Aglaé d’Orléans (20 octobre 1700 – 19 janvier 1761), « Mademoiselle de Valois », épouse (1720) François Marie d’Este-Modène, duc de Modène ;

Louis Ier d’Orléans, duc de Chartres, puis duc d’Orléans (1723), surnommé « le Pieux » (4 août 1703 – 4 février 1752) ;

Louise Élisabeth d’Orléans (11 décembre 1709 – 16 juin 1742), « Mademoiselle de Montpensier », épouse (1723) Louis Ier, roi d’Espagne ;

Philippine Élisabeth d’Orléans (18 décembre 1714 – 21 mai 1734), « Mademoiselle de Beaujolais » ;

Louise Diane d’Orléans (27 juin 1716 – 26 septembre 1736), « Mademoiselle de Chartres », épouse (1732) Louis François de Bourbon-Conti, prince de Conti.

Il eut également plusieurs enfants naturels dont :

Charles de Saint-Albin (1698-1764), né de Florence Pellerin, qui fut évêque-duc de Laon (1721) puis archevêque-duc de Cambrai (1723) ;

Jean Philippe d'Orléans (1702-1748), né de Marie Louise Le Bel de La Boissière, dite comtesse d’Argenton, qui fut légitimé en 1706 et fut Grand Prieur de l’Ordre de Malte en France (dit « le chevalier d’Orléans » ou « le Grand Prieur d’Orléans ») ;

Angélique de Froissy (1702-1785), née de Christine Charlotte Desmares (1682-1753), qui fut légitimée en 1722 et épousa le comte de Ségur.

Le militaire

L’année précédente, Chartres avait commencé la carrière des armes aux Pays-Bas, aux côtés de Louis XIV. Très vite, il s’avère un bon officier, aimé de ses soldats, enchaînant les campagnes. En 1693, il se distingue par une brillante conduite à Mons, à Steinkerque et à Bataille de Neerwinden. Il se montre également très critique vis-à-vis de la stratégie de l’armée de Flandre. Ses quelques initiatives, de portée certes modeste, s’avèrent en revanche des succès. À la cour, les comparaisons fusent avec le Grand Condé, ce qui lui attire la jalousie des autres princes du sang.

Désireux de calmer le jeu, Louis XIV rappelle tous les princes en 1697. Le duc de Chartres vit cette décision comme un camouflet personnel : on ne lui accorde aucun grand gouvernement, à la différence des bâtards, et on le prive de grand commandement. Il sait que son oncle désapprouve sa conduite : depuis l’adolescence, il fréquente les milieux libertins et mène une vie dissolue, ce que réprouve le strict duc de Saint-Simon, son ami d’enfance, qui reste pourtant à ses côtés lors de cette période de disgrâce. Il reçoit, à la mort de son père, le titre de duc d’Orléans. Rappelé à l’armée lors des campagnes difficiles de la guerre de Succession d'Espagne, il prouve sa bravoure à Turin en 1706. Après avoir été écarté des successions possibles, en France comme en Espagne, il intrigue. Son ambition mal déguisée et son goût pour la chimie le font soupçonner d’avoir contribué aux morts du dauphin et de sa famille. Louis XIV lui témoigne froideur et défiance et lui impose, par son testament secret, la présence des légitimés dans le Conseil de régence.

Le Régent

Philippe II d’Orléans et Louis XVÀ la mort de Louis XIV, le duc d’Orléans, adulte de la famille royale le plus proche du roi, devient naturellement le régent du royaume. Toutefois son pouvoir est limité par les demandes du testament de Louis XIV, qui indique la composition du conseil de régence, véritable conseil de gouvernement, et laisse au duc du Maine, l’un des bâtards du Roi-Soleil, l’éducation du jeune Louis XV. Philippe fait casser le testament par le Parlement (septembre 1715) qui le reconnaît comme seul régent, ce qui lui permet de réorganiser le Conseil à son gré et d’évincer le duc du Maine, bientôt exclu de la succession au trône que son père lui avait accordée. Toutefois, le Régent a dû pour se concilier le parlement lui rendre le droit de remontrances supprimé par Louis XIV, ce qui pèse lourdement au XVIIIe siècle.

Il tente de séduire les Français par une politique nouvelle : la paix est rétablie. Il soutient les jansénistes, abandonne la cause des Stuarts, tente de rétablir les finances et l’économie avec les audaces de Law. En entamant sa régence, il adresse, le 4 octobre 1715, une « Lettre à Mrs les intendans commissaires départis dans les provinces », dans laquelle il déclare que sa préoccupation majeure est le poids excessif des différentes taxes et annonce son intention d’établir un système d’imposition plus juste et plus égalitaire. Sur le plan de l’organisation du gouvernement, le Régent entame la politique de polysynodie, sans doute sous l’influence de son ami Saint-Simon : le remplacement des ministres par des conseils rassemblant des grands seigneurs et des techniciens. Mais il s’impose aux parlements et aux légitimés (septembre 1718), prend les armes contre l’Espagne dans une alliance avec Londres et Vienne (janvier 1719). La personnalité de l’abbé Dubois, son ancien précepteur, devenu archevêque, cardinal et ministre, s’impose de plus en plus auprès de Philippe, le fonctionnement de la polysynodie devenant de plus en plus difficile.

Sur le plan personnel, le régent n’a rien changé à sa vie frivole. Le Palais-Royal est le théâtre de ses abandons à la débauche en compagnie de ses « roués » (méritant le supplice de la roue), « fanfarons d’incrédulité et de crimes » ; les petits soupers y tournent parfois à l’orgie.

Le sacre de Louis XV et la mort de Philippe d’Orléans

Mais quand les calamités fondent sur le royaume : incendies, peste de Marseille, effondrement du système de Law, le pays souffre et gémit, on accuse l’irréligion du Régent. La sagacité et la finesse du cardinal Dubois dans les affaires, l’énergie intermittente du Régent et l’absence de toute opposition organisée font que la monarchie reste debout. Louis XV est sacré le 25 octobre 1722 et confirme le cardinal Dubois comme principal ministre, mais celui-ci meurt le 10 août 1723.

Philippe d’Orléans lui demande alors la place de principal ministre que Louis XV, qui a pour lui la plus vive affection, lui accorde sans hésiter. C’est la première fois dans l’histoire de la monarchie qu’un petit-fils de France est investi de telles fonctions. Le duc d’Orléans se plonge dans les affaires avec ardeur. Mais il n’est pas en bonne santé, ayant beaucoup grossi et étant sujet à de fréquentes somnolences. Il meurt peu de temps après, le 2 décembre 1723.

L’artiste 

Philippe d’Orléans a composé deux opéras, Hypermnestre et Panthée, peint et grave avec talent (on lui doit les illustrations d’une édition de Daphnis et Chloé). Il achète pour sa couronne le Régent, le diamant réputé le plus beau d’Europe.

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Philippe II d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans (1)

M, #103157, b. 2 August 1674, d. 2 December 1723

Last Edited=1 Apr 2009

Consanguinity Index=0.28%

Philippe II d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans was born on 2 August 1674 at Saint-Cloud, Île-de-France, France. (3) He was the son of Philippe I, Duc d'Orléans and Elisabeth Charlotte Pfalzgräfin von Simmern. He married Françoise Marie de Bourbon, daughter of Louis XIV, Roi de France and Françoise Athénaïs de Rochechouart, on 18 February 1692 at Versailles, Île-de-France, France. (3)

He died on 2 December 1723 at age 49 at Versailles, Île-de-France, France, from apoplexy. (3) He was buried at Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France.3

    Philippe II d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans gained the title of Duc de Chartres between 1674 and 1701. (3) He gained the title of Duc d'Orléans in 1701.3 He held the office of Regent of France between 2 September 1715 and 16 February 1723. (3)

Child of Philippe II d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans and Leonore (?)

-1. unknown daughter d'Orléans b. c 1688

Children of Philippe II d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans and Françoise Marie de Bourbon

-1. unknown daughter d'Orléans (4) b. 17 Dec 1693, d. 17 Oct 1694

-2. Marie Louise Elizabeth d'Orléans+ (4) b. 20 Aug 1695, d. 21 Jul 1719

-3. Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans (4) b. 13 Aug 1698, d. 19 Feb 1743

-4. Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans+ (5) b. 22 Oct 1700, d. 19 Jan 1761

-5. Louis d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans+ (3) b. 4 Aug 1703, d. 4 Feb 1752

-6. Louise Elizabeth d'Orléans (6) b. 11 Dec 1709, d. 16 Jun 1742

-7. Philippine Elisabeth d'Orléans (4) b. 18 Dec 1714, d. 21 May 1734

-8. Louise Diane d'Orléans+5 b. 27 Jun 1716, d. 26 Sep 1736

Child of Philippe II d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans and Florence Pellegrin

-1. Charles de Saint Albin b. 5 Apr 1698, d. 9 Apr 1764

Child of Philippe II d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans and Charlotte Desmares

-1. Philippe Angelique de Froissy b. c 1702, d. 15 Oct 1786

Child of Philippe II d'Orléans, Duc d'Orléans and Marie Louise Madelaine Victorine le Bel de La Bussiere

-1. Jean Philippe Francois d'Orléans+ b. 28 Aug 1702, d. 16 Jun 1748

Forrás / Source:

http://www.thepeerage.com/p10316.htm#i103157

See also / Lásd még:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_II,_Duke_of_Orléans

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Philippe Charles d'Orléans, Duc de Valois (1)

M, #105795, b. 16 July 1664, d. 8 December 1666

Last Edited=4 Mar 2007

Consanguinity Index=7.73%

    Philippe Charles d'Orléans, Duc de Valois was born on 16 July 1664 at Fontainebleau, Île-de-France, France. (2) He was the son of Philippe I, Duc d'Orléans and Henrietta Anne Stuart. (1) He died on 8 December 1666 at age 2 at Palais Royale, Paris, France. (2) He was buried at Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France. (2)
    Philippe Charles d'Orléans, Duc de Valois gained the title of Duc de Valois. (1)

Forrás / Source:

http://thepeerage.com/p10580.htm#i105795

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Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Philippe II d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans August 2, 1674 – December 23, 1723), (1674–1701), a duc d'Orléans (1701–1723). He was the regent of France for Louis XV from 1715 to 1723, an era known as the Regency or La Régence.

Early life

He was born in Saint-Cloud, the only son of Philippe de France, duc d' Orléans and his second wife Elizabeth Charlotte, Princess Palatine (1652–1722). He was the nephew of King Louis XIV of France.

As a grandson of King Louis XIII, he was a petit-fils de France. During his youth, he was referred to as Philippe Charles, duc de Chartres in order to differentiate him from his similarly named father.

[edit]Military service

He had his first experience of arms at the siege of Mons in 1691. He fought with distinction at the Steenkerque, at the Neerwinden and at the Namur (1692–1695). During the next few years, being without employment, he studied natural science.

He was next given a command in Italy (1706) and in Spain (1707–1708) where he gained some important successes, but he cherished lofty ambitions and was suspected of wishing to take the place of Philip V on the throne of Spain.[citation needed]

Louis XIV was angry at these pretensions, and for a long time held him in disfavour.[citation needed] In his will, however, he appointed him president of the council of regency of the young king Louis XV (1715).

[edit]Marriage and children

On 9 January 1692, he married Françoise-Marie de Bourbon (1677–1749), known at court as Mademoiselle de Blois, his first cousin and the legitimised youngest daughter of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. Although strongly opposed by his mother, who disliked the king's illegitimate children, he was pressured into the marriage by the king. The couple, even though mismatched had many children:

1 Mademoiselle de Valois

2 Marie Louise Elisabeth d'Orléans

3 Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans

4 Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans

5 Louis d'Orléans, duc d'Orléans

6 Louise Elisabeth d'Orléans

7 Philippine Elisabeth d'Orléans

8 Louise Diane d'Orléans.

Illegitimate children

Philippe also had several illegitimate children with various women, three of whom he acknowledged.

By Florence Pellerin:

Charles de Saint-Albin (1698-1764)

By Marie Louise Le Bel de La Boissière:

Jean Philippe d'Orléans (1702-1748)

By Christine Charlotte Desmares:

Angélique de Froissy (1702-1785)

La Régence

On the death of Louis XIV (September 1, 1715), the late king's five-year-old great-grandson was crowned King Louis XV of France. The duc d'Orléans went to the parliament, had the will annulled, and himself invested with absolute power, and the then forty-one-year-old Philippe became regent.

The regent had great qualities, both brilliant and solid, which were spoilt by an excessive taste for pleasure. His dissolute manners found many imitators, and the Regency was one of the most corrupt periods in French history.

Philippe was a professed atheist who boasted to read the satirical works of François Rabelais inside a Bible binding during mass, and liked to hold orgies even on religious high holidays. He acted in plays of Molière and Racine, composed an opera, and was a gifted painter and engraver. Despite his atheism, Philippe favoured the Jansenists against the decrees of the Pope.

A liberal and imaginative man, he was however, often weak, inconsistent and vacillating. Nonetheless, as regent, he changed the manners of the ruler and his nobles from the hypocrisy of Louis XIV to complete candor. He was against censorship and ordered the reprinting of books banned during the reign of his uncle. Reversing his uncle's policies again, Philippe formed an alliance with England, Austria, and the Netherlands, and fought a successful war against Spain that established the conditions of a European peace.

At first he decreased taxation and dismissed 25,000 soldiers. But the inquisitorial measures which he had begun against the financiers led to disturbances. He countenanced the risky operations of the banker John Law, whose bankruptcy led to a disastrous crisis in the public and private affairs of France.

On June 6, 1717, under the influence of Law and the duc de Saint-Simon, the Regent persuaded the Regency Council to purchase from Thomas Pitt for £135,000 the world's then largest known diamond, a 141 carat (28.2 g) cushion brilliant, for the crown jewels of France. The diamond was known from then on as le Régent.

[edit]Cellamare Conspiracy

There existed a party of malcontents who wished to transfer the regency from Orleans to his cousin, the young king's uncle, King Philip V of Spain. A conspiracy was formed, under the inspiration of Cardinal Alberoni, the first minister of Spain, which was directed in France by the Prince of Cellamare, the Spanish ambassador, with the complicity of his wife's older brother, Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, and his ambitious wife, Anne-Louise-Bénédicte, duchesse du Maine. In 1718, the Cellamare conspiracy was discovered and defeated.

Guillaume Dubois, formerly tutor to the duke of Orleans, and now his chief minister, caused war to be declared against Spain, with the support of the emperor, and of England and the Netherlands (Quadruple Alliance).

After some successes of the French marshal, the Duke of Berwick, in Spain, and of the imperial troops in Sicily, Philip V made peace with the regent (1720).

[edit]End of Regency

On the majority of the king, which was declared on February 15, 1723, the duc d'Orléans officially gave up the royal power, becoming first minister to the king, and remained in that office till his death on December 23, 1723.

Death

After the end of his regency of France, his protegée, Louis XV moved the court back to the Palace of Versailles. He died at the Palais Royal in Paris and was buried in the town of his birth, Saint-Cloud.

Legacy

He was a great collector of art, and his collection of paintings, mostly sold in London after the French Revolution, was one of the finest ever assembled.

Philippe promoted education, making the Sorbonne tuition free and opening the Royal Library to the public (1720). He is however most remembered for the debauchery he brought to Versailles, and for the John Law banking scandal.

The city of New Orleans, in Louisiana, U.S., is named after him.

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_II,_Duke_of_Orl%C3%A9ans

Philippe II, Duke of Orléans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search

Philippe

Duke of Orléans

Regent of the Kingdom

Philippe with his mistress Marie-Thérèse de Parabère by Jean-Baptiste Santerre

Spouse Françoise Marie de Bourbon

Detail

Issue

Louise Élisabeth, Duchess of Berry

Adélaïde, Abbess of Chelles

Charlotte Aglaé, Duchess Modena

Louis d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans

Élisabeth, Queen of Spain

Philippine Élisabeth, Mademoiselle de Beaujolais

Louise , Princess of Conti

Full name

Philippe Charles d'Orléans

Father Philippe I, Duke of Orléans

Mother Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate

Born 2 August 1674(1674-08-02)

Château de Saint-Cloud, Saint-Cloud, France

Died 2 December 1723 (aged 49)

Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France

Burial Basilica of Saint Denis, Saint Denis, France

Philippe d'Orléans, petit-fils de France (Philippe Charles; 2 August 1674 – 2 December 1723) was a member of the royal family of France and served as Regent of the Kingdom from 1715 to 1723. Born at his father's palace at Saint-Cloud, he was known from birth under the title of Duke of Chartres. His father was Louis XIV's younger brother Philippe de France, known as Monsieur; his mother was Elizabeth Charlotte, a German princess of the House of Wittelsbach.

In 1692, he married his first cousin, Françoise Marie de Bourbon - the youngest legitimised daughter (légitimée de France) of Philippe's uncle Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. Named regent of France for Louis XV until he attained his majority in February 1723, the era of his de facto rule was known as the Regency (1715–1723). He died at Versailles in 1723, being mourned by his protégé Louis XV.

Philippe Égalité, the "Citizen King" Louis-Philippe, and Prince Henri the Count of Paris, Orléanist pretender to the French throne, are among the male line descendants and heirs of Philippe. He is also an ancestor of Juan Carlos I of Spain, of Albert II, King of the Belgians, of Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, and of Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, a pretender to the Italian throne.

He is referred to historically as le Régent.

Contents

[show]

   * 1 Parents
   * 2 Youth
   * 3 Education
   * 4 Military career
   * 5 Marriage
   * 6 Court Life
   * 7 The Regency
         o 7.1 Louis XIV's will
         o 7.2 Cellamare Conspiracy
         o 7.3 Legacy
   * 8 Issue
   * 9 Ancestors
   * 10 Titles, styles, honours and arms
         o 10.1 Titles and styles
         o 10.2 Honours
   * 11 Sources
   * 12 References
   * 13 Titles

[edit] Parents

In March 1661, his father married his first cousin Princess Henrietta Anne of England, known as Madame at court. The marriage was stormy; Henriette was a famed beauty, sometimes depicted as flirtatious by those at the court of Versailles. Philippe's father was a homosexual whose liaisons with men were also well known at court.

Nonetheless, the marriage produced three children: Marie Louise d'Orléans, future queen of Spain, who left France in 1679 when Philippe was just five; Philippe Charles (1664–1666), Duke of Valois; and Anne Marie d'Orléans, born at Saint-Cloud in 1669, later queen consort of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia (they became the maternal grandparents of Philippe's future protégé Louis XV).

Madame Henriette died at Saint-Cloud in 1670 amidst rumors of having been poisoned by her husband or his long term lover, the Chevalier de Lorraine; the two would remain together till the death of the Duke of Orléans in 1701.

In the following year, the Duke of Orléans wed Princess Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, only daughter of Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and Landgravine Charlotte of Hesse-Kassel. The new Duchess of Orléans, who converted from Protestantism to Catholicism just prior to entering France, was popular at court upon her arrival in 1671 and quickly became the mother of Alexandre Louis d'Orléans in 1673, another short-lived Duke of Valois. The next year the duchess gave birth to another son, Philippe Charles d'Orléans;

[edit] Youth

Philippe in 1686 by Nicolas de Largillière.

Philippe's father, wearing the Order of the Holy Spirit.

Philippe Charles d'Orléans was born at the Château de Saint-Cloud, some ten kilometers west of Paris. As the grandson of King Louis XIII of France, Philippe was a petit-fils de France. This entitled him to the style of Royal Highness from birth, as well as the right to be seated in an armchair in the king's presence.[1]

At his birth, he was titled Duke of Chartres and was formally addressed as Monseigneur le duc de Chartres. As the second living son of his parents, his birth was not greeted with the enthusiasm the Duke of Valois had received in 1673.[2]

Philippe was born fourth in line to the throne, coming after Louis, Dauphin of France, his own father, and his older brother. When Philippe was born, his uncle Louis XIV was at the height of his power.

In 1676, the Duke of Valois died at the Palais-Royal in Paris, making Philippe the new heir to the House of Orléans; the future heirs of the Duke of Orléans would be known as the Duke of Chartres (duc de Chartres) for the next century. His distraught mother was pregnant at the time with Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans (1676–1744), future Duchess and regent of Lorraine. Élisabeth Charlotte and Philippe would always remain close.[3]

The Duke of Chartres grew up at his father's "private" court held at Saint-Cloud, and in Paris at the Palais-Royal, the Parisian residence of the Orléans family until the arrestation of Philippe Égalité in April 1793 during the French Revolution.[4] The Palais-Royal was frequented by, among others, Marie Anne Mancini, Duchess of Bouillon, part of Philippe's father's libertine circle.

[edit] Education

A program of how best to educate a prince was drawn up exclusively for him by Guillaume Dubois, his preceptor.[5] Dubois had entered Philippe's household in 1683 as his "under-preceptor". Philippe's education was carried out by the respected instructor Nicholas-François Parisot de Saint-Laurent until 1687.[6]

Each course of study taught the duc de Chartres the "principles" or "elements" of a subject. Some of the best historians, genealogists, scientists and artists in the kingdom participated in this educational experiment, which started around 1689. For example, Philippe learned physics and mathematics from Joseph Sauveur; and from Étienne Loulié[7] he learned musical notation, elementary musical theory, plus the basics of playing the viol and the recorder.

Chartres was reared alongside Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, later famous for his memoirs and defense of the rights of the peerage of France; Saint-Simon often accompanied the duke, and his wife was later a lady-in-waiting to Philippe's wife.

Next, collaborating to link physics and music, Sauveur and Loulié demonstrated vibrating strings and the Galilean pendulum, and how the mathematical principles on which these devices depend are related to music. Finally, in 1693 the prince studied composition with Marc-Antoine Charpentier. With Charpentier's help, he composed an opera, Philomèle, performed at his residence in 1694; and in 1705 the prince wrote a second opera, Penthée, to a libretto by the marquis de La Fare. In the late 1690s Chartres studied the viol with Antoine Forqueray the elder. Meanwhile, he was studying diplomacy and riding, as preparations for a military career.

The 10 year old Duke of Chartres in red on the right; the scene depicts the Doge of Genoa at Versailles on the 15 May 1685.

In May 1685 the duc de Chartres, then just ten years old, made his first public appearance at Versailles; the occasion was the arrival of the Doge of Genoa, Francesco Maria Lercari Imperiale, at the French court. Chartres was put on a stage with his uncle, cousin and father. On 2 June 1686 Chartres was invested with the Order of the Holy Spirit at Versailles; on the same day his future brother-in-law, Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, duc du Maine, also joined the order as did his cousins Louis III, prince de Condé and François Louis, Prince de Conti.

[edit] Military career

His father having earned military distinction in the Battle of Cassel and during the decisive French victory against William III of England, Chartres would demonstrate military prowess in continuation of that tradition. Chartres had his first experience of arms at the siege of Mons in 1691, the year before his marriage. He fought with great distinction at the Battle of Steenkerque on 3 August 1692. In the same year Chartres also served at the Siege of Namur. The next year Chartres served at the Battle of Landen; he fought along side the prince de Conti, who suffered injuries.

During hiatus between military assignments, Chartres studied natural science.

In the next century, Chartres would serve in the War of the Spanish Succession. He was next given a command in Italy (1706) and gained much credit for the Battle of Turin. Later he went to Spain and took part in the Battle of Almansa, a major step in the consolidation of Spain under the Bourbons (1707), where he achieved some important successes.

[edit] Marriage

Constant wars with many of the major powers in Europe rendered a significant marriage with a foreign princess unlikely, or so Louis XIV told his brother, Monsieur, when persuading him to accept the king's legitimised daughter, Françoise Marie de Bourbon (known as Mademoiselle de Blois), as wife for Philippe. The king offered a dowry of two million livres with his daughter's hand (not to be paid until the Nine Years' War was over,[8].) as well as the Palais-Royal for the bridegroom's parents. Upon hearing that her son had agreed to the marriage, Philippe's mother slapped his face in full view of the court and turned her back on the king as he bowed to her. Nonetheless, on 18 February 1692, the cousins were married.[9]

Philippe's wife, the proud Françoise Marie de Bourbon, youngest daughter of Madame de Montespan, by François de Troy.

The lavish ceremony took place in the chapel of the Palace of Versailles. The service was conducted by the Cardinal de Bouillon - a member of the House of La Tour d'Auvergne. In 1685, the Cardinal de Bouillon had refused to take part in the marriage of the Duke of Bourbon and Françoise Marie's sister, Mademoiselle de Nantes, and, as a result, had been sent into exile, but he was recalled for the wedding of Françoise-Marie and the Duke of Chartres. After the ceremony, a banquet was given in the Hall of Mirrors with all the princes and princesses of the blood royal in attendance.[10] Guests included the exiled James II of England and his consort, Mary of Modena. At the newlyweds' bedding ceremony later that evening, the exiled Queen of England had the honour of handing the new Duchess of Chartres her bed clothes.[10] Madame de Montespan, had not been invited to the wedding of her daughter.

The young couple, mismatched from the start, never grew to like each other, and soon the young Philippe gave his wife the nickname of Madame Lucifer.[11] In spite of this, they had eight children (see below).

[edit] Court Life

On the death of his father in June 1701, Philippe inherited the dukedoms of Orléans, Anjou, Montpensier and Nemours, as well as the princedom of Joinville.[1].[1] Philippe had died at Saint-Cloud after an argument with Louis XIV at Marly about Chartres' flaunting his pregnant mistress, Marie-Louise de Séry, before Françoise Marie.[12]. It has also been claimed that Philippe became so infuriated with Louis for not paying his daughter's dowry that he suffered a paroxysm.[13]

Throughout his life Philippe had many mistresses; his wife came to prefer living quietly at Saint-Cloud, the Palais-Royal, or her house at Bagnolet.

Upon the death of the prince de Condé in 1709, the rank of Premier Prince du Sang passed from the House of Condé to the House of Orléans. Philippe was thus entitled to the style of Monsieur le Prince.[14] But the rank of petit-fils de France being higher than that of premier prince, Philippe did not change his style; nor did his son or other heirs make use of the Monsieur le Prince style which had been so long associated with the cadet branch of the Princes de Condé that the heads of the House of Orléans preferred to be known at court by their ducal title.

In December 1697, the son of the Dauphin Louis de France married Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, eldest daughter of Philippe's half sister Anne Marie. The match was negotiated as part of the Treaty of Turin, which ended Franco-Savoyard conflict during the Nine Years' War. The couple were the parents of two dauphins of France, Louis, Duke of Brittany, who died in 1712, and the Louis, Duke of Anjou, the future Louis XV.

In 1710, his eldest (and favourite) surviving daughter Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans married her first cousin Charles, Duke of Berry; he was a son of the Dauphin and thus outranked Philippe and his wife; this meant that Louise Élisabeth took precedence over her parents. The Berry couple would have no children that lived over a year.

In 1711, the Dauphin died at Meudon at the age of forty-nine and the title passed to his son, who died in 1712. Until his death in 1723, Orléans was generally considered to be first in line to the throne, although legitimists considered that Philip V of Spain, né Duke of Anjou and fils de France, held that place, on the contention that his renunciation in 1700 was constitutionally invalid.

In his will, Louis XIV appointed Orléans president of the council of regency for the young king Louis XV.

[edit] The Regency

Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans

Regent of the Kingdom

In office

1 September 1715 – 15 February 1723

Monarch Louis XV

Preceded by Guillaume Dubois

As Prime Minister

Succeeded by Louis Henri de Bourbon

As Prime Minister

Months before the death of Louis XIV, Philippe was present at the Persian embassy to Louis XIV. Mohammed Reza Beg[15] was a high-ranking official to the Persian governor of the Yerevan province (Armenia). He had been chosen by the Safavid Persian emperor Soltan Hosein for the mission and travelled with a grand entourage, as suitable to the diplomat of a mighty empire.

The scene of the Persian ambassador's entry into Paris, 7 February 1715, was described by François Pidou de Saint-Olon (1646–1720), a nobleman who was delegated the diplomatic position of liaison officer to the Persian delegation:[16]

[edit] Louis XIV's will

On 29 July 1714, upon the insistence of his morganatic wife, the marquise de Maintenon, Louis XIV elevated his legitimised children to the rank of Princes of the Blood, which "entitled them to inherit the crown if the legitimate lines became extinct"[17]. Thus, Louis-Auguste de Bourbon, Duke of Maine and Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, Count of Toulouse were officially inserted into the line of hereditary succession following all of the legitimate, acknowledged princes du sang.

   Mme de Maintenon would have preferred Philip V [King of Spain] to be Regent and the duc du Maine to be Lieutenant Général and consequently in control. Fearing a revival of the war, Louis named the duc d’Orléans joint President of a Regency Council, but one that would be packed with his enemies, reaching its decisions by a majority vote that was bound to go against him. The real power would be in the hands of the duc du Maine, who was also appointed guardian of the young sovereign.[18]

On 25 August 1715, a few days before his death, Louis XIV added a codicil to his will:

   He sent for the Chancellor and wrote a last codicil to his will, in the presence of Mme de Maintenon. He was yielding, out of sheer fatigue, to his wife and confessor, probably with the reservation that his extraordinary action would be set aside after his death, like the will itself. Otherwise he would have been deliberately condemning his kingdom to perpetual strife, for the codicil appointed the duc du Maine commander of the civil and military Household, with Villeroy as his second-in-command. By this arrangement they became the sole masters of the person and residence of the King; of Paris ... and all the internal and external guard; of the entire service ... so much so that the Regent did not have even the shadow of the slightest authority and found himself at their mercy.[19]

The evening of 25 August, Louis XIV had a private audience with the Duke of Orléans, his nephew and son-in-law, re-assuring him:

   You will find nothing in my will that should displease you. I commend the Dauphin to you, serve him as loyally as you have served me. Do your utmost to preserve his realm. If he were to die, you would be the master. [...] I have made what I believed to be the wisest and fairest arrangements for the well-being of the realm, but, since one cannot anticipate everything, if there is something to change or to reform, you will do whatever you see fit...[19]

Louis XIV died at Versailles on 1 September 1715, and was succeeded by his five-year-old great-grandson, Louis XV. On 2 September, the Duke of Orléans went to meet the parlementaires in the Grand-Chambre du Parlement in Paris in order to have Louis XIV's will annulled and his previous right to the regency restored. After a break that followed a much-heated session, the Parlement abrogated the recent codicil to Louis XIV's will and confirmed the Duke of Orléans as regent of France.[20]

On 30 December 1715, the regent decided to bring the young Louis XV from the château de Vincennes to the Tuileries Palace in Paris[21] where he lived until his return to Versailles in June 1722. The regent governed from his Parisian residence, the Palais-Royal.

Philippe disapproved of the hypocrisy of Louis XIV's reign and opposed censorship, ordering the reprinting of books banned during the reign of his uncle. Reversing his uncle's policies again, Philippe formed an alliance with England, Austria, and the Netherlands, and fought a successful war against Spain that established the conditions of a European peace. During this time he opened up diplomatic channels with Russia which resulted in a state visit by Tsar Peter the Great.

He acted in plays of Molière and Racine, composed an opera, and was a gifted painter and engraver. Although an atheist, Philippe favoured Jansenism which, despite papal condemnation, was accepted by the French bishops, and he revoked Louis XIV's compliance with the bull Unigenitus.

At first, he decreased taxation and dismissed 25,000 soldiers. But the inquisitorial measures which he had begun against the financiers led to disturbances, notably in the province of Brittany where a rebellion known as the Pontcallec Conspiracy unfolded. He countenanced the risky operations of the banker John Law, whose bankruptcy led to a disastrous crisis in the public and private affairs of France.

On 6 June 1717, under the influence of Law and the duc de Saint-Simon, the Regent persuaded the Regency Council to purchase from Thomas Pitt for £135,000 the world's then largest known diamond, a 141 carat (28.2 g) cushion brilliant, for the crown jewels of France. The diamond was known from then on as Le Régent.

In 1719, Philippe lost his favourite daughter Marie Louise Élisabeth, Dowager Duchess of Berry; she was buried at Basilica of Saint Denis.

[edit] Cellamare Conspiracy

There existed a party of malcontents who wished to transfer the regency from Orléans to his cousin, the young king's uncle, King Philip V of Spain. A conspiracy was formed, under the inspiration of Cardinal Alberoni, the first minister of Spain. It was directed in France by the Prince of Cellamare, the Spanish ambassador, with the complicity of the Duchess of Orléans' older brother, the duc du Maine, and Anne Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon, the latter's wife. In 1718, the Cellamare conspiracy was discovered and its participants exiled. Two years later its aims were revived in the Pontcallec Conspiracy, four leaders of which were executed.

Guillaume Dubois, formerly tutor to the Duke of Orléans, and now his chief minister, caused war to be declared against Spain, with the support of Austria, England and the Netherlands (Quadruple Alliance). After some successes of the French marshal, the Duke of Berwick, in Spain, and of the imperial troops in Sicily, Philip V made peace with the regent (1720).

Louis XV as a child, by Hyacinthe Rigaud (1715)

Elizabeth Charlotte, Philippe's mother to whom he would always be close, by Rigaud (1722)

From the beginning of 1721, Philip V of Spain, and the Duke of Orléans had been negotiating the project of three Franco-Spanish marriages in order to cement tense relations between Spain and France. The young Louis XV of France would marry the three-year old Infanta Mariana Victoria who would thus become Queen of France; the Infante Luis would marry the fourth surviving daughter of the Philippe, Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans; and the Infante Charles would be engaged to the pretty Philippine Élisabeth d'Orléans who was the fifth surviving daughter of Philippe. The last two occurred.

In March 1721, the Infanta Mariana Victoria arrived in Paris amid much joy. Known as l'infante Reine (Queen-Infanta) while in France, she was placed in the care of the old Dowager Princess of Conti, Philippe's sister in law, and lived in the Tuileries Palace.

In November 1721, at the age of twelve, Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans was married by proxy in Paris[22], Louise Élisabeth and her younger sister left for Madrid. Despite a cold reception from the Spanish royal family, especially by Elisabeth of Parma, the stepmother of her husband, she married Louis of Spain on 20 January 1722 at Lerma. Her dowry was of 4 million livres. The last of this triple alliance was Philippine Élisabeth who never married Charles; the marriage, though never officially carried out was annulled; the French sent back Mariana Victoria and in retaliation, Louise Élisabeth and Philippine Élisabeth were sent back to France.

Franco-Spanish relations only recovered in 1743 when Louis XV's son Louis de France married Mariana Victoria's sister Infanta Maria Teresa Rafaela of Spain.

In December 1722, the Regent lost his mother to whom he had always been close; the Dowager Duchess of Orléans died at Saint-Cloud at the age of seventy, with her son at her side, but he did not attend her funeral service because he had been called away on official business.[23]. Philippe was greatly affected by his mother's death.

On 15 June 1722, Louis XV and the court left the Tuileries Palace for the Palace of Versailles where the young king wanted to reside. The decision had been taken by the Duke of Orléans who, after the fall of Law's System, was feeling the loss of his personal popularity in Paris.[24] Philippe took the apartments of his cousin the late Dauphin on the first floor of the Palace; the King's apartments were above his.

On 25 October of that year, the twelve-year old Louis XV was anointed King of France in the cathedral of Notre-Dame de Reims. At the end of the ceremony, he threw himself in the arms of his uncle.[25]

On the majority of the king, which was declared on 15 February 1723, the Duke stepped down as regent. At the death of Cardinal Dubois on 10 August of that year, the young king offered the Duke the position of prime minister, and he remained in that office until his death a few months later.

The regent died in Versailles on 2 December 1723 in the arms of his mistress the duchesse de Falari. Louis XV mourned him greatly. The Duke of Bourbon took on the role of Prime Minister of France.

On 3 December, the Duke of Orléans' body was taken to Saint-Cloud where funeral ceremonies began the following day. His heart was taken to the Val de Grâce church in Paris and his body to the Basilica of Saint Denis, (about 10 km north of Paris), the necropolis of the French kings and their family.[26]

The heart of the Duke of Orléans is now at the Chapelle Royale de Dreux, the necropolis of all the members of the Orléans family, built in 1816 by his descendant Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon, Duchess of Orléans, wife of Philippe Égalité. The chapel was completed as the Orléans family royal Chapel during the reign of his great-great-grandson Louis-Philippe I, King of the French.

[edit] Legacy

   * The duke assembled the Orléans Collection, one of the finest collections of paintings ever made by a non-monarch, which was mostly sold in London after the French Revolution;
   * He promoted education, making the Sorbonne tuition free and opening the Royal Library to the public (1720).
   * The city of New Orleans, in Louisiana, U.S., is named after him.

[edit] Issue

Name Portrait Lifespan Notes

Mademoiselle de Valois

Blason duche fr Orleans (moderne).svg 17 December 1693 -

17 October 1694, Born at the Château de Marly and died at the Palais-Royal

Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans

Duchess of Berry Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans as the Duchess of Berry.jpg 20 August 1695 -

21 July 1719 Born at the Palace of Versailles; Married Charles de France, Duke of Berry and had issue; died at the Château de la Muette in Paris. She was known as Mademoiselle d'Orléans prior to her marriage.

Marie Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans

Abbess of Chelles Marie Louise Adélaïde d'Orléans.jpg 13 August 1698 -

10 February 1743 Born at the Palace of Versailles and never married; became the Abbess of Chelles in 1719; she died at Chelles; known as Mademoiselle de Chartres, she was later known as Madame d'Orléans;

Charlotte Aglaé d'Orléans

Duchess of Modena and Reggio Orléans, Charlotte-Aglaé.jpg 20 October 1700 -

19 January 1761 Born at the Palais-Royal; Married Francis III, Duke of Modena and had issue; died at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris; known as Mademoiselle de Blois and then Mademoiselle de Valois prior to marriage;

Louis d'Orléans

Duke of Orléans Louis-Orleans.jpg 4 August 1703 -

4 February 1752 Born at Versailles, he married Margravine Auguste Marie Johanna of Baden-Baden and had issue; died at the Abbaye de Sainte Geneviève in Paris; Duke of Chartres till his succession in 1723;

Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans

Queen of Spain Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans, Reine d'Espagne, Jean Ranc.jpg 11 December 1709 -

16 June 1742 Born at Versailles, she married Louis I of Spain and had no issue; died at the Luxembourg Palace in Paris; known as Mademoiselle de Montpensier prior to marriage;

Philippine Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans

Mademoiselle de Beaujolais Philippine Élisabeth d'Orléans.jpg 18 December 1714 -

21 May 1734 Born at Versailles, she never married; was engaged to the future Charles III of Spain; died at her mother's favourite home, the Château de Bagnolet, Paris aged 20; known as Mademoiselle de Beaujolais;

Louise Diane d'Orléans

Princess of Conti Orleans, Louise Diane.jpg 27 June 1716 –

26 September 1736 Born at the Palais-Royal, she married Louis François de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, the grandson of her mother's sister, Louise Françoise de Bourbon; was the mother of Louis François de Bourbon, Prince of Conti, the last Prince of Conti; died at the Château d'Issy; known as Mademoiselle de Chartres;

Philippe also had several illegitimate children with several women, three of whom he acknowledged.

   * By Florence Pellerin:
         o Charles de Saint-Albin (1698–1764);
   * By Marie Louise Le Bel de La Boissière:
         o Jean Philippe bâtard d'Orléans (1702–1748);
   * By Christine Charlotte Desmares:
         o Angélique de Froissy (1702–1785).

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Royal styles of

Phlippe, Duke of Orléans

Blason France moderne.svg

Reference style His Royal Highness

Spoken style Your Royal Highness

Alternative style Monseigneur

[edit] Titles and styles

   * 2 August 1674 – 9 June 1701 His Royal Highness the Duke of Chartres (Monseigneur le duc de Chartres)
   * 9 June 1701 – 2 December 1723 His Royal Highness the Duke of Orléans (Monseigneur le duc d'Orléans)
         o 2 September 1715 – 15 February 1723 His Royal Highness Monseigneur le Régent

[edit] Honours

   * Pavillon royal de France.svg 2 June 1686 created Knight of the Order of the Holy Spirit
   * Pavillon royal de France.svg 1701 created Knight of Order of the Golden Fleece

[edit] Sources

   * Antoine, Michel, Louis XV, Librairie Arthème Fayard, Paris, 1989 (French).
   * Dufresne, Claude, Les Orléans, CRITERION, Paris, 1991, (French).
   * Erlanger, Philippe, Louis XIV, Librairie Arthème Fayard, Paris 1965, reprinted by Librairie Académique Perrin, Paris, 1978, (French).
   * Erlanger, Philippe, Louis XIV, translated from the French by Stephen Cox, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1970, (English).
   * Haggard, Andrew C.P., The Regent of the Roués, Hutchison & Co, London, 1905, (English)
   * Lewis, W. H., The Scandalous Regent, Andre Deutsch, London, 1961, (English).
   * Meyer, Jean, Le Régent (1674–1723), Editions Ramsay, Paris, 1985, (French).
   * Petitfils, Jean-Christian, Le Régent, Librairie Arthème Fayard, Paris, 1986, (French).
   * Pevitt, Christine, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997, (English).
   * Ranum, Patricia M., Portraits around Marc-Antoine Charpentier (Baltimore, 2004), pp. 324–27 (where Philippe is attributed the number "III," as some genealogies do.)
   * Shennan, J. H., Phillippe, Duke of Orleans: Regent of France, Thames and Hudson, London, 1979, (English).

[edit] References

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  1. ^ a b c Nancy Nicholas Barker, Brother to the Sun king:Philippe, Duke of Orléans, p. 1.
  2. ^ Pevitt, Christine, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997, (English), p. 9
  3. ^ Fraser, Antonia, Love and Louis XIV, Anchor Books, 2006, p. 134.
  4. ^ At the time of Philippe's birth, the Palais-Royal was only occupied as a grace and favour residence of the Duke of Orléans; it was later gifted to him when Philippe married Louis XIV's illegitimate daughter Mademoiselle de Blois in 1692.
  5. ^ * V. de Seilhac, L'Abbé Dubois, premier ministre de Louis XV (Paris, 1862), especially pp. 5-11, 185-205, for the prince's education.
  6. ^ Pevitt, Christine, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997, (English), p.23
  7. ^ Patricia M. Ranum, "Étienne Loulié (1654-1702), musicien de Mademoiselle de Guise, pédagogue et théoricien," (part 1) Recherches, 25 (1987), especially pp. 67-75, on the prince's education; and (part 2), Recherches, 26 (1988-90), especially pp. 5-10, on the prince's subsequent protection of Loulié.
  8. ^ Pevitt, Christine, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997, (English), p. 41
  9. ^ The previous day there had been a formal engagement party at Versailles.
 10. ^ a b The Unruly Daughter of the Regent
 11. ^ Dufresne, Claude, Les Orléans, Criterion, Paris, 1991, p. 74-78, (French).
 12. ^ Pevitt, Christine, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997, (English), p. 56
 13. ^ Mitford, Nancy, The Sun King, Hamish Hamilton, 1966
 14. ^ ib. Spanheim, Ézéchiel, pp. 104-105.
 15. ^ In French sources, Méhémet Riza Beg.
 16. ^ He had been the French ambassador in Morocco, of which he published a description, Relation de l'empire de Maroc. Oú l'on voit la situation du pays, Les mœurs, les Coûtumes, Religion, gouvernement et Politique des Habitans.... his brother, Louis-Marie Pidou de Saint-Olon (1637–1717), became French consul in Ispahan under the terms of the commercial treaty.
 17. ^ Erlanger, Philippe, Louis XIV, translated from the French by Stephen Cox, Praeger Publishers, New York, 1970, p. 363
 18. ^ ib. Erlanger, p. 364.
 19. ^ a b ib. Erlanger, p. 373.
 20. ^ ib. Dufresne, pp. 123-126.
 21. ^ Antoine, Michel, Louis XV, Librairie Arthème Fayard, Paris, 1989, p. 43.
 22. ^ Nouvelle biographie générale
 23. ^ Pevitt, Christine, Philippe, Duc d'Orléans: Regent of France, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1997, (English), p.306
 24. ^ Antoine, p. 102.
 25. ^ Dufresne, p. 170.
 26. ^ Mémoires complets et authentiques du duc de Saint-Simon sur le siècle de Louis XIV et la Régence, pp. 93-94: Google Books

This page was last modified on 23 July 2010 at 19:07.

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Philippe II d'Orléans, régent du Royaume de France's Timeline

1674
August 2, 1674
Saint-Cloud, Ile-de-France, France
1692
February 18, 1692
Age 17
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
1693
December 17, 1693
Age 19
1695
August 20, 1695
Age 21
Versailles, France
1698
April 5, 1698
Age 23
Paris, Seine, France
August 13, 1698
Age 24
Versailles, Ile-de-France, France
1700
October 20, 1700
Age 26
Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1702
1702
Age 27
1702
Age 27
1703
August 4, 1703
Age 29
Versailles, Île-de-France, France