Pierre I de Dreux, Duke of Brittany

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Pierre de Dreux, I

Nicknames: "Peter I", "Duke of Brittany", "Mauclerc"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Braine, Aisne, Picardy, France
Death: Died in At sea en route to France
Cause of death: Died after being wounded in battle at Damiette, Egypt
Place of Burial: Premonstratensian Abbey Church of Saint-Yved, Braine, Aisne, Picardy, France
Immediate Family:

Son of Robert II, comte de Dreux and Yolande de Coucy, Countess of Coucy
Husband of Duchess Alix de Thouars; Nicole Paynel and Marguerite de Vihiers, dame de Montaigu
Partner of Joan d'Eu
Father of Jean I de Dreux, duc de Bretagne; Yolande de Dreux; Arthur de Dreux and Olivier I de Dreux, seigneur de Machecoul
Brother of Robert III, comte de Dreux; Eleanor de Dreux; Eleanor de Dreux; Isabelle de Dreux; Alix de Dreux, dame de Salins and 8 others

Occupation: Duke of Brittany, Comte, de Dreux, de Braine, de Penthièvre, de Tréguier, de Richmond, Poète, Croisé, Baillistre de Bretagne (DE BRAINE) COMTE DE PENTIEVRE ET DE RICHEMONT, Comte de Tréguier, Trouvère
Managed by: Private User
Last Updated:

About Pierre de Dreux, I

Peter I, Duke of Brittany " The Crusaders could not defend themselves; many, indeed, found themselves in alleys so narrow they could not even turn their horses around. Disaster fell on them. Two hundred and ninety Templar knights rode into Mansourah; five escaped. Robert of Artois was killed, overwhelmed when he tried to take refuge in a house. The Lord of Coucy and the Count of Brienne were killed. The Grand Master William lost one eye, but managed to get away. The Earl of Salisbury and almost all of the English knights were killed. Many who escaped the city drowned while trying to swim the river back to safety. Duke Peter of Brittany, severely wounded, managed to make it to the river crossing and it was he who told the King of the disaster." Source: http://www.the-orb.net/textbooks/crusade/seventhcru.html

----------------------------------------------------------------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_I,_Duke_of_Brittany

and in French: http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_Ier_de_Bretagne

Pierre Mauclerc (c. 1190–died July 6 1250), also known as Peter of Dreux or Pierre de Dreux, was duke of Brittany (in right of his wife) from 1213 to 1221, then regent of the duchy (for his minor son) from 1221 to 1237.

He spent much of his life under excommunication and was persuaded to go on a crusade in penance in 1239/40.13 He led a Crusade to Palestine in 1239.9 He went on Crusade with St. Louis in 1249.9 He was wounded in the face at the battle of Mansourah, and surrendered with the King at Faraskur on 6 April 1250.9 He was released and sailed for home from Damietta on 7 May 1250.9 He died circa 28 May 1250. Wounded in battle, he died of his wounds at sea en route to France.15,16 He was the predecessor of Jean I "le Roux", duc de Bretagne; 6th Earl of R

He was the second son of Robert II, Count of Dreux. The latter was in turn the son of Robert I of Dreux, a younger brother of Louis VII of France. Pierre was thus descended from the Capetian dynasty, and was a second cousin of Louis VIII of France.

Despite being of royal descent, as the younger son of a cadet branch Pierre's early prospects were that of a minor noble, with a few scattered fiefs in the Île-de-France and Champagne.

Coat of Arms of Peter I, Duke of Brittany and his successors.

However, in 1212 King Philip II of France needed to find a weak and faithful ruler for Brittany. The duchy lay athwart the sea lanes between England and the English territories in Gascony. Furthermore it didn't border on Anjou and Normandy, which the English had lost a decade or twelve before and were eager to recover. It was being ruled with less than a strong hand by Guy of Thouars, as regent for his young daughter Alix. Also worrisome was that Alix's older half-sister Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany was in an English prison.

And so King Philip broke off the betrothal of Alix and the Breton prince Henry of Penthièvre, and turned to his French cousin Pierre, then in his early twenties. Pierre married Alix, and on January 27, 1213, paid homage to the king for Brittany.

There is some ambiguity regarding whether Pierre should be considered duke or count of Brittany. King and Pope (and their courts) always addressed him as "count", but Pierre in his own charters used "duke".

In 1214 King John of England had assembled a formidable coalition against the French. He landed in Poitou while King Otto of Germany prepared to invade from the north. John chased off some French forces in the north of Poitou, and then moved to the southern edge of Brittany, opposite Nantes. Pierre drove him off after a brief skirmish but did nothing to hinder John's subsequent movement up the Loire valley where he took a few Breton fortresses and then besieged La Roche-aux-Moines. John's Poitivan vassals, however, refused to fight against a French force led by Prince Louis (later Louis VIII of France). Meanwhile, Otto's army was crushed at Bouvines, and the entire invasion foundered.

It is not clear why John attempted to capture Nantes/Naoned, even less why he would do so the hardest way, via the very well-defended bridge across the Loire. Nor is it clear why Pierre declined to harass his forces from the rear as John marched east. A likely explanation is that the two had come to some sort of agreement whereby John would leave Brittany alone for the moment, and in return the Bretons would not hinder him elsewhere.

John had a prize he could dangle in front of Pierre: the Earldom of Richmond. This great English honour (land) had traditionally been held by the dukes of Brittany, and in fact a constant theme in Pierre's political affairs was the desire to hold and retain the English revenues from Richmond.

Pierre did not yield to King John's offers to accept the earldom and take up the King's side in his conflicts with the English barons, probably because he deemed the King's prospects too uncertain. Moreover, Prince Louis was again fighting against the English. But when Louis was defeated, Pierre was sent as one of the negotiators for a peace treaty. After the negotiations were completed (in 1218), William Marshal, the regent for the young Henry III of England, recognized Pierre as Earl of Richmond. The center of the earldom's properties in Yorkshire was in the hands of the Earl of Chester, whom the regent could not afford to antagonize, but Pierre did receive the properties of the earldom outside of Yorkshire, which in fact generated the bulk of the earldom's income.

While the negotiations were slowly proceeding, Pierre turned his attention to his next goal. The authority of the dukes of Brittany had traditionally been weak, in comparison to the great peers of northern France. For example, the duke could not limit the building of castles by his counts. Nor did he have the right to guardianship of minor heirs of his vassals. Pierre aimed to re-establish his relationship with his vassals (or subjects) more along the lines of what he knew from the Capetian royal court.

To that end Peter simply declared new rules by fiat, and then faced the inevitable turmoil that resulted from the reaction of his barons. There followed a series of small civil wars and political maneuverings, but by 1223, the barons had all acquiesced to the changes or been dispossessed.

The six Breton bishops were the other threat to the ducal power, for they had substantial landholdings (including control of all or part of the few cities in Brittany), and were recalcitrant in the face of Pierre's attempts to raise revenues by increasing taxes or simply taking possession of episcopal holdings. For this he was excommunicated for a time in 1219–1221. Pierre submitted in the end, but this was not to be the last of his conflict with the bishops.

Pierre's wife Duchess Alix died on October 21, 1221, leaving behind four young children. She was then only 21, and little is known about her beyond the basic genealogical facts.

Her death meant that Pierre was no longer duke, although he continued to rule the Duchy with undiminished authority, as regent for his son John, then a boy of four or so.

Alix's death changed Pierre's goals in two ways. First, he aimed to acquire some additional territory, not part of the Duchy, to augment his retirement after his son came of age. Second, there was a strong tradition in France that a minor heir should, when coming of age, have his property in the state it was in when he inherited it. Thus Pierre could not now take some risks without fear of harming the prospects of his son.

http://homepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~cousin/html/p395.htm#i7808

Pierre "Mauclerc", duc de Bretagne1

b. between 1187 and 1191, d. circa 28 May 1250

Pierre "Mauclerc", duc de Bretagne|b. bt 1187 - 1191\nd. c 28 May 1250|p395.htm#i7808|Robert II "le Jeune", comte de Dreux et Braine|b. 1154\nd. 28 Dec 1218|p386.htm#i7420|Yolande de Coucy|b. c 1161\nd. 18 Mar 1222|p387.htm#i7831|Robert I "le Grand", comte de Dreux|b. 1123\nd. 11 Oct 1188|p378.htm#i7827|Agnès de Baudemont, dame de Braines|b. c 1130\nd. bt 1202 - 1218|p382.htm#i7828|Raoul I., seigneur de Coucy|b. c 1135\nd. Nov 1191|p379.htm#i7832|Agnès de Hainaut|b. c 1142\nd. bt 1168 - 1174|p373.htm#i7833|

Father Robert II "le Jeune", comte de Dreux et Braine2 b. 1154, d. 28 December 1218

Mother Yolande de Coucy2,3 b. circa 1161, d. 18 March 1222

     Pierre "Mauclerc", duc de Bretagne was second son of Robert II, Count of Dreux and Braine, by his 2nd wife Yolande, 1st daughter of Ralph de Couci, Lord of Couci.4,5 Arms: Echiqueté d'or et d'azur, à la bordure de gueules, au franc quartier d'hermine brochant sur le tout.6 He was born between 1187 and 1191.7 He was the son of Robert II "le Jeune", comte de Dreux et Braine and Yolande de Coucy.2,3 Pierre "Mauclerc", duc de Bretagne was the successor of Guy de Thoüars, comte de Bretagne; Earl of Richmond.8 Pierre "Mauclerc", duc de Bretagne was the successor of Guy de Thoüars, comte de Bretagne; Duke of Brittany.8 Pierre "Mauclerc", duc de Bretagne married Alix de Thoüars, duchesse de Bretagne, daughter of Guy de Thoüars, comte de Bretagne and Constance, duchesse de Bretagne, in February 1212/13; His 1st.9,10,11,12 Pierre "Mauclerc", duc de Bretagne did homage for the province of Brittany, and assumed the title of duke, though he was considered merely a count by the French, in 1213.13 Duke of Brittany at France between 1213 and 1237.13 He succeeded to the dukedom of Bretagne and the title of earl of Richmond in right of Alice, his wife, daughter of Guy de Touars and of Constance daughter of Conan fourth earl of Richmond in 1218.8 Earl of Richmond between 1218 and 1250.8 He transferred his allegiance from the French to the English king between 1229 and 1234.13 He paid homage to the King of England and joined the rebels (including Thibaut de Champagne, Enguerrand de Coucy and Hugues de Lusignan) against the Regent Blanche of Castille in 1230. He married Marguerite de Montagu-Garnache before January 1236; His 3rd.14 Pierre "Mauclerc", duc de Bretagne had to renounce Brittany, in favor of his son, John I, and henceforth was merely count of Braine in 1237.13 He spent much of his life under excommunication and was persuaded to go on a crusade in penance in 1239/40.13 He led a Crusade to Palestine in 1239.9 He went on Crusade with St. Louis in 1249.9 He was wounded in the face at the battle of Mansourah, and surrendered with the King at Faraskur on 6 April 1250.9 He was released and sailed for home from Damietta on 7 May 1250.9 He died circa 28 May 1250. Wounded in battle, he died of his wounds at sea en route to France.15,16 He was the predecessor of Jean I "le Roux", duc de Bretagne; 6th Earl of Richmond.17

Family 1

Alix de Thoüars, duchesse de Bretagne b. 1199, d. 21 October 1221

Children

   * Jean I "le Roux", duc de Bretagne+ b. 1216, d. 8 Oct 128518
   * Yoland de Dreux dit de Bretagne, comtesse de Porhoët+ b. 1218, d. 10 Oct 127219
   * Arthur de Bretagne b. 1220

http://thepeerage.com/p10680.htm#i106796

Pierre Mauclerc de Dreux, Duc de Bretagne

M, #106796, b. circa 1187, d. 1250

Pierre Mauclerc de Dreux, Duc de Bretagne|b. c 1187\nd. 1250|p10680.htm#i106796|Robert II de Dreux, Comte de Dreux|b. c 1154\nd. c 1218|p366.htm#i3656|Yolande de Coucy|d. 8 Mar 1222|p452.htm#i4519|Robert I. de France, Comte de Dreux|b. c 1123\nd. 11 Oct 1188|p10311.htm#i103110|Agnes de Baudemont, Dame de Braine|d. b 1219|p11996.htm#i119958|Raoul I. de Coucy, Sire de Coucy||p450.htm#i4495|Agnes de Hainaut||p32444.htm#i324440|

Last Edited=21 Feb 2005

Consanguinity Index=0.03%

    Pierre Mauclerc de Dreux, Duc de Bretagne was born circa 1187.1 He was the son of Robert II de Dreux, Comte de Dreux and Yolande de Coucy. He married Alice de Thouars, Duchesse de Bretagne, daughter of Guy de Thouars and Constance de Bretagne, Duchesse de Bretagne, in 1213.1 He died in 1250.1 He was buried at St. Yved de Braine.
    Pierre Mauclerc de Dreux, Duc de Bretagne gained the title of Duc de Bretagne in 1213.2

Children of Pierre Mauclerc de Dreux, Duc de Bretagne and Alice de Thouars, Duchesse de Bretagne

   * Jean I de Dreux, Duc de Bretagne+ b. 1217, d. 1286
   * Yolande de Bretagne, Comtesse de Penthièvre et Porhoët+3 b. 1218, d. 1272

Further reading

   * Painter, Sidney. The Scourge of the Clergy: Peter of Dreux, Duke of Brittany. Oxford University Press: London, 1937.

--------------------

Peter I, Duke of Brittany

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pierre Mauclerc (c. 1190– 6 July 1250), also known as Peter of Dreux or Pierre de Dreux, was duke of Brittany (in right of his wife) from 1213 to 1221, then regent of the duchy (for his minor son) from 1221 to 1237.

He was the second son of Robert II, Count of Dreux. The latter was in turn the son of Robert I of Dreux, a younger brother of Louis VII of France. Pierre was thus descended from the Capetian dynasty, and was a second cousin of Louis VIII of France.

Despite being of royal descent, as the younger son of a cadet branch Pierre's early prospects were that of a minor noble, with a few scattered fiefs in the Île-de-France and Champagne.

However, in 1212 King Philip II of France needed to find a weak and faithful ruler for Brittany. The duchy lay athwart the sea lanes between England and the English territories in Gascony. Furthermore it bordered on Anjou and Normandy, which the English had lost a decade or twelve before and were eager to recover. It was being ruled with less than a strong hand by Guy of Thouars, as regent for his young daughter Alix. Also worrisome was that Alix's older half-sister Eleanor, Fair Maid of Brittany was in an English prison.

And so King Philip broke off the betrothal of Alix and the Breton prince Henry of Penthièvre, and turned to his French cousin Pierre, then in his early twenties. Pierre married Alix, and on January 27, 1213, paid homage to the king for Brittany.

There is some ambiguity regarding whether Pierre should be considered duke or count of Brittany. King and Pope (and their courts) always addressed him as "count", but Pierre in his own charters used "duke".

In 1214 King John of England had assembled a formidable coalition against the French. He landed in Poitou while King Otto of Germany prepared to invade from the north. John chased off some French forces in the north of Poitou, and then moved to the southern edge of Brittany, opposite Nantes. Pierre drove him off after a brief skirmish but did nothing to hinder John's subsequent movement up the Loire valley where he took a few Breton fortresses and then besieged La Roche-aux-Moines. John's Poitivan vassals, however, refused to fight against a French force led by Prince Louis (later Louis VIII of France). Meanwhile, Otto's army was crushed at Bouvines, and the entire invasion foundered.

It is not clear why John attempted to capture Nantes/Naoned, even less why he would do so the hardest way, via the very well-defended bridge across the Loire. Nor is it clear why Pierre declined to harass his forces from the rear as John marched east. A likely explanation is that the two had come to some sort of agreement whereby John would leave Brittany alone for the moment, and in return the Bretons would not hinder him elsewhere.

John had a prize he could dangle in front of Pierre: the Earldom of Richmond. This great English honour (land) had traditionally been held by the dukes of Brittany, and in fact a constant theme in Pierre's political affairs was the desire to hold and retain the English revenues from Richmond.

Pierre did not yield to King John's offers to accept the earldom and take up the King's side in his conflicts with the English barons, probably because he deemed the King's prospects too uncertain. Moreover, Prince Louis was again fighting against the English. But when Louis was defeated, Pierre was sent as one of the negotiators for a peace treaty. After the negotiations were completed (in 1218), William Marshal, the regent for the young Henry III of England, recognized Pierre as Earl of Richmond. The center of the earldom's properties in Yorkshire was in the hands of the Earl of Chester, whom the regent could not afford to antagonize, but Pierre did receive the properties of the earldom outside of Yorkshire, which in fact generated the bulk of the earldom's income.

While the negotiations were slowly proceeding, Pierre turned his attention to his next goal. The authority of the dukes of Brittany had traditionally been weak, in comparison to the great peers of northern France. For example, the duke could not limit the building of castles by his counts. Nor did he have the right to guardianship of minor heirs of his vassals. Pierre aimed to re-establish his relationship with his vassals (or subjects) more along the lines of what he knew from the Capetian royal court.

To that end Peter simply declared new rules by fiat, and then faced the inevitable turmoil that resulted from the reaction of his barons. There followed a series of small civil wars and political maneuverings, but by 1223, the barons had all acquiesced to the changes or been dispossessed.

The six Breton bishops were the other threat to the ducal power, for they had substantial landholdings (including control of all or part of the few cities in Brittany), and were recalcitrant in the face of Pierre's attempts to raise revenues by increasing taxes or simply taking possession of episcopal holdings. For this he was excommunicated for a time in 1219–1221. Pierre submitted in the end, but this was not to be the last of his conflict with the bishops.

Pierre's wife Duchess Alix died on October 21, 1221, leaving behind four young children. She was then only 21, and little is known about her beyond the basic genealogical facts.

Her death meant that Pierre was no longer duke, although he continued to rule the Duchy with undiminished authority, as regent for his son John, then a boy of four or so.

Alix's death changed Pierre's goals in two ways. First, he aimed to acquire some additional territory, not part of the Duchy, to augment his retirement after his son came of age. Second, there was a strong tradition in France that a minor heir should, when coming of age, have his property in the state it was in when he inherited it. Thus Pierre could not now take some risks without fear of harming the prospects of his son.

view all 16

Pierre I de Dreux, Duke of Brittany's Timeline

1186
1186
Braine, Aisne, Picardy, France
1212
February 1212
Age 26
Brittany, France
1217
1217
Age 31
Rennes, Ille-et-Vilaine, Bretagne, France
1218
1218
Age 32
Dreux, Eure-et-Loir, Centre, France
1220
1220
Age 34
Brittany, France
1230
February 1230
Age 44
1231
1231
Age 45
France
1234
1234
Age 48
1250
May 26, 1250
Age 64
At sea en route to France
1250
Age 64
Premonstratensian Abbey Church of Saint-Yved, Braine, Aisne, Picardy, France