Platon Zubov / Платон Александрович св. кн. Зубов

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About Platon / Платон Александрович Zubov / св. кн. Зубов

wikipedia.com in english http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platon_Zubov

Prince (Reichsfürst) Platon Alexandrovich Zubov (Russian: Платон Александрович Зубов; November 15, 1767 – April 7, 1822) was the last of Catherine the Great's favourites and the most powerful man in Russian Empire during the last years of her reign.

Platon was a member of the Zubov family and had several siblings, including Nicholas, Valerian, and Olga Zherebtsova. It was through his distant relative, Nicholas Saltykov, that he met the ageing Empress. Saltykov presented the young and handsome officer to the court on the understanding that he would help Saltykov in his feud with Catherine's long-standing favourite, Prince Potemkin.

In August of 1789, Catherine wrote to Potemkin that she returned to life after a long winter slumber "as a fly does". "Now I am well and gay again," she added, telling about her new friend, "a dark, little one". "Our baby," as she called him, "weeps when denied the entry into my room," Catherine informed Potemkin in the next letter. As young minions succeeded each other monthly in Catherine's heart, Potemkin didn't attach much importance to her new liaison. Catherine was over 60, Zubov was just 22. The old courtier couldn't believe that their connection would last for an extended period of time.

Zubov, however, contrived to establish a strong hold of Catherine's affections and character. In 7 years, he was made a Count and then a Reichsfurst, or Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the fourth (and last) Russian to receive the title. Upon Potemkin's death, he succeeded him as the Governor-General of New Russia. As Fyodor Rostopchin reported to Semyon Vorontsov on August 20, 1795, "Count Zubov is everything here. There is no other will but his. His power is greater than that of Potemkin. He is as reckless and incapable as before, although the Empress keeps repeating that he is the greatest genius the history of Russia has known".

During his years in power, Zubov amassed an enormous fortune. The Empress conferred on him tens of thousands of serfs, while simultaneously the courtiers rivalled each other in lavishing the most extravagant presents on him. In the last year of Catherine's reign even most trivial matters came to be decided on Zubov's advice. Crowds of petitioners thronged in his bedroom every morning, trying desperately to attract the attention of his pet monkey if not himself. The old generals prepared coffee for him. Zubov's secretaries enriched themselves on bribes from petitioners. They were all singularly incompetent in affairs of state, but at least one of them, the Spaniard Jose de Ribas, is still remembered - as the founder of Odessa.


Zubov's apartments in Tsarskoe Selo stand next door to the Catherine Palace of the Empress.Zubov's character was capricious and unstable. He patronized Suvorov and Fonvizin, and yet he is thought to have instigated the persecution of Radischev and Novikov. To the heir apparent, Tsarevich Paul, he paid no respect whatsoever. Unsurprisingly, Catherine's death all but brought him to the verge of madness. For ten days, he concealed himself in the house of his sister Olga. On the 11th day, he was visited by Emperor Paul who drank to his health and wished him "as many years of prosperity as there are drops in this beaker". Nevertheless, he was stripped of his estates, relieved of all his posts and was strongly advised to go abroad.

During Paul's reign, Zubov travelled in Europe, where he was shown as a curiosity. In Teplitz he fell in love with the Countess de la Roche-Aimont, then proposed to the Princess of Courland but was refused. Following one obscure duel, in which he ignominiously refused to take part and which resulted in his aide's killing Louis XVI's cousin, Chevalier de Saxe, Zubov withdrew to his Rastrelliesque Rundale Palace in Courland, formerly the seat of the Biron ducal dynasty. He ended his days living in total seclusion and exploiting his serfs mercilessly. His young widow, Thekla Walentinowicz, a local landowner's daughter, remarried Count Shuvalov, thus bringing the vast Zubov estates into the Shuvalov family.

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Wikipedia.com (eesti keeles)

Vürst Platon Aleksandrovitš Zubov (Платон Александрович Зубов; 26. (15.) november 1767 – 19. (7.) aprill 1822 Joniškis) oli Venemaa riigitegelane, Katariina II soosik. Ta nimetas end hiljem von Zuboff.

Ta oli Aleksandr Nikolajevitš Zubovi poeg, oma vanemate kolmas laps.[1]

Platonil olid vennad Nikolai Zubov (1763–1805), Dmitri Zubov (1764–1836) ja Valerijan Zubov (1771–1804) ning õde Olga Žerebtsova.

Ta tõusis esile tänu oma kaugele sugulasele feldmarssal Nikolai Ivanovitš Saltõkovile, kelle kaudu ta tutvus keisrinnaga (hiljem püüdis ta Saltõkovi riigiteenistusest kõrvale tõrjuda, et saada kindralfeldmarssali kohta). Saltõkov esitles noort ja nägusat ohvitseri õukonnale kokkuleppel, et Zubov aitab tal üle saada vihavaenust vürst Grigori Potjomkiniga.

Alates 1789. aastast sai ta keisrinna Katariina II-le lähedaseks isikuks. Augustis 1789 kirjutas Katariina Potjomkinile, et ta on pärast pikka talveund tõusnud elule "nagu kärbes". Ta lisas: "Nüüd ma olen jälle terve ja rõõmus" ning nimetas oma uut sõpra "tumedaks, väikeseks". Järgmises kirjas kirjutas ta: "Meie lapsuke nutab, kui teda ei lasta minu tuppa." Potjomkin ei pööranud Katariina uuele suhtele suurt tähelepanu, sest Katariina südame soosikud vahetusid iga kuu. Katariina oli üle 60 aastane, Zubov 22-aastane. Potjomkin ei uskunud, et nende suhe kestab kaua. Zubovil õnnestus aga omandada Katariina südames kindel koht.

Zubov ülendati ratsakaardiväe porutšikust kiiresti kõrgematele auastmetele ning sai krahvitiitli ja suured mõisad, kus oli kümneid tuhandeid hingi.

Fjodor Rostoptšin kirjutas 20. augustil 1795 Semjon Vorontsovile: "Krahv Zubov on igal pool. Ei ole teist tahet peale tema oma. Tema võim on suurem kui Potjomkinil. Ta on sama halastamatu ja võimetu nagu enne, kuigi keisrinna aina kordab, et ta on suurim geenius, keda Venemaa ajalugu on tundnud."

Grigori Aleksandrovitš Potjomkini eluajal ei etendanud ta riigiasjades väljapaistvat osa, kuid pärast Potjomkini surma tema tähtsus kasvas iga päevaga. Talle usaldati paljud ametikohad, millel oli olnud Potjomkin. Ta määrati kindralfeldtseihmeistriks, Novorossiiski kuberneriks, Jekaterinoslavi, Voskressenski ja Tauria kindralkuberneriks, Musta mere laevastiku ülemaks ja Sõjakolleegiumi liikmeks. Kuni 1796. aastami oli ta Venemaa sise- ja välispoliitika faktiline juht.

Kõiki asju ajasid tema kolm sekretäri Altesti, Gribovski ja de Ribas, kes mõtlesid eelkõige isiklikule rikastumisele, võttes palujatelt altkäemaksu. Kõik nad olid riigiasjades ebapädevad, kuid Hispaaniast pärit José de Ribast mäletatakse Odessa asutajana. Zubov ise sai vürsti tiitli ja suured mõisad vastliidendatud Poola aladel Kuramaal ja Leedus. Oma uute valduste residentsiks valis ta tagasi Bartolomeo Rastrelli projekteeritud Ruhentali lossi, mis varem oli olnud Kuramaa hertsogite Bironide residents. Aastal 1796 sai ta Saksa-Rooma keisrilt riigivürsti tiitli (ta sai selle tiitli Venemaal neljandana ja viimasena)

Võimul olles kogus Zubov tohutu varanduse. Peale keisrinna kingitud mõisate sai ta pillavaid kingitusi õukondlastelt. Katariina viimastel valitsemisaastatel otsustati isegi kõige lihtsamad asjad Zubovi nõuandel. Igal hommikul tunglesid tema magamistoas palujate hulgad, püüdes meeleheitlikult tõmmata tema tähelepanu ära tema ahvilt või temalt endalt. Vanad kindralid keetsid talle kohvi.

Zubovi iseloom oli kapriisne ja muutlik. Ta protežeeris Aleksandr Suvorovit ja Deniss Fonvizinit. Arvatakse, et tema algatas Aleksandr Radištševi ja Nikolai Novikovi jälitamise.

Troonipärijale Paulile ei avaldanud ta üldse austust. Katariina II surm 1796. aastal viis Zubovi hullumeelsuse äärele. Kümme päeva varjas ta end oma õe Olga juures. Üheteistkümnendal päeval külastas teda keiser Paul I, kes jõi tema terviseks ja soovis talle "nii palju õitsenguaastaid, kui selles peekris on tilku". Aastal 1797 aga jäeti ta ilma kõigist ametikohtadest, aastal 1800 tema mõisad konfiskeeriti ja tal soovitati tungivalt riigist lahkuda. Tänu Paul I lähedase, Kuramaa Code, Vecsaule ja Jaunsaule mõisniku krahv Ivan Kutaissovi eestkostele sai ta oma mõisad tagasi.

Pauli valitsemisajal reisis Zubov mööda Euroopat, kus teda näidati kui kurioosumit. Teplitzis armus ta krahvinna de la Roche-Aimontisse. Hiljem tegi ta abieluettepaneku Kuramaa vürstitarile, kuid see lükati tagasi. Pärast üht duelli, milles ta häbistavalt keeldus osalemast ja milles tema abi tappis Louis XVI nõo ševaljee de Saxe'i, tõmbus Zubov tagasi Ruhentali lossi.

Platon Zubovile on omistatud osalus Paul I tapmises koos vendade Valerijani ja Nikolaiga.

Aleksander I määras Zubovi Riiginõukogusse ja tagastas tema valdused, kuid endist mõju Zubov enam ei saavutanud. Pärast 1812. aastat lahkus ta Riiginõukogust.

Aastatel 1805–1806 laiendas ta oma valdusi. 30. detsembril 1805 ostis ta Šiauliai maakonnas Ginkūnai mõisa, millel oli kuus talu, 24 mees- ja 18 naishinge, kõrts, tuuleveski ja luba kasutada Šiauliai järve. Alguses pööras ta oma uutele valdustele vähe tähelepanu, aga mõne aasta pärast toodi majapidamisse 12 hollandi veist ning suured karjad Valgevenest ja Ukrainast.

Elu viimased aastad veetis Zubov täielikus seltskondlikus eraldatuses Vilno kubermangus Joniškises, kus ta kohtles talupoegi halastamatult.

Tal ei olnud järeltulijaid. Tema noor lesk, kohaliku mõisniku tütar Thekla Walentinowicz (1801–1873) abiellus ülemõuemarssal krahv Andrei Šuvaloviga (1802–1873), nii et Zubovi suured mõisad läksid Šuvalovite suguvõsale.[2]

-------------------- Fürst Platon war Katharinas letzter Liebhaver. Als sie am 17. November 1796 im Alter von 67 Jahren starb, war er noch nicht einmal 40 Jahre alt. -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platon_Zubov

Prince (Reichsfürst) Platon Alexandrovich Zubov (Russian: Платон Александрович Зубов; November 26 [O.S. November 15] 1767 – April 19 [O.S. April 7] 1822) was the last of Catherine the Great's favourites and the most powerful man in Russian Empire during the last years of her reign.

Platon was a member of the Zubov family and had several siblings, including Nicholas, Valerian, and Olga Zherebtsova. It was through his distant relative, Nicholas Saltykov, that he met the Empress. Saltykov presented the young and handsome officer to the court on the understanding that he would help Saltykov in his feud with Catherine's long-standing favourite, Prince Potemkin.

In August 1789, Catherine wrote to Potemkin that she returned to life after a long winter slumber "as a fly does". "Now I am well and gay again," she added, telling about her new friend, "a dark, little one". "Our baby," as she called him, "weeps when denied the entry into my room," Catherine informed Potemkin in the next letter. As young minions succeeded each other monthly in Catherine's heart, Potemkin didn't attach much importance to her new liaison. Catherine was over 60, Zubov was just 22. The old courtier couldn't believe that their connection would last for an extended period of time.

Zubov, however, contrived to establish a strong hold of Catherine's affections and character. In 7 years, he was made a Count and then a Reichsfurst, or Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the fourth (and last) Russian to receive the title. Upon Potemkin's death, he succeeded him as the Governor-General of New Russia. As Fyodor Rostopchin reported to Semyon Vorontsov on August 20, 1795, "Count Zubov is everything here. There is no other will but his. His power is greater than that of Potemkin. He is as reckless and incapable as before, although the Empress keeps repeating that he is the greatest genius the history of Russia has known".

During his years in power, Zubov amassed an enormous fortune. The Empress conferred on him tens of thousands of serfs, while simultaneously the courtiers rivalled each other in lavishing the most extravagant presents on him. In the last year of Catherine's reign even most trivial matters came to be decided on Zubov's advice. Crowds of petitioners thronged in his bedroom every morning, trying desperately to attract the attention of his pet monkey if not himself. The old generals prepared coffee for him. Zubov's secretaries enriched themselves on bribes from petitioners. They were all singularly incompetent in affairs of state, but at least one of them, the Spaniard Jose de Ribas, is still remembered - as the founder of Odessa. . Zubov's character was capricious and unstable. He patronized Suvorov and Fonvizin, and yet he is thought to have instigated the persecution of Radischev and Novikov. To the heir apparent, Tsarevich Paul, he paid no respect whatsoever. Unsurprisingly, Catherine's death all but brought him to the verge of madness. For ten days, he concealed himself in the house of his sister Olga. On the 11th day, he was visited by Emperor Paul who drank to his health and wished him "as many years of prosperity as there are drops in this beaker". Nevertheless, he was stripped of his estates, relieved of all his posts and was strongly advised to go abroad.

During Paul's reign, Zubov travelled in Europe, where he was shown as a curiosity. In Teplitz he fell in love with the Countess de la Roche-Aimont, then proposed to the Princess of Courland but was refused. Following one obscure duel, in which he ignominiously refused to take part and which resulted in his aide's killing Louis XVI's cousin, Chevalier de Saxe, Zubov withdrew to his Rastrelliesque Rundale Palace in Courland, formerly the seat of the Biron ducal dynasty. He ended his days living in total seclusion and exploiting his serfs mercilessly. His young widow, Thekla Walentinowicz, a local landowner's daughter, remarried Count Shuvalov, thus bringing the vast Zubov estates into the Shuvalov family.

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Platon Zubov / Платон Александрович св. кн. Зубов's Timeline

1767
November 15, 1767
Vladimir, gorod Vladimir, Vladimirskaya oblast, Russia
1800
1800
Age 32
1806
1806
Age 38
1807
1807
Age 39
1809
1809
Age 41
1814
1814
Age 46
1822
March 13, 1822
Age 54
Vilnius, Vilniaus miesto savivaldybė, Vilnius County, Lithuania
April 7, 1822
Age 54
Joniškis, Joniškis District Municipality, Šiauliai County, Lithuania
1921
1921
Age 54