Po-hebitsquash "Iron Jacket" Nocona (1794 - 1858)

public profile

View Po-hebitsquash "Iron Jacket" Nocona's complete profile:

  • See if you are related to Po-hebitsquash "Iron Jacket" Nocona
  • Request to view Po-hebitsquash "Iron Jacket" Nocona's family tree

Share

Nicknames: "Po-hebitsquash", "Pro-he-bits-quash-a", "Po-bish-e-quasho in Comanche"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Staked Plains, Texas, USA
Death: Died in Ellis, Oklahoma, USA
Managed by: Doug Robinson
Last Updated:

About Po-hebitsquash "Iron Jacket" Nocona

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_Jacket

Iron Jacket (born c. late 1780s early 1790s- died 1858) was a Native American War Chief and Chief of the Comanche Indians.

Iron Jacket (Po-hebitsquash, Pro-he-bits-quash-a, Po-bish-e-quasho in Comanche) was a Comanche chieftain and medicine man whom the Comanche believed had the power to blow bullets aside with his breath. His name probably resulted from his habit of wearing a Spanish coat of mail into battle, which protected him from most light weapons fire.

On May 12, 1858, the jacket failed to protect him, and he was killed on the bank of the South Canadian River in the Battle of Little Robe Creek where his band of Comanches fought a combined force of Texas Rangers and Brazos Reservation Indians led by John S. Ford , Shapley P. Ross , and Placido, Tonkawa Chief.

Early life

Not much is known about Iron Jacket’s early life. He was born in the 1780s or 90’s. He became a chief among the Noconi, or Wanderers, Band of the Comanche. He appears to have been both a hereditary chief and a War Chief. Little else is known about Iron Jacket, except that he led dozens of terrifying raids on settlers in the 1820s, 30’s, 40‘s, and 50’s in Texas and Mexico.

It is believed today that he was a hereditary chief of the Comanche, and for decades the white and Mexican victims of his raids considered him a supernatural being because of his seeming invulnerability to any harm. Members of the Rangers, posses and the military on various occasions insisted that they shot the chief dead center without harming him.

Evidently, this was because of the coat of old Spanish mail the chief wore, which appears to have protected him from light weapons fire. In any event, he was a feared and dangerous figure along the Texas and Mexican border, and in the Comancheria in the decades leading up to the American Civil War.

Antelope Hills Expedition

The years leading up to the Civil War were particularly bloody on the Texas Frontier, as Iron Jacket, his son Peta Nocona, and other Comanche and Kiowa Chiefs fought back against the encroaching white settlers in the Comancheria. In response to these raids, on January 27, 1858, Governor Runnels appointed John Salmon "Rip" Ford, a veteran Ranger of the Mexican-American War and frontier Indian fighter, as captain and commander of the Texas Ranger, Militia, and Allied Indian Forces, and ordered him to carry the battle to the Comanches in the heart of their homeland on the Comancheria.

Ford, whose habit of signing the casualty reports with the initials "RIP" for "Rest In Peace,” was known as a ferocious and no-nonsense Indian fighter. Commonly missing from the history books was his proclivity for ordering the wholesale slaughter of any Indian, man or woman, he could find. Ford’s reason for this was simple: Comanche raids were brutal in their treatment of settlers. Thus, Ford determined to meet brutality with brutality.

Governor Runnels issued very explicit orders to Ford, "I impress upon you the necessity of action and energy. Follow any trail and all trails of hostile or suspected hostile Indians you may discover and if possible, overtake and chastise them if unfriendly.[2]

On March 19, 1858, Ford went to the Brazos Reservation, near what today is the city of Fort Worth, Texas, and recruited the Tonkawa into his forces. Tonkawa Indians, the latter commanded by their “celebrated” chief, Placido, hailed as the “faithful and implicitly trusted friend of the whites” (with limited mention of their cannibalism) [3] undertook a campaign with approximately an equal number of Texas Rangers against the Comanches. Ford and Placido were determined to follow the Comanche and Kiowa up to their strongholds amid the hills of the Canadian river, and into the Wichita Mountains, and if possible, “kill their warriors, decimate their food supply, strike at their homes and families and generally destroy their ability to make war.”

In April 1858, Ford established Camp Runnells near what used to be the town of Belknap. Ford, still operating under Governor Runnell’s explicits orders to “follow any and all trails of hostile and suspected hostile Indians, inflict the most severe and summary punishment,” and to “allow no interference from any source.” (That source was interpreted to mean the United States, whose Army and Indian Agents might try to enforce federal treaties and federal statutory law against trespassing on the Indian territories in Oklahoma). On April 15, Ford's Rangers, accompanied by Tonkawa warriors, and Anadarko and Shawnee scouts from the Brazos Reservation in Texas, crossed the Red River into Indian Territory. The force then advanced into the portion of the Comancheria in the Indian Territories in Oklahoma. Ford led his men across the Red River, into the Indian Territory, violating federal laws and numerous treaties, but stating later that his job was to “find and fight Indians, not to learn geography.”

Battle of Little Robe Creek and death of Iron Jacket . At sunrise on May 12, 1858, Ford and his joint force of Rangers and Tonkawa began an all-day battle with a dawn attack on a sleeping Comanche village. The so-called Battle of Little Robe Creek was actually three distinct separate incidents which happened over the course of a single day. The first was the attack on the sleeping village. The second was a follow up attack on the village of Iron Jacket, somewhat further up the Canadian River. Iron Jacket, so named for the coat of iron mail he wore in battle was killed in this exchange, and the remainder of his village was saved by the timely intervention of Peta Nocona with a third force of Comanche who arrived to engage Ford while all the villages along the Canadian made a swift withdrawal.[3]

Iron Jacket’s death came when he repeatedly rode down the line of firing Rangers and Tonkawa, taunting them. Many historians believe the mail that protected him from light weapons fire simply was not able to protect him from the buffalo gun used by Tonkawa Jim Pockmark which killed him. In any event, the death of their legendary chief discouraged his warriors, and only the timely intervention of his son, Peta Nocona, and his warriors, saved Iron Jacket's village. As it was, his body could not be recovered, and was scalped, and partially eaten by the cannibal Tonkawas.

The Rangers broke up his coat of mail and kept the shingles for souvenirs. His other accoutrements, such as his lance and shield, were sent to the Governor in Austin for display.

Personal life

Iron Jacket’s son was the famous Comanche War Chief Peta Nocona and his grandson was the last Comanche Chief Quanah Parker.

view all

"Iron Jack" Nocona, Comanche Chief's Timeline