Rodrigo de Llançol i Borja (1431 - 1503) MP

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Nicknames: "Papa Alexander VI"
Birthplace: Játiva (Xàtiva), Valencia, Spain
Death: Died in Roma, Lazio, Italy
Occupation: Pope of the Catholic Church
Managed by: Flemming Allan Funch
Last Updated:

About Rodrigo de Llançol i Borja

Pope Alexander VI

Pope Alexander VI (1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503) (Spanish: Alejandro VI, Catalan: Alexandre VI), born Roderic Llançol, later Roderic de Borja i Borja (Italian: Rodrigo Borgia) was Pope from 1492 to 1503. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, and his surname (Italianized as Borgia) became a byword for the debased standards of the papacy of that era.

Contents [hide]

1 Birth and family

2 Education and election

3 Nepotism and opposition

4 French involvement

5 The French in retreat

6 Confiscations and Savonarola

7 Slavery

8 Cesare in the North

9 Last years

10 Death

11 Legacy

12 Mistresses and family

13 Representations in popular culture

Birth and family

Roderic Llançol was born at Xàtiva in the Kingdom of Valencia, one of the component states of the Crown of Aragon. His parents were Jofré Llançol y Escrivà (died bef. 24 March 1437) and his wife and relative Isabel de Borja (y Llançol?) (died 19 October 1468). His family name is written Llançol in Valencian and Lanzol in Spanish. Roderic assumed his mother's family name of Borja on the elevation of his maternal uncle Alonso de Borja, to the papacy as Calixtus III in 1455.

Education and election


Nepotism and opposition

At first, Alexander's reign was marked by a strict administration of justice and an orderly method of government, in contrast to the mismanagement of the previous pontificate, as well as by great outward splendor. But it was not long before his passion for endowing his relatives at the church's and his neighbours' expense became manifest. Alexander VI had four children by his long time mistress Vannozza dei Cattani a countess of the House of Candia, three sons and a daughter: Giovanni, Cesare, Goffredo (or Gioffre or, in Catalan, Jofré) and Lucrezia. Cesare, while a youth of seventeen and a student at Pisa, was made Archbishop of Valencia (hence the nickname of Valentino), and Giovanni received the dukedom of Gandia, the Borgias' ancestral home in Spain. For the Duke of Gandia and for Giuffrè/Goffredo the Pope proposed to carve fiefs out of the papal states and the Kingdom of Naples. Among the fiefs destined for the duke of Gandia were Cerveteri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful house. This policy brought Ferdinand I, King of Naples, into conflict with Alexander, who was also opposed by Cardinal della Rovere, whose candidature for the papacy had been backed by Ferdinand. Della Rovere fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth as Alexander formed a league against Naples (25 April 1493) and prepared for war.[citation needed]

Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, and Venice. He also appealed to Spain for help; but Spain was eager to be on good terms with the papacy to obtain the title to the newly discovered continent of America. Alexander, in the bull Inter Caetera, 4 May 1493, divided the title between Spain and Portugal along a demarcation line. (This and other related bulls are known collectively as the Bulls of Donation.)[citation needed]

Alexander VI arranged great marriages for his children. Lucrezia had been promised to the Venetian Don Gasparo da Procida, but on her father's elevation to the papacy the engagement was canceled and in 1493 she married Giovanni Sforza, lord of Pesaro, the ceremony being celebrated at the Vatican Palace with great extravagance.[citation needed]

In spite of the splendors of the Pontifical court, the condition of Rome became every day more deplorable. The city swarmed with Spanish adventurers, assassins, prostitutes and informers; murder and robbery were committed with impunity, and the Pope himself cast aside all show of decorum; indulging in the chase, and arranging dancing, and stage plays. The wild orgies that Alexander was reported to have sponsored within the papal palaces are now generally considered by the Catholic Church to have been exaggerated.[5] One of his close companions was Cem, the brother of the Sultan Bayazid II (1481–1512), detained as a hostage. The general outlook in Italy was of the gloomiest and the country was on the eve of foreign invasion.


Mistresses and family

Of Alexander's many mistresses the one for whom his passion lasted longest was a certain Vannozza (Giovanna) dei Cattani, born in 1442, and wife of three successive husbands. The connection began in 1470, and she bore him four children whom he openly acknowledged as his own: Giovanni, afterwards duke of Gandia (born 1474), Cesare (born 1476), Lucrezia (born 1480), and Goffredo or Giuffre (born 1481 or 1482). His other children – Girolamo, Isabella and Pier Luigi – were of uncertain parentage. Before his elevation to the papacy Cardinal Borgia's passion for Vannozza somewhat diminished, and she subsequently led a very retired life. Her place in his affections was filled by the beautiful Giulia Farnese (Giulia Bella), wife of an Orsini, but his love for his children by Vannozza remained as strong as ever and proved, indeed, the determining factor of his whole career. He lavished vast sums on them and loaded them with every honour. The atmosphere of Alexander's household is typified by the fact that his daughter Lucrezia lived with his mistress Giulia, who bore him a daughter, Laura, in 1492.

He is an ancestor of virtually all Royal Houses of Europe, mainly the Southern and Western ones, for being the ancestor of Doña Luisa de Guzmán, wife of King John IV of Portugal.

Forrás / Source:



The Borgias or Borjas were an Italian noble family of Spanish origin remembered today for their corrupt rule of the Papacy during the Renaissance. They are in fact thought to be "history's first criminal family", and a forerunner to the Italian Mafia. The patriarch of the family, Rodrigo Borgia (1431-1503), "became a bishop, cardinal and vice-chancellor of the church." He was later elected Pope, taking the name Alexander VI and kept that position for at least eleven years. Other members of the Borgia family were Lucrezia Borgia and Cesare Borgia, daughter and son of Rodrigo Borgia, respectively. Among the many accusations against the Borgia family, some are of incest, adultery, murder, and scandal.


Rodrigo Borgia (1)

M, #331584

Last Edited=19 Jan 2009

Rodrigo Borgia married Vannozza dei Cattanei. (1)

    Rodrigo Borgia took the religious name of Pope Alexander VI. (1)

Children of Rodrigo Borgia and Vannozza dei Cattanei

-1. Giovanni Borgia (1)

-2. Gioffre Borgia (1)

-3. Cesare Borgia (1) b. 1475, d. 1507

-4. Lucrezia Borgia+ (1) b. 18 Apr 1480, d. 24 Jun 1519

Forrás / Source:


The Descendants of

Pope Alexander VI, Rodrigo Borgia, 1492-1503

(5 generations)

Forrás / Source: -------------------- I duc de Gandia --------------------

view all 12

Pope Alexander VI's Timeline

January 1, 1431
Játiva (Xàtiva), Valencia, Spain
Age 31
Age 36
Age 38
Age 43
Roma, Lazio, Italia
September 13, 1475
Age 44
Rome, Lazio, Italy
April 18, 1480
Age 49
Subiaco, Lazio, Italy
Age 50
Valencia, Italy
August 18, 1503
Age 72
Roma, Lazio, Italy
August 1503
Age 72
Rome, Lazio, Italy