Guy de Bourgogne (1052 - 1124) MP

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Nicknames: "Pope Calixtus II & Archbishop of Vienne", "Papa Calixto II"
Birthdate:
Birthplace: Bourgogne, France
Death: Died in Rome, Roma, Lazio, Italy
Occupation: valdes till påve den 1 februari 1119 - 13/12 1124., Papa, Påve 1119-1124, Ärkebiskop i Vienne, Påve Calixtus II (9.2.1119-1124)
Managed by: Nancy Sawalich
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About Guy de Bourgogne

Guy era um membro da mais alta aristocracia. The fourth son of one of the wealthiest families in Europe, he was part of a network of noble alliances. O quarto filho de uma das famílias mais ricas da Europa, ele era parte de uma rede de alianças nobre. He was cousin of the King of Italy Arduino of Ivrea father of Prince and Count Guido di San Martino, Prince Reghino di Valperga and Pince Ottone di Castellamonte, Counts of Canavese. Ele era primo do pai, o Rei da Itália Arduino de Ivrea do príncipe e Guido Conte di San Martino, Reghino Prince di Valperga e Ottone Pince di Castellamonte, Condes de Canavese. One sister, Gisela, was married to Humbert II, Count of Savoy (1080–1103) and then to Renier I of Montferrat ; another sister, Maud, was the wife of Eudes I of Burgundy (1079–1103). Uma irmã, Gisela, foi casada com Humberto II, conde de Sabóia (1080-1103) e depois para Renier I de Montferrat , outra irmã, Maud, era a esposa de Odo I da Borgonha (1079-1103). His brother Raymond was married to Urraca , the heiress of León ; they became the parents of Alfonso VII of León . Seu irmão Raymond era casado com D. Urraca , a herdeira de León , eles se tornaram os pais de Afonso VII de Leão . His brother Hugh had been appointed Archbishop of Besançon Seu irmão Hugh foi nomeado arcebispo de Besançon -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_of_Vienne

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Callistus_II

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Calixto II. (de nombre Guido de Borgoña). (* Borgoña, (ha. 1050) – † Roma, 13 de diciembre de 1124). Papa nº 162 de la Iglesia católica de 1119 a 1124.

Hijo del conde Guillermo I de Borgoña, en 1088 fue nombrado arzobispo de Vienne convirtiéndose en un gran defensor de la reforma de la Iglesia, comenzada por Gregorio VII.

En 1119, a la muerte del papa Gelasio II, fue elegido como nuevo papa en Cluny ya que en Roma se encontraba el antipapa Gregorio VIII. Inmediatamente intentó un acercamiento al emperador Enrique V para lo cual le envió una embajada que concertó un encuentro en la ciudad de Reims con el objeto de solucionar el problema de las investiduras que consistía en que el emperador tenía plenos poderes para realizar los nombramientos eclesiásticos.

El hecho de que Enrique se presentara al encuentro al frente de su ejército hizo que el papa convocara, el 30 de octubre de 1119, un concilio en Reims donde excomulgó al emperador y a su antipapa Gregorio.

Con el apoyo normando logra, en 1120, regresar a Roma obligando al antipapa Gregorio a huir a Sutri donde tras ser hecho prisionero es recluido, hasta su muerte en 1121, en el monasterio de Cava.

Instalado definitivamente en Roma dedica nuevamente sus energías a la solución de la querella de las investiduras que desde hace cincuenta años enfrenta al Papado con el Imperio. Para ello propone a Enrique V la celebración en Worms de una dieta en la que participaran obispos y principes y que, el 23 de septiembre de 1122, concluye con la firma del Concordato de Worms por el que el emperador renunciaba al derecho de investidura que pasaba a ser reconocido como exclusivo de la Iglesia, y el Papa reconocía al emperador su derecho a asistir a dichas investiduras u a otorgar a los investidos el cetro que reconocía su cargo.

El 18 de marzo de 1123 convocó el Primer Concilio de Letrán, considerado por la Iglesia Católica como el primero de los ecuménicos celebrados en Occidente, y en el que se confirmaron y sancionaron los acuerdos logrados en el Concordato de Worms además de decretarse veintidós cánones contra la simonía, el nicolaismo, y la intromisión de los laicos en asuntos eclesiásticos; promoviéndose además la Segunda Cruzada.

Calixto II fue el papa que instauró el Año Santo Jacobeo, que habría de celebrarse cada año en el que el 25 de julio, día de Santiago, coincidiese en domingo. Todos aquellos peregrinos que visitaran la tumba del Apostol en el transcurso de un Año Jacobeo ganarían el Jubileo (Indulgencia plenaria).

Esta institución impulsó en gran manera las peregrinaciones a Santiago durante toda la Edad Media.

Un dato curioso de este Papa es que excomulgó al Cometa Halley por considerarlo un cuerpo obra del diablo

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guy_of_Vienne

Blessed Pope Calixtus II (or Calistus II) (died December 13, 1124), born Guy de Vienne -------------------- Blessed Pope Callixtus II (or Calistus II) (died December 13, 1124), born Guy de Vienne, the son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 1, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19). His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms (in 1122). -------------------- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Callixtus_II

Blessed Pope Calixtus II (or Calistus II) (died December 13, 1124), born Guy de Vienne, the fourth son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 1, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19). His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms (in 1122). Although his birth date is not known, his eldest brother was born in 1061, therefore we can assume that Guy himself was born between 1065 and 1068.

Early life

Guy was a member of the highest aristocracy. The fourth son of one of the wealthiest families in Europe, he was part of a network of noble alliances. He was cousin of the King of Italy Arduino of Ivrea father of Prince and Count Guido di San Martino, Prince Reghino di Valperga and Pince Ottone di Castellamonte, Counts of Canavese. One sister, Gisela, was married to Humbert II, Count of Savoy (1080–1103) and then to Renier I of Montferrat; another sister, Maud, was the wife of Eudes I of Burgundy (1079–1103). His brother Raymond was married to Urraca, the heiress of León; they became the parents of Alfonso VII of León. His brother Hugh had been appointed Archbishop of Besançon

Church career

Archbishop of Vienne

Guy first appeared in contemporary records when, in 1088, he became the Archbishop of Vienne. He held strong pro-Papal views about the Investiture Controversy. As archbishop, he was appointed papal legate to France by Pope Paschal II (1099–1118); this was during the time that Paschal II, yielding to pressure from Emperor Henry V (1105–25), was induced to issue the Privilegium of 1111, by which he yielded much of the papal prerogatives that had been so forcefully claimed by Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) in the Gregorian Reforms. Guy, with kin both in Burgundy and the Franche-Comté (that is, within the Emperor's jurisdiction and bordering it) led the pro-Papal opposition at the synod called at the Lateran in 1112; on his return to France he immediately convened an assembly of French and Burgundian bishops at Vienne, where the imperial claim to a traditional lay investiture of the clergy was denounced as heretical, and a sentence of excommunication was now pronounced against Henry V, on the grounds that he had extorted the Privilegium from Paschal II by a violence. These decrees were sent to Paschal II with a request for a confirmation, which they received, in general terms, for Paschal II had proved loath to take this step, October 20, 1112.

Cardinal

Guy (or Guido) was apparently made cardinal by Paschal II, who died on January 21, 1118.

Papacy

During the violent confrontations between Henry V and Paschal II's successor, Pope Gelasius II, the Pope was forced to flee from Rome, first to Gaeta, where he was crowned, then to the Abbey of Cluny, where he died on January 29, 1119. Within four days Guy was elected Pope and was crowned at Vienne as Calixtus II. At the outset, it appeared that the new Pope was willing to negotiate with Henry V, who received the papal embassy at Strasburg, and withdrew his support from the antipope he had proclaimed at Rome. It was agreed that pope and emperor should meet at the château de Mousson, near Rheims, and in October the new Pope opened the council at Rheims attended by Louis VI of France (1108–37), with most of the barons of France and more than four hundred bishops and abbots. Henry V arrived for his personal conference at Mousson — not alone, as had been anticipated, but with an army of over thirty thousand men. Calixtus II, fearing that force was likely to be used to extract prejudicial concessions, remained at Rheims. There, Calixtus II busied himself ineffectively with attempting a reconciliation between the brothers Henry I of England (1100–35) and Robert II, Duke of Normandy (1087–1106), and the council dealt with disciplinary regulations and decrees against lay investiture, simony, and clerical concubines; there being no compromise coming from Henry V, it was determined that the Emperor and his antipope should be solemnly excommunicated, 30 October 1119.

Returning to Italy, where antipope Gregory VIII (1118–21) was supported in Rome by imperial forces and Italian allies of the emperor, Calixtus II managed to gain the upper hand amid clear demonstrations of popular support. The Imperial candidate was obliged to flee to the fortress of Sutri, where he was taken prisoner through the intervention of Norman support from the Kingdom of Naples; he was transferred from prison to prison and died at a stronghold near Salerno. The imperial allies in Rome soon disbanded.

Concordat of Worms

Having established his power in Italy, the Pope resolved to reopen negotiations with Henry V on the question of investiture. Henry V was anxious to put an end to a controversy which had reduced imperial authority in Germany — terminally so, as it appeared in the long run. An embassy of three cardinals was sent by Calixtus II to Germany, and negotiations for a permanent settlement of the investiture struggle were begun in October 1121 at Würzburg where it was agreed that a general truce should be proclaimed in Germany, that the Church should have free use of its possessions, and that the lands of those in rebellion should be restored. These decrees were communicated to Calixtus II, who despatched a legate Lambert to assist at the synod that had been convoked at Worms, where, on 23 September 1122, the agreement known as the Concordat of Worms was concluded. On his side the emperor abandoned his claim to investiture with ring and crosier, and granted freedom of election to episcopal sees; on the other hand, it was conceded that the bishops should receive investiture with the sceptre, that the episcopal elections should be held in the presence of the Emperor or his representatives, that in case of disputed elections the emperor should, after the decision of the metropolitan and the suffragan bishops, confirm the rightfully elected candidate, and lastly, that the imperial investiture of the temporal properties connected to the sees should take place in Germany before the consecration, in Burgundy and in Italy after this ceremony, while in the Papal States the pope alone had the right of investiture, without any interference on the part of the Emperor. As a result of this Concordat, the Emperor still retained in his hands the controlling influence in the election of the bishops in Germany, though he had abandoned much in regard to episcopal elections in Italy and Burgundy.

First Lateran Council

To secure the confirmation of this Concordat of Worms, Calixtus II convened the First Lateran Council, 18 March 1123, which solemnly confirmed the concordat and passed several disciplinary decrees, such as those against simony and concubinage among the clergy. Decrees were also passed against violators of the Truce of God, church-robbers, and forgers of ecclesiastical documents. The indulgences already granted to the crusaders were renewed, and the jurisdiction of the bishops over the clergy, both secular and regular, was more clearly defined.

Later life and death

Calixtus II devoted his last few years to reestablishing Papal control over the Campagna and establishing – with the aid of some forgeries (CE) – the primacy of his see of Vienne over the see of Arles, an ancient conflict. He rebuilt the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, in Rome.

Calixtus II died 13 December 1124.

-------------------- Guildo de Vienne, elegido Papa, en 1119 como abad de Cluny. -------------------- Blessed Pope Callixtus II (or Calistus II) (died December 13, 1124), born Guy de Vienne, the son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 1, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19). His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms (in 1122). -------------------- Pope Callixtus II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Blessed Pope Callixtus II (or Calistus II) (died December 13, 1124), born Guy de Vienne, the son of William I, Count of Burgundy (1057–87), was elected Pope on February 1, 1119, after the death of Pope Gelasius II (1118–19). His pontificate was shaped by the Investiture Controversy, which he was able to settle through the Concordat of Worms (in 1122).

Early life

He was a member of the highest aristocracy. One sister, Gisela, was married to Humbert II of Savoy (1080–1103) and then Renier I of Montferrat; another, Maud to Eudes I of Burgundy (1079–1103). His brother Raymond was married to Urraca, the heiress of Castile, parents of Alfonso VII of Castile. His brother Hugh had been appointed Archbishop of Besançon. His distant cousin Henry was married to Theresa, the heiress of Portugal, parents of Afonso I of Portugal.

[edit]Church career

[edit]Archbishop of Vienne

Main article: Investiture Controversy

In 1088, he became the Archbishop of Vienne. He held strong pro-Papal views about the Investiture Controversy. As archbishop, he was appointed papal legate in France by Pope Paschal II (1099–1118) during the time that Paschal II, yielding to pressure from Emperor Henry V (1105–25), was induced to issue the Privilegium of 1111, by which he yielded much of the papal prerogatives that had been so forcefully claimed by Pope Gregory VII (1073–85) in the Gregorian Reforms. Guido, with kin both in Burgundy and the Franche Comté, that is within the Emperor's jurisdiction and bordering it, led the pro-Papal opposition at the synod called at the Lateran in 1112; on his return to France he immediately convoked an assembly of French and Burgundian bishops at Vienne, where the imperial claim to traditional lay investiture of the clergy was denounced as heretical, and a sentence of excommunication was now pronounced against Henry V, on the grounds that he had extorted the Privilegium from Paschal II by violence. These decrees were sent to Paschal II with a request for confirmation, which they received, in general terms, for Paschal II had proved loath to take this step, October 20, 1112.

[edit]Cardinal

Guido was apparently made cardinal by Paschal II, who died January 21, 1118.

[edit]Papacy

During the violent confrontations between Henry V and Paschal II's successor, Pope Gelasius II, the Pope was forced to flee from Rome, first to Gaeta, where he was crowned, then to the Abbey of Cluny, where he died, January 29, 1119. Within four days Guido was elected Pope and was crowned at Vienne as Calixtus II. At the outset it appeared that the new Pope was willing to negotiate with Henry V, who received the papal embassy at Strasburg, and withdrew his support from the antipope he had proclaimed at Rome. It was agreed that pope and emperor should meet at the château de Mousson, near Rheims, and in October he opened the council at Rheims attended by Louis VI of France (1108–37), with most of the barons of France and more than four hundred bishops and abbots. Henry V arrived for his personal conference at Mousson — not alone, as had been anticipated, but with an army of over thirty thousand men. Calixtus II, fearing that force was likely to be used at Mousson to extract from him prejudicial concessions, remained at Rheims. There, while Calixtus II busied himself ineffectively with attempting a reconciliation between the brothers Henry I of England (1100–35) and Robert II, Duke of Normandy (1087–1106), and after the council had busied itself with disciplinary regulations and decrees against lay investiture, simony, and clerical concubines, there being no compromise coming from Henry V, it was determined that the Emperor and his antipope should be solemnly excommunicated, 30 October 1119.

Returning to Italy, where antipope Gregory VIII (1118–21) was supported in Rome by imperial forces and Italian allies of the emperor, Calixtus II managed to gain the upper hand amid clear popular demonstrations and the Imperial candidate was obliged to flee to the fortress of Sutri, where he was taken prisoner through the intervention of Norman support from the Kingdom of Naples where he was transferred from prison to prison and died at a stronghold near Salerno. The imperial allies in Rome soon disbanded.

[edit]Concordat of Worms

Main article: Concordat of Worms

Having established his power in Italy, he resolved to reopen negotiations with Henry V on the question of investiture. Henry V was anxious to put an end to a controversy which had reduced imperial authority in Germany — terminally so, as it appeared in the long run. An embassy of three cardinals was sent by Calixtus II to Germany, and negotiations for a permanent settlement of the investiture struggle were begun in October 1121 at Würzburg where it was agreed that a general truce should be proclaimed in Germany; that the Church should have free use of its possessions; that the lands of those in rebellion should be restored. These decrees were communicated to Calixtus II, who despatched a legate Lambert to assist at the synod that had been convoked at Worms, where, on 23 September 1122, the concordat known as the Concordat of Worms was concluded. On his side the emperor abandoned his claim to investiture with ring and crosier and granted freedom of election to episcopal sees; on the other hand, it was conceded that the bishops should receive investiture with the sceptre, that the episcopal elections should be held in the presence of the Emperor or his representatives, that in case of disputed elections the emperor should, after the decision of the metropolitan and the suffragan bishops, confirm the rightfully elected candidate, and lastly, that the imperial investiture of the temporal properties connected to the sees should take place in Germany before the consecration, in Burgundy and in Italy after this ceremony, while in the Papal States the pope alone had the right of investiture, without any interference on the part of the Emperor. As a result of this Concordat, the Emperor still retained in his hands the controlling influence in the election of the bishops in Germany, though he had abandoned much in regard to episcopal elections in Italy and Burgundy.

[edit]First Lateran Council

Main article: First Council of the Lateran

To secure the confirmation of this Concordat of Worms, Calixtus II convoked the First Lateran Council, 18 March 1123, which solemnly confirmed the concordat and passed several disciplinary decrees, such as those against simony and concubinage among the clergy. Decrees were also passed against violators of the Truce of God, church-robbers, and forgers of ecclesiastical documents. The indulgences already granted to the crusaders were renewed, and the jurisdiction of the bishops over the clergy, both secular and regular, was more clearly defined.

[edit]Later life and death

Calixtus II devoted his last few years to reestablishing Papal control over the Campagna and establishing – with the aid of some forgeries (CE) – the primacy of his see of Vienne over the see of Arles, an ancient conflict. He rebuilt the church of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, in Rome.

Calixtus II died 13 December 1124. His feast day is celebrated on 12 December.

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Pope Callistus II's Timeline

1052
1052
Bourgogne, France
1124
December 13, 1124
Age 72
Rome, Roma, Lazio, Italy
????