Maria Jeanne Baptiste de Saboya-Nemours (de Savoie-Nemours) (1644 - 1724)

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Birthplace: Paris, Ile-de-France, France
Death: Died in Turin, Piedmont, Italy
Occupation: Duchess Consort of Savoy
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About Maria Jeanne Baptiste de Saboya-Nemours (de Savoie-Nemours)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Jeanne_of_Savoy

Marie Jeanne of Savoy

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Marie Jeanne

Duchess of Savoy

Marie Jeanne by Robert Nanteuil, 1678

Duchess of Savoy

consort 20 May 1665 – 12 June 1675

Predecessor Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans

Successor Anne Marie d'Orléans

Regent of Savoy

regent 12 June 1675 – 14 May 1680

Spouse Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy

Issue

Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy

Full name

French: Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie

Italian: Maria Giovanna Battista di Savoia

House House of Savoy

Father Charles Amadeus of Savoy

Mother Élisabeth de Bourbon

Born 11 April 1644(1644-04-11)

Hôtel de Nemours, Paris, France

Died 15 March 1724 (aged 79)

Palazzo Madama, Turin, Italy

Burial Sacra di San Michele, Turin, Piedmont, Italy

Religion Roman Catholic

Marie Jeanne of Savoy (Marie Jeanne Baptiste; 11 April 1644 – 15 March 1724) was born a Princess of Savoy. She married her second cousin once removed Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy in 1665. Styling herself as Madama Reale or Madame Royale, she became Regent of Savoy at her husbands death in 1675[1] in the name of her son Victor Amadeus II. Her regency ended in 1680 but she maintained power for some four years when her son banished her from further influence in the state[2]. At the time of her death she was the mother of the King of Sardinia as well as great grandmother of the King of Spain and King of France.

Contents

[hide]

   * 1 Life in France
   * 2 Marriage negotiations
   * 3 Wife and Duchess of Savoy
   * 4 Widow and Regent of Savoy
   * 5 Retirement and later life
   * 6 Issue
   * 7 Ancestry
   * 8 Titles, styles, honours and arms
         o 8.1 Titles and styles
   * 9 References
   * 10 Sources
   * 11 See also

[edit] Life in France

Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie was born at the Hôtel de Nemours in Paris and was the eldest of five children born to Charles Amadeus, Duke of Nemours and his wife Élisabeth de Bourbon[3]. Through her mother Marie Jeanne was a great grand daughter of Henry IV, King of France via her father César de Bourbon, Légitimé de France whose mother was Gabrielle d'Estrées[4]. This made her a second cousin of Louis XIV and a relation to most Catholic royalty at that time She was a member of a cadet branch of the House of Savoy which had settled in France in the sixteenth century[5]. Marie Jeanne grew up with her sister Marie Françoise, Mademoiselle d'Aumale who was born in 1646. She was styled as Mademoiselle de Nemours prior to marriage. As a young girl she frequented the salon of the famous Madame de La Fayette who later introduced Marie Jeanne into correspondence with Madame de Sévigné[6].

Her father died in 1652 having been killed in a duel with his own brother-in-law the Duke of Beufort[7]. From then on she and her family were under the guardianship of her paternal uncle Henri the new Duke of Nemours. At Henri's death in 1659 his estates reverted to the crown but were later secured by Marie Jeanne who used the estates for her own income. With two young daughters no financial support nor influence at court her mother Élisabeth looked to her maternal family her mother being a princess of Lorraine[8].

[edit] Marriage negotiations

Her family wanted a match with the unmarried Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy who was the son of Christine Marie of France (aunt of Élisabeth) who summoned Marie Jeanne her mother and sister to Turin in 1659 for inspection[9]. Despite Charles Emmanuel II showing a clear liking to Marie Jeanne, Christine Marie had been warned of by Cardinal Mazarin of her ambitious and volatile nature prior to arrival causing nothing to be discussed further. The dominating Christine Marie arranged a marriage between her son and Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans in 1663 who proved suitably docile for the controlling Christine Marie[10].

Having returned to France Mademoiselle de Nemours caught the attention of the dashing Charles de Lorraine heir to the duchies of Lorraine and Bar and son of Nicolas François, Duke of Lorraine[11]. Prior to this, the court of Portugal asked for her hand and Marie Jeanne was even prepared to go had it not been for the attention of Charles who saved her from a marriage with a mentally disabled ruler[12].

Charles' rank was similar to that of the Duke of Savoy and the match was pursued by Marie Jeanne's mother. Officially engaged to Charles on 4 February 1662 the match was a popular one and had the backing of Queen Anne (mother of Louis XIV). Charles was hesitant about the union but under pressure from Élisabeth, signed the marriage contract where a dowry of two million Livres was promised. However two days after the Treaty of Montmarte was signed forcing Lorraine and Bar to go to Louis XIV. As a result Charles backed out of the union soon after but the two remained in contact till Charles' death in 1690[13]. The "marriage" between Marie Jeanne and Charles had not been consummated and was thus considered void in the church.

The situation in Savoy changed in December 1663 Christine Marie died and was followed by her daughter-in-law Françoise Madeleine less than a year later. This left Charles Emmanuel II unmarried and without an heir[7]. Proposals came from Françoise Madeleine's sisters but were rejected and it became clear that Charles Emmanuel II wanted to unite with Marie Jeanne who was a member of his own house[14]. This union was supported by Louis XIV who did not want Charles Emmanuel II to marry an Archduchess of Austria for fear of loss of influence in the duchy. Charles Emmanuel II's only issue was Marie Jeanne's dowry; a union with someone of a foreign prince would need a dowry which would have to be paid by Charles Emmanuel II who was her closest kinsman[15].

Negotiations took over a year before Marie Jeanne went to Annecy with her grandmother Françoise de Lorraine on 1 May 1665 to meet her future husband[16]. Marie Jeanne married Charles Emmanuel II on 10 May 1665 at the Castello del Valentino. Marie Jeanne was the Duchess of Savoy, Princess of Piedmont and titular Queen of Cyprus.

[edit] Wife and Duchess of Savoy

In Savoy her name was Italianised to Maria Giovanna Batista di Savoia and was known as Madama Reale. This name was a reference to the style Madame Royale which was from her native France and used by the late Christine Marie[17]. Almost a year after the marriage the twenty one year old duchess gave birth to a son on 14 May 1666 who was named Victor Amadeus in honour of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy the child's grandfather and husband of Christine Marie[1]. In the same year her sister Marie Françoise married Afonso VI of Portugal[7]. The two sisters remained close all their lives. Prior to her husbands death, Marie Jeanne played little in politics of the time. In his reign, her husband carried out various improvements to the royal residences and left a great architectural legacy in Savoy. The couple also ordered the construction of various churches in and around Turin[18].

Her husband also had various illegitimate children and mistresses which Marie Jeanne was obliged to ignore. In 1672 Hortense Mancini on the run from her husband sought the protection of Charles Emmanuel II who granted it[19]. Much to Marie Jeanne's annoyance, she became a feature at court and was given the Château de Chambéry but was obliged to leave when Marie Jeanne took power at the death of her husband. On 12 June 1675 her husband suddenly died in Turin at the age of forty after a series of convulsive fevers[20]. On his death bed he pronounced his wife Marie Jeanne to become Regent of Savoy at his death[1].

[edit] Widow and Regent of Savoy

Declared Regent of her eleven year old son's dominions, she took her new charge with great interest and ambition. She carried on her husbands work on the properties of the Savoys and did much to maintain links with her powerful neighbour France whom they had various links with. She has been criticised for wanting to maintain power to much and for being a puppet to Louis XIV[2].

Marie Jeanne with her husband and son in 1666 by an unknown artist

Her relationship with her only son was always strained and has been blamed on her ambition to keep power to herself[21]. Marie Jeanne spent most of her time relegated to state business which she enjoyed and had little time for her only child whom she kept under close scrutiny in order to make sure he would try to assume power[21]. Despite bad relationship with her son she openly kept lovers at court and at the age of thirty three was in a relationship with the Count of Saint Maurice some ten years her junior. Marie Jeanne and Saint Maurice's relationship lasted some four years before his whole family left in disgrace due to the Saint Maurice's father failing on a string of diplomatic relations[21].

By 1677 Marie Jeanne was looking to organise a marriage for her son who would reach his majority in May 1680 even though her hold on power lasted another four years. Popular candidates were the Archduchess Maria Antonia a cousin in Portugal, a Princess of the Palatinate or the French born Anne Marie d'Orléans[22]. Marie Jeanne first looked to her sister in Lisbon whose only daughter the Infanta Isabel Luísa[23] was the heiress to her father's dominions. Portuguese law stated that an heiress to the throne must remain in the country and marry a kinsman. Marie Jeanne opened negotiations with Portugal in order to get the Infanta to marry her son Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy[24]. This prestigious union would have left Marie Jeanne permanently in control of the Savoy with Victor Amadeus II living in Portugal. Openly disliking the union, Victor Amadeus II reached his majority in 1679 he decided to postpone the marriage for two years even though plans were even made for Victor Amadeus' arrival in Lisbon and a political party even established opposing the union[25].

These grand plans were halted as the birth of a son for Peter II of Portugal and a revolt in Piedmont supported by Victor Amadeus forced Marie Jeanne to abandon her plans and look elsewhere. The Infanta died unmarried in 1690 of smallpox.

Marie Jeanne then looked to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany who offered Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici as a bride for Victor Amadeus II[26]. Negotiations were kept secret from France. This match was popular as it would give a powerful ally in Italy and was even favoured by Victor Amadeus II. The secret correspondence between Savoy and Tuscany has since been lost and the match never materialised.

Even though Marie Jeanne and her regency officially ended in 1679 she did not hand over power till 14 March 1684 when forced to do so by her son. She was responsible for the creation of the Royal Academy of Turin as well as making Savoy a neutral state. As noted, Louis XIV was eager to maintain his already considerable influence in Savoy and thus offered his niece Anne Marie d'Orléans. Anne Marie was the daughter of Philippe of France, Duke of Orléans and his first wife Henrietta of England. Victor Amadeus agreed to the match and he married Anne Marie in person on 6 May 1684[27].

[edit] Retirement and later life

Her son having taken power from his mother decided to banish her from all direct influence at court[21]. She retired to the Palazzo Madama in the city of Turin opposite the Ducal Palace of Turin where the court resided most of the year[28]. This building had been the home of Christine Marie in her dowager years and under Marie Jeanne was extended under the direction of Filippo Juvarra who was a favourite of her son.

Marie Jeanne in widows clothing by an unknown artist, held at the Ducal Palace of Modena.

In 1686 she sold the Duchy of Aumale from Louis Auguste de Bourbon, an illegitimate son of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan. the duchy of Aumale had been her personal property since 1659 at her fathers death. Marie Jeanne was also the last Countess of Geneva which was united with Savoy after her death.

Her son's marriage, though loveless, would produce some eight children four of which would have progeny. Marie Jeanne acted as godmother to her grand daughter Princess Maria Adelaide in December 1685 who was her eldest grandchild. She also maintained a good friendship with her daughter-in-law Anne Marie[29]. Maria Adelaide and her sister Maria Luisa would have a close relationship with thier grandmother and both would make weekly visit's to the Palazzo Madama[30]. Her relationship with Maria Adelaide in particular is documented in letters the two sent to each other after 1696 when the young princess married Louis of France. Maria Luisa married Louis' brother Philip V of Spain in 1700. Sadly Maria Adelaide would die in 1712 at Versailles of Measles[31].

Thanks tot the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 her son was given the Kingdom of Sicily in recognition for his services to Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession[32]. Her son was crowned king of Sicily in Palermo Cathedral in December 1713. This absence caused Victor Amadeus II to ask his mother to maintain the government while he was gone but she declined and her grandson Victor Amadeus, Prince of Piedmont was made regent instead[33].

Months after, the Savoyard court the family found out the death of Maria Luisa who had died in February 1714 which was followed a year later by the Prince of Piedmont who died of smallpox. Three deaths in four years caused mother and son to become closer[34]. With the death of the Prince of Piedmont her youngest grandson Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Aosta became heir apparent to the kingdom.

Despite family issues her son lost Sicily; Victor Amadeus II exchanged Sicily for Sardinia in 1720 as part of the Treaty of The Hague. This newly formed country was called States of Savoy or Kingdom of Sardinia, it was composed of several states including Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta Valley, Nice, Oneglia and Sardinia. Marie Jeanne herself died at the Palazzo Madama in March 1724 a month before her 80th birthday[35]. She was buried at the Sacra di San Michele outside Turin. She donated her heart to the Carmelite Convent of Saint Cristina where she had an apartment for personal use.

[edit] Issue

   * Vittorio Amedeo Francesco of Savoy (4 May 1666 – 31 October 1732) married Anne Marie d'Orléans, Princess of France in 1684 and had issue; had illegitimate issue with Jeanne Baptiste d'Albert de Luynes; married morganatically to Anna Teresa Canalis di Cumania in 1732.

Titles and styles

   * 11 April 1644 – 20 May 1665 Her Highness Mademoiselle de Nemours
   * 20 May 1665 – 12 June 1675 Her Highness the Duchess of Savoy
   * 12 June 1675 – 15 March 1724 Her Highness the Dowager Duchess of Savoy

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c Symcox, 69
  2. ^ a b Campbell Orr, 32
  3. ^ Tome, p 431
  4. ^ Fraser, p 293
  5. ^ Ragnhild, p 334
  6. ^ Campbell Orr, p 31
  7. ^ a b c Pitts, 172
  8. ^ Campbell Orr, p 21
  9. ^ Campbell Orr, p 19
 10. ^ Williams, p 7
 11. ^ Campbell Orr, p 22
 12. ^ Hahn, p 105
 13. ^ Campbell Orr, p 21
 14. ^ Ragnhild, p 332
 15. ^ Ragnhild, p 333
 16. ^ Campbell Orr, p 21
 17. ^ Campbell Orr, p 23
 18. ^ Frézet, p 579
 19. ^ Campbell Orr, p 25
 20. ^ Frézet, p 594
 21. ^ a b c d Symcox, 70
 22. ^ Williams, p 13
 23. ^ Symcox, p 81
 24. ^ Williams, p 9
 25. ^ Symcox, 82
 26. ^ Williams, p 12
 27. ^ Williams, p 17
 28. ^ Campbell Orr, p 41
 29. ^ Campbell Orr, p 39
 30. ^ Williams, p 35
 31. ^ Fraser, p 363
 32. ^ Storrs, p 160
 33. ^ Campbell Orr, p 40
 34. ^ Campbell Orr, p 41
 35. ^ Symcox, p 227

[edit] Sources

   * Tome, Quatri: Les Anciennes Maisons de Paris Sous Napoléon III, Paris, 2009, BiblioBazaar LLC, ISBN 9781115279086
   * Campbell Orr, Clarissa: Queenship in Europe 1660-1815: the role of the consort, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 9780521814225
   * Fraser, Antonia : Love and Louis XIV; The Women in the Life of the Sun King, Anchor Books, London, 2006, ISBN 0753822938
   * Frézet, Jean: Histoire de la Maison de Savoie, Volume 2, Alliana et Paravia, 1827
   * Hahn, Emily: Love conquers nothing: a glandular history of civilization, Ayer Publishing, 1971, ISBN 9780836980622
   * Pitts, Vincent Joseph. : La Grande Mademoiselle at the Court of France, The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8018-6466-6
   * Ragnhild, Marie Hatton: Royal and republican sovereignty in early modern Europe, Cambridge University Press, 1997, ISBN 0521419107
   * Storrs, Christopher: War, diplomacy and the rise of Savoy, 1690-1720, Cambridge University Press, 1999, ISBN 0521551463
   * Symcox, Geoffrey: Victor Amadeus II: absolutism in the Savoyard State, 1675-1730, University of California Press, 1983, ISBN 9780520049741
   * Williams. H. Noel: A Rose of Savoy, Marie Adelaide of Savoy, duchesse de Bourgogne, Mother of Louis XV, New York, 1909

This page was last modified on 3 August 2010 at 16:18.

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Marie Jeanne of Savoy-Nemours

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Marie Jeanne Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours (11 April 1644 – 15 March 1724) was Regent of Savoy from 1675 to 1684. She was the second wife of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and by him the mother of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia.

[edit]Biography

Marie Jeanne Baptiste was born in Paris, on 11 April 1644, the daughter of Charles Amadeus of Savoy, 6th Duke of Nemours (1624–1652) and Elisabeth de Vendôme, herself a granddaughter of Henry IV, King of France via her father César de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme.

In 1662 Marie Jeanne Baptiste was engaged to Charles V, Duke of Lorraine, but on 10 May 1665 she married Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy (1634-1675). They had one son, Victor Amadeus, future Duke of Savoy and King of Sicily and Sardinia.

After the early death of her husband, Marie Jeanne Baptiste became Regent of Savoy in the name of her underage son. An energetic and ambitious woman, she called herself Madama Reale in honor of her respected mother-in-law Christine de France, (also half sister of César) who had also reigned as a regent of Savoy.

She tried to gain the throne of Portugal for her son by engaging him to his cousin Isabel Luísa, Princess of Beira, only child and presumptive heiress of her father, Peter II of Portugal. This would have left Marie Jeanne Baptiste permanently in full control of the Duchy of Savoy as Regent because her son would have had to live in Portugal with his new wife.

But the birth of a son for King Peter and a revolt in Piedmont supported by Victor Amadeus forced Marie Jeanne Baptiste to abandon her plans and hand over power to her son on 14 March 1684.

Retired from politics, she still had a great influence over her granddaughter Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy, who married Louis, Duc de Bourgogne in 1697 and who became Dauphine in 1711. She instructed the young girl in the ways of the French court of Louis XIV by means of a continuing correspondence.

She lived in the Palazzo Madama in Turin, still named after her and her mother-in-law, and died in that city in 1724.

She was the last Countess of Geneva, which was united with Savoy after her death.

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Princess Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours's Timeline

1644
April 11, 1644
Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1663
March 4, 1663
Age 18
Paris, Ile-de-France, France
1666
May 14, 1666
Age 22
Turin, Piedmont, Italy
1724
March 15, 1724
Age 79
Turin, Piedmont, Italy