R' Shalom Mordechai Schwadron - The Maharsham

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R' Shalom Mordechai Mordechai Szwadron-Schwadron (Katz), " The Maharsham"

Hebrew: ר' שלום מרדכי הכהן שוואדראן, " The Maharsham"
Also Known As: "R' Scholom Mordechai Schwadron", ""The Maharsham"", "Maharsham the Gaon of Berezhany", "Szulym Katz", "R' Shalom Mordechai ר' שלום מרדכי הכהן Szwadron-Schwadron שוואדראן", "" The Maharsham""
Birthplace: Złoczów, Galicja, Poland
Death: Died in Berezhany, Poland
Immediate Family:

Son of R Moshe Hacohen Maharsham and Esther Gittel Schwadron
Husband of FALLS WIFE & FAMILY; <private> Schwadron; JENTE-מ' ינטא PFEFER-פפר Yakir and Gittel Shur
Father of <private> Eliezr SCHWADRON-; <private> Landau (Schwadron); Itzhak HaCohen Schwadron; Rachzi-רחצי Seidman-זיידמן; Sheindal Yafa Landau and 6 others
Brother of <private> Schwadron-שוואדראן; R' Schwadron-בעניבר- שבדרון; מ' יהודית מייזלס-סייפר; Itzhak Schwadron; M' Riva - SEIDEN - and 3 others

Occupation: Rabbi
Managed by: Private User
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Immediate Family

About R' Shalom Mordechai Schwadron - The Maharsham

Rabbi Shalom Mordechai Hacohen Schwadron was born in 1835 (5595) and passed away in Berzhan in 1911 (5671). He was among the greatest and most renowned figures of his era. He was known in all the Jewish communities of the world by his numerous works: Da’at HaTorah on the Shulchan Aruch sections of Orah Haim and Yoreh Deah, nine volumes of responsum, Mishpat Shalom on the laws of neighboring, Gilui Da’at on the laws of Shechita and unclean animals, and Techelet Mordechai on the Torah.

The Maharsham was the Rav of the towns of Potok, Jolti, Yoslovitch, and Butchotch, but his renown came primarily from his activities in his last position, in Berzhan, where he stayed for more than 30 years as Rav and director of two flourishing yeshivas that he had established there, Da’at Torah and Tushiah.

The Maharsham was among the greatest authorities of his generation.

In the nine volumes of his responsum, one finds more than 3,700 entries, notable for their judicious insight, their impeccable order, the clarity of their exposition, the precision of each detail, and above all by an extraordinary encyclopedic scope.

In his Halachic responses, he also brings precise proofs taken from Biblical passages, Midrashim, and other sources. In one question on the laws of Shechita, he brings an argument from an explanation of Rashi on, of all places, the Book of Job!

This phenomenal scholarship aroused utter astonishment from all the greats of the world. The Ridbaz (the Rav of Slotsk) perfectly expressed this admiration in saying, “We also know how to respond when asked a question, but to find in every question the essential issue and the analogous example that brilliantly clarifies the point in question, the Rav of Berzhan does so to perfection and with great originality, and in this he is unique.”

His extraordinary greatness in Torah is well illustrated by the following example. Rabbi Meir of Lublin recounted that in the Maharsham’s old age, when he was already sick and no longer left his home, several of the town’s important Talmidei Chachamim assembled by the door of his house. There, they began a discussion of Halachah among themselves. The noise of their conversation reached all the way to the Maharsham’s room, and so he called Rabbi Meir, who was a member of his family, and asked him what Halachah they were speaking about outside. Rabbi Meir responded, “A Halachah on the parts reserved for the Kohanim.” The Maharsham straight away replied, “This is specifically dealt with in Darchei Moshe, on the Halachot for a Mezuzah, chapter [such and such], paragraph [such and such].” He asked that the Tur be brought to him, and he immediately pointed out the place where the subject was found.

To Rabbi Meir’s astonishment, the Maharsham showed him what he himself had written in the margin of the Tur: “Today, on [such and such a date], I have completed the Tur for the hundredth and first time.” The Maharsham added, “The person who studies one hundred and one times, it is not surprising that he remembers a particular section of Darchei Moshe.”

The greatness and holiness of the Maharsham were also demonstrated during his final hours, at a time when one of the members of his household spoke to him, offering a bit of wine to strengthen him. The Maharsham replied, “It is an explicit Halachah that a man who had drunk wine cannot teach, and I am now preparing the first discourse that I shall have to give before the Heavenly Court.”


Notes for Rabbi Shalom Mordechai HaCohen Schwadron: Search Terms: SHVADRON (1)

Database: Biography and Genealogy Master Index (BGMI)

Combined Matches: 1


Shvadron, Sholom Mordecai Hakohen 1838-1911?

Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines. Volume 16:September, 1988-August, 1990. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1990. (BioIn 16)

Books by Buczacz Townsmen

Translated by Adam Prager

31a.* Hagahot Maharsham al HaShas ('Talmudic Corrections of the Maharsham' [= Shalom Mordecai Shvedron]), Satu-Mare, M.L. Hirsh Printers, 1932, [4], 86 leaves, quarto.

36a.* Sefer Yagdil Tora ('Make Teaching Great') A memorial to Judah. New interpretations of Talmudic questions and certain responsa by Rabbi Judah Leibush Monk and accompanied at the end by responsa from Rabbi Maharsham [= Shalom Mordecai Shvedron], president of the rabbinical court of Berzan. Warsaw, Y. M. Alter Printers, 1929. [3], [5]-195 leaves., folio. On the second title page: Bilgoray, Weinberg Brothers Press, 1929, 78 leaves., octavo.

44. Sefer Miley deKhasiduta ('Hasidic Words') from our Rabbi Judah the Hasid (of blessed memory) with commentary by the learned, holy teacher Rabbi Abraham David, president of the rabbinical court of Buczacz, reprinted with many additions from the author's manuscript and accompanying it corrections by the Maharsham [Rabbi Shalom Mordecai Shvedron], president of the rabbinical court of Brezan and brought to press by Menakhem Mani Kroper of the congregation of Khust. M. Siget, at the press of R. Abraham Kaufman and Sons, 1910, 22, 2 leaves., octavo.

65. She'eylot uTeshuvot Maharsham ('Responsa of Maharsham') by Rabbi Shalom Mordecai Hacohen, formerly president of the rabbinical courts of Potk, Yazlavits and Buczacz and now president of the rabbinical court of Brezan in Galicia. One part of nine editions… Published by Feivel Rozin. Warsaw, at the press of Shuldberg and Partners, "ki eyn makhsor leyirav" ('there is no lack of his faithful') [= 1893], 40, 218 pp., folio. Following the Introduction there is an apology by the editor for not citing the names of the authors of the responsa according to their stature and reputation

[65] [She'eylot uTeshuvot Maharsham ('Responsa of Maharsham') by Rabbi Shalom Mordecai Hacohen, Part Two – Piotrkow, at the press of R. Abraham Roysengarten, 1904, 242 pp., folio. [at the end keys and notes and corrections to his composition Gilui Da'at]

The Responsa Literature

17th to 19th CENTURIES


                                               Parts I-VII
                                                                        R. Shalom Mordechai b. R. Moshe Shwadron, Galicia
                                                                        I-New York, 1962, p.o. Warsaw, 1902.
                                                                        II-New York, 1962, p.o. St. Petersburg, 1905.
                                                                        III-New York, 1962, p.o. Satmar, 1910.
                                                                        IV-New York, 1962, p.o. Lemberg, 1913.
                                                                        V-New York, 1962, p.o. Satmar, 1926.
                                                                        VI-Jerusalem, 1968.
                                                                        VII-Jerusalem, 1967


Rabbi Sholom Mordechai Schwadron (1835–1911) שלום בן משה הכהן שוודרן was known by his acronym Maharsham. He was a foremost halachic authority and his main works "Shailos Uteshuvos Maharsham" and "Daas Torah" are widely studied sources of practical Jewish law. Among his prominent works are Mishpat Shalom on Chosen Mishpat. He was well known as a very lenient rabbi. He also authored Techeiles Mordechai, a three-volume commentary of the Torah.

He also authored ""Techeiles Mordechai" , A Three Volume Commentary of the Torah.

He was born in 1835 in Złoczów (as Szulym Katz) to Moshe Schwadron (Moses Katz), a torah scholar, and studied under Rabbi Yoel Ashkenazy. After his marriage he was bequeathed a wood business and was hesitant to become a rabbi. However, he did so at the age of 31.

It is known that after each din Torah (case in a rabbinical court), he would explain to the loser the reason he lost until he understood clearly. If the person was unable to understand, he would tell him "You must have a good friend or family member that is a Torah scholar. Send him to me and I will explain it to him so you will feel that you were done justice."

He lived in Berezhany where he acquired the nickname Gaon of Berezhany. He died there in 1911. His grandson, Rabbi Sholom Schwadron, was known as the "Maggid of Jerusalem."

His Daughter, Chana Sura, married Rabbi Sholom Shapiro, The Rabbi and Av Beit Din of Lanchin, Poland. Their Son, Grand Rebbe Pinchos Shapiro, was the Grand Rebbe of Kechneye, and The Father in Law of the Current Kaliver Rebbe, Grand Rabbi Menachem Mendel Taub.


-------------------- Rabbi of Berzhan (Berezhany, Ukraine).

About R' Shalom Mordechai Schwadron - The Maharsham (עברית)

רבי שלום מרדכי הכהן שבדרון (תקצ"ה-ט"ז בשבט תרע"א), ידוע בכינויו המהרש"ם מברז'אן. רב ופוסק מפורסם בגליציה נולד בכ"ז בניסן תקצ"ה לר' משה הכהן בכפר סמוך לזלוטשוב, ומילדותו התפרסם בהתמדתו המופלגת. מסופר כי נהג ללמוד שש עשרה שעות ביממה ולא לישון יותר משלוש וחצי שעות. בצעירותו היה מחסידיו של רבי שלום רוקח מבעלזא, והיה גם אצל רבי מאיר מפרמישלאן. לאחר מכן החל לנסוע לרבי מצ'ורטקוב והיה לחסידו. קיבל סמיכה להוראה בגיל צעיר מאוד מגאוני הדור, והתחתן בגיל 16.

לאחר נישואיו התגורר תחילה בבילקמין ואחר כך בזלוטשוב. סירב לקבל על עצמו רבנות ועסק במסחר יין, בקר, ועצים, אך לאחר שפשט את הרגל נאלץ לקבל על עצמו רבנות.

כיהן ברבנות בפוטוק-זלוטי (תרכ"ז-תרל"א), אחר כך ביאזלוביץ וכעבור שבע שנים מונה לאב"ד בקהילת בוצ'אץ'. בשנת תרמ"א התקבל לרבנות ברז'אן כמחליפו של רבי יצחק יהודה שמלקיש. בברז'אן כיהן ברבנות עד יום מותו בט"ז בשבט תרע"א. בשנותיו האחרונות נישא בשנית לגיטל, בתו של הרב שמשון מרגליות מזלוזיץ ואלמנת הרב שמואל יצחק שור.

בנו היה הרב יצחק שבדרון. אחת מבנותיו נישאה לרב שלום רובינשטיין אב"ד לאנשי, מצאצאי רבי פנחס שפירא מקוריץ.

המהרש"ם ייסד בברז'אן ישיבה בשם "תושייה" וקיווה כי היא תהיה הראשונה מתוך רשת ישיבות מודרניות.

היה נחשב לאחת הסמכויות התורניות הגבוהות ביותר בגליציה, ומכל רחבי אירופה נשלחו אליו שאלות הלכתיות, ואפילו גדולי הפוסקים כמו החפץ חיים התייעצו עמו בשאלותיהם. מסופר כי כאשר היו מתפעלים מידיעותיו המופלגות היה מצטנע באומרו שכל מי שחוזר כמה מאות פעמים על דבר זוכר אותו לפרטי פרטים.

פסיקתו הייתה מקורית מאוד, ואירע שקומם עליו רבנים קנאים. אחד מברי הפלוגתא החריפים שלו היה רבי צבי הירש שפירא ממונקץ', שבמהלך העימות ביניהם פרסם המהרש"ם חיבור בשם "גילוי דעת" בו ענה למקטרגיו.

היה בקי במספר שפות ובספרות המחקר, ונהג להתייעץ עם רופאים ומומחים בשאלות מקצועיות הנוגעות לתחומם. כתב תשובות בנושאים אקטואליים רבים, דוגמת שימוש בחשמל ושאלות רפואיות.

חיבר כמה עשרות חיבורים שחלק מהם אבדו.

מחיבוריו שנדפסו:

שו"ת מהרש"ם בששה כרכים עם למעלה מאלפיים ושלוש מאות תשובות.
דעת תורה חיבור גדול בכמה כרכים על שולחן ערוך יורה דעה. נדפס בחלקים במשך שנים רבות.
"גילוי דעת" על הסימנים ס"א - ס"ט שב"יורה דעה" ועל הלכות טרפות.
שו"ת דרכי שלום על כללי הש"ס והפוסקים.
תכלת מרדכי על התורה ודרשות (נדפס בעיר בז'ז'ני שבגליציה).
משפט שלום על שולחן ערוך חושן משפט.

Author of דעת תורה and שו"ת מהרש"ם.

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R' Shalom Mordechai Schwadron - The Maharsham's Timeline

April 26, 1835
Złoczów, Galicja, Poland
Age 20
Age 26
Age 29
February 14, 1911
Age 75
Berezhany, Poland